National Academies Press: OpenBook

E-Scooter Safety Toolbox (2023)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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2023 BE H AVIORAL TRAFF IC SA FETY COOPERAT IVE RESEARCH PROGRA M BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 9 Research sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association and National Highway Trafc Safety Administration Subscriber Categories Pedestrians and Bicyclists • Operations and Trafc Management • Safety and Human Factors E-Scooter Safety Toolbox Laura Sandt Alyson West Katherine J. Harmon Kristin Blank UNC-Chapel Hill Highway Safety Research Center Chapel Hill, NC Christopher R. Cherry University of Tennessee-Knoxville Knoxville, TN Charles T. Brown Equitable Cities Somerset, NJ Rebecca Sanders Safe Streets Research & Consulting Portland, OR

BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Since the widespread introduction of motor vehicles more than a century ago, crashes involving their operation remain a significant public health concern. While there have been enormous improvements in highway design and construction, as well as motor vehicle safety, which have been instrumental in lowering the rate of crashes per mil- lion miles in the United States, more than 35,000 people die every year in motor vehicle crashes. In far too many cases, the root causes of the crashes are the unsafe behaviors of motor vehicle operators, cyclists, and pedestrians. Understanding human behaviors and developing effective countermeasures to unsafe ones is difficult and remains a major weak- ness in our traffic safety efforts. The Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP) develops practical solutions to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce costs of road traffic crashes associated with unsafe behav- iors. BTSCRP is a forum for coordinated and collaborative research efforts. It is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) under the direction and oversight of the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) with funding provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Funding for the program was originally established in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), Subsection 402(c), which created the National Cooperative Research and Evaluation Program (NCREP). Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act continued the program. In 2017, GHSA entered into an agreement with TRB to manage the research activities, with the program name changed to Behavioral Traf- fic Safety Cooperative Research Program. The GHSA Executive Board serves as the governing board for the BTSCRP. The Board consists of officers, representatives of the 10 NHTSA regions, and committee and task force chairs. The Research Committee Chair appoints committee members who recommend projects for funding and provide oversight for the activities of BTSCRP. Its ultimate goal is to oversee a quality research program that is committed to addressing research issues facing State Highway Safety Offices. The Executive Board meets annually to approve research projects. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The majority of panel members rep- resent the intended users of the research projects and have an important role in helping to implement the results. BTSCRP produces a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitio- ners. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating BTSCRP results to the intended users of the research: State Highway Safety Offices and their constituents. BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 9 Project BTS-10 ISSN 2766-5976 (Print) ISSN 2766-5984 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69910-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2023944528 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the BEHAVIORAL TRAFFIC SAFETY COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR BTSCRP RESEARCH REPORT 9 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Richard Retting, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Senior Editor BTSCRP PROJECT BTS-10 PANEL Michael J. Hanson, Minnesota Department of Public Safety, St. Paul, MN (Chair) Johanna Amaya, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, University Park, PA Brian D. Burk, Travis County, Austin, TX Staci Hoff, Washington Traffic Safety Commission (WTSC), Olympia, WA Kohinoor Kar, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ Ngani Salisha Ndimbie, High Street Consulting Group, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA Scott A. Parr, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL Randy Weissman, California Office of Traffic Safety, Elk Grove, CA Nazy Sobhi, FTA Liaison Kristie L. Johnson, NHTSA Liaison Ryan Grube, OST-R/Bureau of Transportation Statistics Liaison

BTSCRP Research Report 9: E-Scooter Safety Toolbox presents findings from a multiyear research effort that sought to build on existing research to date, identify key gaps in knowl- edge and data related to e-scooter behavioral safety, and develop evidence-based guidelines that can enhance the coordination of behavioral safety programs and countermeasures with a broader toolbox of approaches to improve safety for all road users. This publication will be of interest to state highway safety offices; state and municipal departments of transportation; metropolitan planning organizations; and other stakeholders concerned with improving e-scooter safety. Since their introduction in the United States in 2017, the use of electric scooters (e-scooters) has expanded to the streets and sidewalks of many cities, and all indicators point to con- tinued growth. E-scooters offer many potential benefits, including reduced air pollution in comparison to competing forms of transportation, first and last mile connections to public transit, increased mobility options, and new revenue sources for cities. There is, however, growing concern with injuries—including fatalities—associated with e-scooter use. In BTSCRP Project BTS-10, “E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions,” the University of North Carolina was asked to identify emerging behavioral safety issues arising from the expanding use of e-scooters, both rental and privately owned, and develop comprehensive guidelines to help affected agencies plan for and mitigate related safety problems. The research team (1) refined the current understanding of e-scooter injuries and gaps in knowledge and data; (2) assessed current e-scooter safety management practices and gaps in knowl- edge and data; (3) conducted new research to address gaps in knowledge and data regarding e-scooter safety; (4) developed and refined guidelines for e-scooter safety management practices; and (5) produced final deliverables and supplemental materials. In addition to the toolbox, published as BTSCRP Research Report 9, documentation of the overall research effort is available as BTSCRP Web-Only Document 5: E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions. The deliverable not included in the published reports is available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for BTSCRP Research Report 9: E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. F O R E W O R D By Richard Retting Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Chapter 2 Fundamental Concepts 2 What Is an E-Scooter? 3 What Are Key E-Scooter User Characteristics? 3 What Is the Safe System Approach? 4 What Is Transportation Equity? 7 Chapter 3 Promising Practices 7 Taking a Holistic Approach 8 Engaging the Community to Identify Safety Issues 11 Adopting Evidence-Based Measures 13 Delivering Basic Safety Information 15 Chapter 4 Data Tools and Methods 15 Using Existing Injury Data Sources 16 Gathering Additional Data for E-Scooter Safety Assessments 18 Leveraging Data Improvement Opportunities 24 Chapter 5 Additional Resources 24 Case Studies 34 Key Information Sources 36 Glossary of Key Terms 39 Acronyms 40 References C O N T E N T S

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Since their introduction in the United States in 2017, the use of electric scooters (e-scooters) has expanded to the streets and sidewalks of many cities, and all indicators point to continued growth.

BTSCRP Research Report 9: E-Scooter Safety Toolbox, from TRB's Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program, presents findings from a multiyear research effort that sought to build on existing research to date, identify key gaps in knowledge and data related to e-scooter behavioral safety, and develop evidence-based guidelines that can enhance the coordination of behavioral safety programs and countermeasures with a broader toolbox of approaches to improve safety for all road users.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 5: E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions and a presentation.

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