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Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Literature Review

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27235.
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11   Literature Review Financial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Airports In an October 2021 report, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) recognized the severe hardship COVID-19 placed on the U.S. air travel industry, including airports. As the GAO points out, according to data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), “annual airline passenger traffic was down 60% system-wide in 2020 compared to annual traffic levels in 2019” (p. 12). Further, passenger traffic in April 2020 was 96% lower than the pre-pandemic levels of April 2019. The pandemic impacted not only airline companies, but airports as well, which experienced these significant reductions in passenger enplanements in the form of fewer flights (and significantly reduced landing fee revenue); reduced food, beverage, and retail sales (and significantly reduced concession revenue); etc. The GAO states, “We found that airports of all sizes experienced a decline in both aeronautical and non-aeronautical operating revenues as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic” (pp. 15–16). The GAO also discovered greater percentage declines in revenues for small-hub and non-hub airports, as contrasted to non-primary commer- cial service, GA, and reliever airports. This was due, as the GAO pointed out, to small-hub and non-hub airports’ greater reliance on schedule passenger service. Even with drastically reduced enplanements and aircraft operations, “Airfields had to be inspected; restrooms had to be cleaned [and] terminals had to be patrolled. While the pandemic put a drastic halt to the number of travelers visiting our airports, the responsibilities of airport workers did not cease” (Huckaby and Darras, 2021, p. 7). In other words, operational expenses continued to be incurred, while operational revenues were greatly reduced. Airports were in need of a lifeline. On March 27, 2020, Congress and President Donald Trump provided this lifeline by passing the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act). This Act was a $2.2 trillion economic stimulus bill to provide much-needed economic relief to American businesses, including airports. Airports of all sizes utilized federal COVID-19 relief grants to make needed debt and other payments, as well as to assist tenants, such as airlines, which were also facing extreme financial difficulty due to COVID-19 impacts. As the GAO (2021) explains: These federal grants of up to $20 billion in total allowed airports to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, including funding their operations and meeting their ongoing debt payments, although the funding allocation and allowable uses for the grants differ under the CARES Act and subsequent COVID-19 relief laws. (p. 27) The GAO (2021) found that a number of airports used CARES Act grant funding for routine, large expenses, including debt service payments and payroll. Some of the airports also used CARES Act grant funding to provide financial relief to concessionaires, including both food and C H A P T E R 3

12 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies beverage and retail. Some of the large- and medium-hub airports also used funding to avoid increasing airline rates and charges. The GAO found that smaller airports mostly used CARES Act grant funding for payroll and labor expenses, allowing these airports to avoid layoffs or furloughs of staff. The GAO (2021) noted that: In response to the many effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, aviation stakeholders reported that throughout 2020, they quickly implemented measures to mitigate financial losses and position them- selves to maintain business viability until demand recovers. These actions included managing costs – which often included reducing costs; using federal assistance provided through COVID-19 relief legislation; raising funds in the private market; and taking actions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 among employees and customers. (p. 21) Airports’ Response to COVID-19 Airports of all sizes took actions in 2020 to manage non-labor operating costs and capital investments. Examples of these actions include closing airport parking lots, reducing airport shuttle operations, and altering the timeline of capital projects (or alternatively accelerating capital projects that could be more easily completed with reduced passenger traffic and aircraft operations). As Kim Becker, C. M., President and CEO of the San Diego Regional Airport Authority writes, “Core business strategies must be revisited with a laser focus on the passenger experience, all while maintaining our financial sustainability” (2021, p. 13). Of her airport’s experience, she explains, “We are fortunate that we did not have layoffs but, like most airports, we implemented salary and hiring freezes, and deferred many capital projects in an effort to control costs” (p.13). In fact, the GAO (2021) estimates that one-third of smaller airports modified their infrastructure development timelines. Specifically, the GAO estimates that 15% of smaller airports canceled projects, 75% delayed projects, and 10% accelerated projects. Airports also examined their retirement programs and hiring practices in the midst of COVID. The GAO (2021) shared that four of the airports it surveyed offered voluntary early retirement programs. One of the airports the GAO spoke to explained their reduction-in-force initiative that limited workforce size to 26 union and non-union employees, which reduced the airport’s payroll by 5%. The GAO estimated that 5% of smaller airports implemented staff layoffs. The GAO also discovered that nearly all of the airports surveyed either suspended or significantly slowed down hiring. For example, new hiring was only permitted at some airports for critical positions, such as public safety. The GAO estimates that about 20% of smaller air- ports decreased staff hours to reduce operating costs. In addition to cost control measures, airports had to implement a number of measures to protect the health of employees and customers. These include actions such as “requiring and providing masks, providing other personal protective equipment, implementing social distancing, and allowing employees to work from home when possible” (GAO, 2021, p. 33). Airports had to remain vigilant with COVID-19 protocols to ensure a safe work environment for on-site employees, as well as passengers and vendors. With large terminals and multiple facilities, commercial-service airports endured particularly significant costs associated with sanitization, installing signs and plexiglass barriers, etc. Even so, these efforts were necessary to provide a sense of safety for all involved. Mental Health of Remote Workers During the pandemic, the mental health of some employees suffered. “Living through a pandemic reduced people’s sense of control, research has found, leading to greater feelings of helplessness and depression. Engaging in a leisure activity just for the pleasure of it can be

Literature Review 13   a powerful antidote, as research finds that people who engage in such activities report greater satisfaction with their lives overall” (Zubernis, 2022, p. 56). It is important for employers to regularly assess the mental health of remote workers. Employers may benefit by asking all employees, especially those working remotely, the following questions: • Is your sleeping pattern disrupted by worries? • Do you feel less effective at work? • Are you fearful of starting your job? • Do you feel overwhelmed by life? • Do you see your friends and family less often? • Do you experience more headaches and muscle cramps and are you sicklier? • Do you check your watch more often? • Are you resorting increasingly to bad habits such as drinking alcohol? • Have you lost your sense of humor, and does negativity rule your life? • Do your work and your life feel empty and meaningless? • Do you feel overwhelmed by your work? • Do you feel fragmented with all your different tasks? • Are you busy isolating yourself from your colleagues and your friends? • Do you feel that your situation is hopeless and without a solution? • Are you angry, irritated, or disappointed in the people around you? (Esterhuizen, 2021, p. 42). Answers to these questions will assist employers with gauging the mental well-being of employees. Although employees may be hesitant to answer some of these questions, it is incumbent upon management to know each employee well enough that red flags may be spotted early. For those employees showing signs of burnout, employers can: • Create healthy boundaries. • Create a well-appointed work area that allows the employee to close the door at the end of the workday to “clock-out” (Esterhuizen, 2021, p. 42). Additionally, employers can recommend that employees showing signs of burnout take the following measures: • Live mindfully by selecting one pleasant activity you do each day, such as enjoying a cup of coffee each morning before you have a seat at your desk. • Get into nature regularly. • Get adequate sleep. • Reward yourself for a job well done. • Try breathing techniques for stress release. • Make time to develop and maintain healthy relationships with friends and family. • Talk to a supervisor or HR if you feel overwhelmed (Esterhuizen, 2021, p. 42). Employers may also find it useful to assist employees with managing various responsibilities. Gaines (2021) recommends the following time management tips: • Prioritize self-care time. Make time for 7–9 hours of sleep each night, eat three balanced meals, and factor in adequate time for family and leisure. • If you are a leader, infuse plan into your employees’ workday. Host themed virtual meetings, mail employees small care packages, host online birthday or holiday celebrations. • If you are an employee, establish what the “workday” means to you and your boss. When will you be off duty?

14 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Don’t stay on your email all day. Constantly checking your inbox can be distracting and reduces your productivity. • Step away from the Internet. This can be a huge time waster. • Minimize distractions and the tendency to multitask. • Set achievable goals each day. • Listen up! Active listening requires being present and engaged. • Stop shuffling papers. Plan to touch each piece of paper only once. Act on it, file it, or toss it. • Recapture your throwaway moments. Achieve small goals and accomplish small tasks in brief five-minute intervals, rather than wasting this time. • Do a priority tune-up. Ask yourself (a) What should I keep doing? (b) What should I eliminate or stop doing? (c) What’s missing that I might want to add? • Practice mindfulness and breathe. • Learn to say no more often. • Stop owning other people’s stuff. Hold others accountable for their responsibilities, rather than doing it yourself. Work-Life Policies During the early stages of the pandemic, as stay-at-home orders and various restrictions were enacted, many employers sent workers to remote locations (or instructed them to work from home) without a clear remote work policy. This set the stage for “discrimination claims, confusion regarding expenses, misunderstandings regarding work expectations, lack of clarity regarding the applicability of other policies, and increased liability for workplace injuries” (Mutz, 2021). Although there are certainly airport employees defined as civil servants with due process rights, in the general economy, most employees are at-will, meaning “they have no contractual rights to continued employment, let alone to particular working conditions” (Arnow-Richman, 2020, p. 1). In essence, if an employer is not willing to accommodate a remote work arrangement, the employee’s recourse is to quit. “Absent a statutory disability, an individual employee who refuses to come to work is unlikely to be protected, at least where the employer is following basic sanitation and social distancing protocols that reduce the risk of [COVID-19] transmission” (Arnow-Richman, 2020, p. 3). Developing and maintaining a remote work policy can establish clear expectations between employees and management and provide support for employees in alternative work arrange- ments. See Appendix D for sample remote work policies and forms. Vetter (2021) recommends three tips for building remote-work policies that last: • Start with your people. Do your team members need to work in close personal collaboration? Do they have long commutes? Do they prefer working from home all the time? Would they like the option of going into the office? In many cases, you’ll find your teams don’t adhere to a one-size-fits-all approach. • Don’t compromise on real estate. Explore workshare arrangements, nontraditional spaces, and other innovative options. Design the space that works for your business rather than tailoring your operations to suit a physical space. • Solidify your tech. Select cloud-based platforms that support your teams and enable business success. Additionally, finalize tech policies that address, for example, means of communication. Once developed and formally approved, employers commonly distribute the remote work policy to all employees (both remote and in-person). It is generally included in the employer

Literature Review 15   handbook, which employees sign to acknowledge receipt and understanding of the remote work policy. To address accountability and productivity concerns, Mutz (2021) recommends limiting remote work to only “long-standing, trusted employees (i.e., full-time employees with at least one year of employment, demonstrated good work habits, history of timely deliverables, and good evaluations)” (paragraph 3). Mutz goes on to write that: One of the biggest fears regarding remote work is accountability and productivity since employees work with all of the temptations of being at home. It is not outside the realm of possibility that an employee could choose to nap during work hours, take breaks to perform household chores, or run errands. Employers must compensate employees for all hours spent advancing the employer’s interest under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), including work that may be unauthorized or performed off-the-clock. Accordingly, any remote work policy should include timekeeping practices (clock-in/clock-out), accountability expec- tations (work hours), and prohibit unauthorized or off-the-clock work. Employers generally may discipline employees for performing unauthorized or off-the-clock work while also paying employees for work time to ensure compliance with FLSA. (paragraph 7) The work-life policy is generally developed with several employee productivity assurances. However, according to Vaillancourt (2021), employee productivity concerns may be overinflated. Although micromanagers generally don’t consider themselves micromanagers, for those willing to self-reflect, “two questions are useful: (a) If employees are not trustworthy, why are they still employees? (b) If managers have employees who cannot be trusted, why are they still managers?” (Vaillancourt, 2021, p. 48). This direct line of questions is important to consider, as Vaillancourt encourages managers to support employees and allow them to be productive in their own right without burdensome management. Setting communications expectations for remote employees serves multiple functions. • They help align employees with organizational goals during remote work and how those goals might be best accomplished. • They help employees establish new routines, which can facilitate effective communication and sensemaking of new work processes. • They can serve as a resource in helping employees cope with uncertainty and resulting stress (Shockley et al., 2021, p. 1469). A realistic work-life policy recognizes that remote work is not appropriate for all employees. Numerous researchers (Wang et al., 2021; Pinsonneault and Boisvert, 2001; and Golden and Veiga, 2005) agree that a remote work policy that requires all employees to work remotely may not be appropriate. Researchers agree that managers should provide remote work options for appropriate jobs and workers, meaning that a one-size-fits-all remote work policy is not advisable. According to the WHO and the International Labour Organization, to ensure employee work-life balance, protections should be in place to help remote workers switch off from work and also limit the ways employers can invade an employee’s private spaces (Skelton, 2022). This is important, as it addresses a primary concern with remote work—the 24/7 home office. Moving forward, setting clear guidance and expectations for employees regarding remote work is important. A comprehensive remote work policy will include some or all of the following: • Defined employee eligibility to work remotely. • Specific procedures to request approval. • Reference to applicable reasonable accommodation procedures for employees with disabilities. • Employee expectations (such as work hours, timekeeping, accessibility, secure remote access procedures, and work-related expenses.) “I can attest that it is not hard to tell who is doing work and who is not. In fact, it’s fairly easy as long as performance objectives are clear, work tasks are well defined, and administrators are engaged in regular and meaningful conversations with the people they oversee. While ineffective managers believe in hovering, micromanage- ment, and seat time, strategic managers know that physical presence and the appearance of being busy is no substitute for actual productivity” (Vaillancourt, 2021, p. 48). “Communication is often cited as critical to remote worker success. That is, in order to be effective, remote workers must be able to communicate with colleagues through means other than face-to-face, such as by email, phone, texting, instant messaging, and video conferencing” (Shockley et al., 2021, p. 1466).

16 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Employer responsibilities (such as technical support, equipment provided, and expense reimbursements.) • Designated work areas and break times to avoid liability for injuries that are not work-related. • Reminders that the employee remains subject to all employer policies. • Explanation of the temporary nature and conditions of the remote work arrangement (for example, a note explaining that remote work arrangement is only available during govern- mental orders necessitating remote work) (Mutz, 2021, paragraph 2). Even with a well-developed and refined remote work policy, evolution can be expected. According to Colvin (2022), “No remote-work policy will be invulnerable to post-pandemic reality” (p. 44). In other words, in unstable times, “all policies are experiments” (p. 44). Support for Remote Employees There are a number of considerations to support successful remote employees. Organizations asking or requiring certain employees to work remotely are responsible for providing support for these employees. The degree of success with remote work depends on a number of factors, and it is important for employers to remember that employees are different. “Individuals vary significantly in their ability to stay on task, in their tendency to be distracted (or not) by what is happening at home, and in how well they respond to unusual pressures and demands” (Manko and Rosinski, 2021, p. 53). As Manko and Rosinski (2021) explain, “There is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing remote work” (p. 53). As Johnson and Suskewicz (2020) share, “To know what’s ‘best’ for your organization’s future when it comes to remote work, you have to put it in the context of all the things that you are looking to achieve” (p. 3). Considerations include needed technologies, needed resources, and the metrics used to evaluate success and measure productivity. Success for remote employees is enhanced when management and employees create a partner- ship. Both have responsibilities. According to Manko and Rosinski (2021), “Ultimately, it would seem that a line should be drawn between what managers can do to make remote work go well, and what the individual must do for themselves” (p. 45). In essence, both employers and employees have responsibility for successful remote work arrangements. Managers are responsible for: • Providing the necessary equipment and training for remote work. • Giving remote workers access to the information they need for their jobs. • Giving remote workers transparent information on the company’s progress and management decisions. • Providing mechanisms for questions, suggestions, and feedback. • Being mindful of remote workers’ emotional issues and needs and devising ways to address them. • Finding the right balance between autonomy and oversight. • Designing online interactions with an eye to the particular issues raised by virtual media (Manko and Rosinski, p. 44). The research shows that some employees are better suited to remote work. In essence, the job type, as well as the individual’s personality type, are both taken into consideration when making decisions about approving remote work arrangements. As stated by Toscano and Zappala (2021): Managers should consider that people who work less well in the office are likely to work poorly even at home, especially if they have children to care for. Where and when conditions (e.g., health emergency) allow it, therefore, it is possible to prioritize the return to the office of these employees who do not benefit from, and might suffer from, remote work. In contrast, employees who are usually productive may find in remote work a solution that improves their effectiveness at work and probably also their skills to cope with parenting commitments. This aspect may be very relevant for professionals and managers, who may be skeptical about granting remote work to their high-performing employees with children to take care of, so as not to alter their already positive results. (p. 140) “To a large extent, your personality will determine how you handle this [remote work]. The introvert will probably be more at ease at home, while the extrovert, who gets his energy through interaction with other people, could . . . [experience] more stress at home” (Esterhuizen, 2021, p. 41).

Literature Review 17   Ergonomic Considerations It is helpful to develop ergonomic guidelines for employees working remotely. Ergonomics, which is about reducing strain and fatigue by fitting tasks to the capabilities of the human per- forming them, is an important component in worker productivity. In other words, if someone is uncomfortable at the workstation, with lower back pain, eye strain, etc., productivity will suffer. While this may only be a minor concern at the office (with ergonomically correct desks and chairs in place), it is a greater concern for those working from home, as a kitchen table or bed may double as a workstation—creating less than ideal ergonomics. Subramanian, Miller, and Fernandez (2020) offer the following ergonomic considerations: • Neutral positive. Attain a proper posture while performing sitting or standing work; a neutral seated posture should include sitting with the neck straight, shoulders straight down loosely at the sides, elbows at a right angle, wrists straight, low back supported on the back rest of the chair, 90 degrees at the hips, 90 degrees at the knees, and feet flat on the floor or on a footrest. • Eye and elbow height. Whether seated or standing, ensure that the keyboard (ASDF home row) and mouse are positioned at the elbow level. The top of the monitor should be at or slightly below eye height. • Work area. Keep items that are used often in the primary work zone (the area when elbows are at the sides and the hands are moved side to side); keep items that are used less often in the secondary work zone (area within the outstretched arms). In the office, the keyboard and mouse should be in the primary work zone, centered with the user and the monitors. (p. 20) By addressing ergonomic considerations of the home office, remote employees will feel less fatigue, less back and eye strain, and will generally be more productive. As management strives for maintaining productivity from remote employees, ergonomics is an important consideration. Organizational Support In developing a workplace that will benefit both remote workers and on-site workers, “The goal is to offer a workplace experience that is flexible, energizing, and inspiring. Talented people have options, and they will choose organizations that make it possible for them to have both meaningful jobs and meaningful lives” (Vaillancourt, 2021, p 48). It is important to note that “even employees who do not work remotely must work in ways that are remote-friendly” (Limoncelli, 2020, p. 108). Employees working on-site may need to interact with remote employees throughout the day. Thus, it is important to consider the needs of these remote employees, to include communication tools, etc. Tips to support remote work are provided by Limoncelli (2020): • If anyone is remote, we’re all remote. Meetings should be either 100% in-person or 100% remote. There are no mixed meetings. • Set your chat status to away when you are away. Set it to available when you are available. • Establish a low-overhead way to start a quick conversation. • Work silently together in a videoconference room. Many teams hang out in a videoconference even when not having a meeting. • Create social events specifically for remote workers. For those organizations that desire to continue supporting a remote or hybrid workforce post-pandemic, the literature recommends a number of practices (Landry-Bourne and James, 2021, pp. 6 and 28–29): • Involvement. Actively involve staff in creating their workplace plan. Staff needs to be actively involved in creating a schedule or workplace plan that is desirable for them, created with their input, and with agreement and support from their supervisor and manager.

18 Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies • Togetherness. Create opportunities for staff to be together. Create connectedness with virtual all-staff meetings and coffee hours, for example. • Lead by example. Serve as a role model for remote or hybrid work. If employees act in a contradictory fashion, particularly those in leadership, this sends a mixed message to staff, which ultimately leads to confusion and uncertainty. • Resources. Provide the needed technology and resources. When staff feels prepared and equipped to get their jobs done, productivity and staff morale are more likely to remain steady and positive. • Connectedness. Be intentional in connecting with and celebrating staff. Staff who have a feeling of connectedness to others in the workplace have a better sense of well-being. • Transparency. Communicate clear expectations that exhibit transparency. Employees will feel safer and more secure when they know what is expected of them in any given situation. • Work-life balance. Keep employee mental health and well-being at the forefront. Work-life balance might adjust for employees in ways they did not need to think about before. • Strengths. Seek opportunities to utilize personal strengths. The opportunity to utilize strengths on a regular basis contributes to job satisfaction. • Managing change. Demonstrate patience and grace with change management. Allow staff to feel heard and have some control over the new working model. • Sharing. Encourage staff to share successful strategies and outcomes. Leaders should encour- age staff to be involved in strategic planning and sharing outcomes. According to Zhang et al. (2021): Managers can provide structure for employees’ daily work (e.g., delegate specific tasks and set clear timelines), help employees maintain work-life boundaries (e.g., keep work-related communications within business hours), ensure that employees have the home office setup and virtual technology they need, support training and development (e.g., online courses, webinars, and virtual conferences), encourage frequent breaks to combat risk of fatigue or burnout, and facilitate interpersonal connections among remote workers (e.g., periodic group meetings and virtual team happy team hours.) (p. 805) In a vote for long-term remote work, companies are now hiring for a new executive position: head of remote work. “This individual provides support to off-site workers, championing their needs, ensuring they have the right tools to perform their jobs, and keeping them engaged” (Association for Talent Development, 2021, paragraph 2). Summary Although remote work is not a new concept for some industries, the prospect of significant numbers of employees working off-site and from home was generally a new concept for airports as the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the globe. Some airports required many employees to work remotely, while others did not. As with companies across the United States, this decision was often driven by management that either placed value in maintaining operations by sending employees home, or placed value in maintaining operations by continuing to serve patrons in- person and on-site. While the literature does not necessarily agree that one method was more successful than the other, there is agreement that a “one-size-fits-all” approach to work models during the pandemic does not exist. As this report presents findings based on data collected from airports across the United States, the reader may consider alternative ideas presented, but adopting these ideas (or any variation thereof) is best done with a consideration of the unique staffing and operational realities at the reader’s airport.

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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, airport operators had to develop strategies that maintained operations while ensuring employee safety and public health. Though not all airport-related tasks can be performed from remote worksites, many airports identified tasks that could be performed remotely.

ACRP Synthesis 126: Impacts of COVID-19 on Airport Work Models and Strategies, from TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program, provides information on those airports that experimented in remote work, provides options for airports that did not participate in remote work, and identifies emerging trends.

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