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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27250.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2023 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1056 Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges William Collins Tristan Yount The University of Kansas Lawrence, KS Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures • Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1056 Project 10-95A ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69902-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2023943680 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research documented in this report was performed under NCHRP Project 10-95A by the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering at the University of Kansas (KU). Dr. William Collins of the University of Kansas was the principal investigator. The other author is Tristan Yount, Graduate Research Assistant at the University of Kansas. Dr. John Barsom from John Barsom Consulting, Ltd., Dr. Duane Miller and Michael Florczykowski from The Lincoln Electric Company, Dr. Karl Frank from the University of Texas, Dr. Richard Link from the US Naval Academy, and Dr. Stan Rolfe from the University of Kansas served as technical consultants and advisors for the project. Their comments and valuable input are greatly appreciated. The research team also gratefully acknowledges input from Ryan Landreneau, Dr. Matthew Fadden, Zahra Andalib, Megan Catlett, and Sulok Wagley, all either currently or formerly of the University of Kansas. Material and fabrication sup- port were provided by SSAB Americas, Nucor Plate Group, High Steel, Inc., and W&W/AFCO. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1056 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Emily Griswold, Program Coordinator Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-95A PANEL Field of Materials and Construction—Area of Specs, Procedures, and Practices Christopher Hahin, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL (Chair) Joseph A. Bracken, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg, PA Xiaohua Hannah Cheng, New Jersey Department of Transportation, Trenton, NJ Ronnie Medlock, High Steel Structures, Lancaster, PA Todd L. Neimann, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Oakdale, MN Justin M. Ocel, FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, TRB Liaison

This NCHRP report presents recommended requirements for the toughness of heat- affected zones (HAZs) of welded structural steels for highway bridges, and draft language for consideration by AASHTO to incorporate the research results in the next update of the bridge welding code. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state materials, construction, and bridge engineers, and others involved in the different aspects of welded structural steels used in highway bridges and structures. AASHTO M 270, Standard Specification for Structural Steel for Bridges, covers the chem- ical, mechanical, and toughness properties of structural steel intended for use in bridges; the AASHTO/American Welding Society (AWS) D1.5 Bridge Welding Code covers the welding processes and requirements for welded highway bridges; the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications provides provisions for the design, evaluation, and rehabilitation of highway bridges. However, these specifications and codes do not address the toughness requirements for HAZs of welded structural steels. There was a need to identify the factors affecting the toughness for HAZs of welded structural steels used in highway bridges and determine the toughness requirements that are necessary for the intended performance and service life, for possible incorporation in the AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code and the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Under NCHRP Project 10-95A, “Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges,” the University of Kansas was tasked with developing proposed toughness requirements for the HAZs of welded structural steels for highway bridges; specifically those steels intended for use in bridges as identified in AASHTO M 270, Standard Specification for Structural Steel for Bridges. To accomplish this objective, the researchers reviewed the current practices for welding processes, procedures, and requirements for the fabrication of welded steel for highway bridges and identified factors that contribute to reduced fracture toughness in the HAZ of welded structural steel. The researchers also investigated the effects of these factors on impact energy and fracture toughness of specimens fabricated of two steel grades using four different welding processes. Based on the findings of the experimental investigation, the researchers developed draft language for consideration by AASHTO to incorporate the research results in the next update of the bridge welding code. The report describes the research performed in the project and presents the proposed changes. Three appendices were produced for this report. The proposed changes and the appendices are not printed herein but are available on the project page at https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4115. F O R E W O R D By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Scope 4 1.1 Problem Statement 4 1.2 Research Objective and Scope 4 1.3 Report Organization 6 Chapter 2 Background and Literature Review 6 2.1 Heat-Affected Zone Introduction and Welding Processes 9 2.2 Fracture Mechanics and Behavior 16 2.3 Fracture Toughness in Steel Highway Bridges 19 2.4 Heat-Affected Zone Research and Specifications 21 2.5 Testing and Characterization of Material Toughness 27 Chapter 3 Research Approach 27 3.1 Pilot Study: Purpose and Expected Outcomes 32 3.2 Results of Pilot Study 35 3.3 Development of Full Experimental Test Plan 39 Chapter 4 Experimental Test Program and Analysis 39 4.1 Plate Material and Fabrication of Welded Specimens 46 4.2 Experimental Testing Results 61 Chapter 5 Findings and Applications 61 5.1 Evaluation of Heat-Affected Zone Fracture Performance 71 5.2 Factors Influencing Behavior of HAZ Fracture Toughness 75 5.3 Charpy V-Notch Correlations and Comparisons 80 Chapter 6 Summary and Recommendations for Research 80 6.1 Summary of Research Findings 84 6.2 Suggested Revisions to Current Specifications 84 6.3 Suggested Future Research 86 References 89 Attachment Proposed Revisions to the AASHTO/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code, 8th Ed. (2020) 90 Appendices A–C C O N T E N T S

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Five welding processes are approved within AASHTO and the American Welding Society's bridge welding code for the fabrication of steel highway bridges. Each of these processes produce heat-affected zones (HAZs) of varying size and severity in the steel.

NCHRP Research Report 1056: Toughness Requirements for Heat-Affected Zones of Welded Structural Steels for Highway Bridges, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, presents proposed requirements for the toughness of HAZs of welded structural steels for highway bridges, and draft language for consideration by AASHTO to incorporate the research results in the next update of the bridge welding code.

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