National Academies Press: OpenBook

Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update (2023)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2023. Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27236.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2023. Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27236.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2023. Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27236.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2023. Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27236.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2023. Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27236.
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2023 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1061 Highway and Street Design Vehicles AN UPDATE Ingrid B. Potts Douglas W. Harwood Daniel J. Cook MRIGlobal Kansas City, MO Raul Avelar Moran Texas A&M Transportation Institute College Station, TX Lee Busenbark HDR Engineering Phoenix, AZ Subscriber Categories Vehicles and Equipment • Design • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1061 Project 07-27 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69897-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2023942495 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1061 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Christopher T. McKenney, Senior Program Officer Sheila A. Moore, Program Associate Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 07-27 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Traffic Planning Amy Beise, North Dakota Department of Transportation, Bismarck, ND (Chair) Margarete A. Baldwin, New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Concord, NH Milton S. E. Carrasco, Transoft Solutions, Inc., Richmond, VA James L. Gattis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Springfield, MO Maurice Palumbo, Greenbrae, CA Lance William Parve, WSP, Madison, WI Brent A. Sweger, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY Brian David Toombs, Burgess and Niple, Inc., Columbus, OH Clayton Wellman, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1061 presents state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation professionals with an update to the highway and street design vehicles currently used in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ (AASHTO’s) A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 7th Edition (Green Book). This update is based on comprehensive laboratory and field investigations using vehicles that better represent those in use on the roadway network. The update will be of immediate interest to roadway design engineers. Design vehicle classification, dimensions, and turning path templates have been an important part of AASHTO’s Green Book for over 40 years. Due to limited or nonexistent supporting data and research documentation, these design vehicle dimensions and minimum turning radii are difficult to support and verify. Having accurate data on vehicle steering angles and swept paths is crucial, especially with the increased value of rights-of-way and usage of modern roundabout designs and alternative intersection treatments (e.g., thru-turn, continuous flow, and displaced left-turn intersections). The Green Book turning path templates do not provide sufficient data for vehicle turn simulation software and computer-aided design (CAD) software to consistently reproduce them. Critical dimensions for determining a vehicle’s swept path are its front overhang, rear overhang, wheelbase, steering angle, vehicle width, and, in the case of multipart vehicles, the inter-vehicle angles and kingpin and hitch locations. Rear overhang and mirror widths are also safety concerns in the design of bus passenger platforms. Further, with industry movement toward three-dimensional (3D) design, data on low ground clearances and heights of the key design vehicles are desirable. Under NCHRP Project 07-27, “An Update of the Green Book Design Vehicles,” MRIGlobal and Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) were asked to update the turning path char- acteristics of the current heavy vehicle fleet that have the most critical impacts on geometric design. The material included (1) critical dimensions and specifications for design vehicles that can be applied to the design of intersection right- and left-turn lanes, roundabouts, and other roadway elements; (2) guidelines on using dimensional information, including the selec- tion of design vehicles for a project, determination of when to allow large vehicles to encroach on other lanes, and a discussion on balancing the needs of different modes (e.g., trucks and pedestrians); and (3) turning path templates that reflect a range of variability among design vehicles and guidance on when and how they should be applied. In addition to NCHRP Research Report 1061, which documents the entire research effort, a model analysis spreadsheet is available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for NCHRP Research Report 1061: Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update. F O R E W O R D By Christopher T. McKenney Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 Background 8 1.2 Objectives and Scope 8 1.3 Organization of This Report 9 Chapter 2 Key Vehicle Characteristics 9 2.1 Current AASHTO Green Book Design Vehicles 9 2.2 Key Dimensions for Specific Vehicle Types 15 2.3 Vehicle and Axle Weight Limits 16 2.4 Vehicle Turning Radius 17 2.5 Vehicle Offtracking and Swept Path Width 20 Chapter 3 Survey of Transportation Agencies 20 3.1 Survey Distribution List and Response Rate 20 3.2 Questionnaire Responses 31 Chapter 4 Assembly of Data on the Current Vehicle Fleet 31 4.1 Vehicle Registration Data/Fleet Composition for Major Vehicle Types 32 4.2 Vehicle Specification Data 33 4.3 Field Studies to Obtain Vehicle Dimension Data 36 Chapter 5 Updated Dimensions and Recommended Additions to the Green Book Design Vehicles 36 5.1 Overview of Design Vehicles 36 5.2 Passenger Vehicles 40 5.3 Single-Unit Trucks 45 5.4 Tractors for Use in Combination Trucks 47 5.5 Single-Trailer Combination Trucks 55 5.6 Double-Trailer Combination Trucks 62 5.7 Triple-Trailer Combination Trucks 64 5.8 Intercity Buses and Motor Coaches 68 5.9 School Buses 70 5.10 Transit Buses 73 5.11 Recreational Vehicles 78 5.12 Other Vehicle Configurations for Potential Consideration as Design Vehicles 78 5.13 Summary of Updated Design Vehicle Dimensions C O N T E N T S

82 Chapter 6 Turning Performance of Updated Design Vehicles 82 6.1 Vehicle Turning Performance 84 6.2 Turning Templates 104 6.3 Appurtenances Mounted on the Front of a Vehicle 104 6.4 Appurtenances Mounted on the Side of a Vehicle 109 6.5 Rear Swingout 109 6.6 Fire Trucks 109 6.7 Garbage Collection Trucks 113 6.8 Vehicles with Low Ground Clearance 114 Chapter 7 Development of Design Guidance for the Application of Updated Design Vehicles 114 7.1 Proposed Revisions to the AASHTO Green Book 117 Chapter 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 117 8.1 Conclusions 118 8.2 Recommendations 120 References A-1 Appendix A Questionnaire for Transportation Agency Survey B-1 Appendix B Design Vehicle Dimensions for Input to Turning Path Software Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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Approximately 55 percent of the passenger vehicles registered in the United States are light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, vans, minivans, and pickup trucks. Conventional automobiles, such as sedans and coupes, make up the rest of passenger vehicles.

NCHRP Research Report 1061: Highway and Street Design Vehicles: An Update, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, proposes revisions to the dimensions of 16 of the 20 design vehicles used in the 2018 edition of AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, commonly known as the Green Book.

Supplemental to the report is a spreadsheet tool.

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