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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Consensus Study Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary feeding interventions for infants and young children under age 2: Scoping of promising interventions to implement at the community or state level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/27239.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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COMMITTEE ON COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING INTERVENTIONS FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN UNDER AGE 2

DAVID A. SAVITZ (Chair), Professor, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island

LAURA E. CAULFIELD, Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

VALERIE J. FLAHERMAN, Professor, University of California, San Francisco

FRANK R. GREER, Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison

ELIZABETH YAKES JIMENEZ, Professor, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque

RAFAEL PÉREZ-ESCAMILLA, Professor, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut

LORRENE D. RITCHIE, Director, Nutrition Policy Institute, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, California

CHARLENE M. RUSSELL-TUCKER, Commissioner of Education, Connecticut State Department of Education, Hartford

SHANNON E. WHALEY, Director of Research and Evaluation, PHFE WIC, Irwindale, California

Study Staff

KATHERINE M. DELANEY, Study Director

JENNIFER STEPHENSON, Research Associate (since April 2023)

MELANIE ARTHUR, Senior Program Assistant

ANNE MARIE HOUPPERT, Senior Librarian

MELISSA MAITIN-SHEPARD, Science Writer

ANN L. YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by RONALD KLEINMAN, Harvard Medical School, and CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Iowa State University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Foreward

The translation of research findings into policy is a challenging but essential step in the pathway by which scientific evidence advances societal goals, in this case, promoting the nutritional health of young children. The particular challenge for the Committee on Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2 (years) was to identify, describe, evaluate, and apply relevant research to future efforts to optimize complementary feeding in infants and children under 2 years of age. The committee was asked not just to assess the quality of the research, but, just as importantly, to offer our perspective on how the insights could be used to develop public health programs that could be scaled up for the entire population and mitigate health disparities.

The committee members have an abundance of diverse disciplinary expertise, with an unusually wide range of professional homes, but a shared desire to straddle the divide between academic research and programmatic interventions. There were considerable challenges in connecting a heterogeneous body of studies to promising strategies for implementation, but through the individual, and particularly the collective, insights of the committee, we believe we have identified a constructive way forward. The influences on complementary feeding are diverse and complex, involving caregivers, health care providers, educators, and a wide range of government agencies, and the committee believes that by working toward a complementary and coherent engagement of all these entities, there is an exciting opportunity for progress.

The conscientious efforts of the committee that made it possible to develop this report over a relatively brief period are remarkable. Despite

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

many competing demands, all members contributed creative ideas combined with hard work to develop a harmonized document that provides a unified perspective. The same combination of innovative thinking and substantive contributions from the study director, Katie Delaney, and the talented colleagues at the Academies with whom she worked, Jen Stephenson, Melanie Arthur, and Anne Marie Houppert, as well as Melissa Maitin-Shepard (science writer), were essential at every step along the way from identifying the literature to refining the document and everything in between. It is always remarkable and highly gratifying to watch the process unfold, the way that each of the committee members and staff finds a rhythm for working together toward a common goal, each of us adding an instrument to the orchestra toward our shared goal of creating a symphony. Despite the seriousness of our purpose and demands in developing the report, the committee and staff made the process enjoyable as well as gratifying.

David A. Savitz, Chair
Committee on Complementary Feeding Interventions
for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAP American Academy of Pediatrics
BFF Brighter Future Family Center
BMI body mass index
CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CE cooperative extension
COM-B COM-B behavior model
ECE early care and education
ECHO Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program
EFNEP Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program
EHS Early Head Start
EPSDT Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment
FFQ food frequency questionnaire
FPL federal poverty level
HHS Department of Health and Human Services
HomVEE Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness
INFANT INfant Feeding Activity and Nutrition (program)
IT information technology
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
NFN Nurturing Families Network
NIH National Institutes of Health
RCT randomized controlled trial
RE-AIM Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance
SDOH social determinants of health
SES socioeconomic status
SMS short messaging service
SNAP-Ed Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education
SOP standard operating procedure
SSB sugar-sweetened beverage
TIDierR Template for Intervention Description and Replication
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
WHO World Health Organization
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Page R14
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Complementary feeding refers to the introduction of foods other than human milk or formula to an infants diet. In response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Academies Health and Medicine Division convened the Committee on Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children under Age 2 to conduct a consensus study scoping review of peer-reviewed literature and other publicly available information on interventions addressing complementary feeding of infants and young children. The interventions studied took place in the U.S. and other high-income country health care systems; early care and education settings; university cooperative extension programs; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); home visiting programs; and other settings. This consensus study report summarizes evidence and provides information on interventions that could be scaled up or implemented at a community or state level.

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