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E-Scooter Safety Toolbox (2023)

Chapter: References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27253.
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40 References Association of Transportation Safety Information Professionals (ATSIP). 2017. Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, eighth edition. https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/resources /government/traffic-records/304331/ansid16-2017.pdf. Barajas, J. M. 2021. Biking Where Black: Connecting Transportation Planning and Infrastructure to Dispropor- tionate Policing. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 99: 103027. Barajas, J. M. 2020. Biking Where Black: How Planning Contributes to Unjust Policing. Presented at the Trans- portation Research and Education Center, Portland State University Friday Seminar Series. 194. https:// pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/trec_seminar/194. Bouchard, J. 2019. Denver Police Don’t Ticket People Who Ride Scooters on Sidewalks—at Least Not Yet. 5280 Magazine. May 9, 2019. https://www.5280.com/2019/05/denver-police-dont-ticket-people-who-ride -scooters-on-sidewalks-at-least-not-yet/. BTSCRP BTS-10, “E-scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions.” https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay .asp?ProjectID=4793. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2021. ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting. U.S. Federal Government Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cms.gov/files/document /2021-coding-guidelines-updated-12162020.pdf. Cherry, C., L. Sandt, and S. Shaheen. 2022. List of E-Scooter Fatalities. Understanding Micromobility Safety Behavior and Standardizing Safety Metrics for Transportation System Integration. Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety, Chapel Hill, NC. Cicchino, J. B., P. E. Kulie, and M. L. McCarthy. 2020a. Severity of E-Scooter Rider Injuries Associated with Trip Characteristics. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA. Cicchino, J. B., P. E. Kulie, and M. L. McCarthy. 2020b. Injuries Related to Electric Scooter and Bicycle Use in a Washington, DC, Emergency Department. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA. City and County of Denver. 2020. Transportation Options: Requirements for New Development. https:// denvergov.org/files/assets/public/doti/documents/programsservices/tdm/denver-tdm-plan.pdf. City of Chicago. 2022. Scooter Sharing Business Rules. https://www.chicago.gov/content/dam/city/depts/cdot /Misc/EScooters/2022/Chicago%20Scooter%20License%20Rules%20and%20Regulations%20-%20Final %20Draft%20Signed.pdf. City of Chicago. 2021. 2020 E- Scooter Pilot Evaluation. City of Chicago. 2020a. Chicago E-Scooter Pilot Evaluation Summary. City of Chicago. 2020b. 2019 E-Scooter Share Pilot Program. City of Chicago. 2019. Electric Scooter Safety Video English [Video]. YouTube. August 30, 2019. https://www .youtube.com/watch?v=VDusb9vNK1Q. City of Denver. 2021. Dockless Mobility Vehicle Permit Pilot Program. City of Portland. 2020. TRN-15.01 - New Mobility - Shared Electric Scooters. Portland Interim Rules and Regulations. https://www.portland.gov/policies/transportation/new-mobility/trn-1501-new-mobility -shared-electric-scooters. Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 2021. Reclaiming the Right to the City. https://globalaffairs.org/research /report/reclaiming-right-city. Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety (CSCRS). 2022. PedBikeData. https://www.pedbikedata.org/. Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety (CSCRS). 2020. Micromobility Modes, New Codes! https://www .roadsafety.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/MicromobilityCoding_Poster_v2_FINAL.pdf. Council of the District of Columbia. 2022. Code of the District of Columbia “§ 50–2201.02. Definitions. Washington, DC. https://code.dccouncil.us/us/dc/council/code/sections/50-2201.02#:∼:text=%C2%A7 %2050%E2%80%932201.02.-,Definitions.,not%20intended%20for%20human%20consumption.

References 41   Denver Regional Council of Governments. 2020. Shared Micromobility in the Denver Region. Micromobility Work Group, Denver, CO. Denver Public Works. 2019. Denver Dockless Mobility Program Pilot Interim Report. City of Denver, Denver, CO. District Department of Transportation (DDOT). n.d.a. Bike and Scooter Corrals. https://ddot.dc.gov/page /bike-and-scooter-corrals. District Department of Transportation (DDOT). n.d.b. GoDCgo: Scooter. https://godcgo.com/scooter/. District Department of Transportation (DDOT). n.d.c. Shared Mopeds in the District. https://ddot.dc.gov/page /shared-mopeds-district. District Department of Transportation (DDOT). n.d.d. GoDCgo: Scooting in DC. https://godcgo.com/wp -content/uploads/2021/10/Scooter-Infographic_09.30.21.pdf. Doctor, M., and C. Ngo. 2022. Making our Roads Safer through a Safe System Approach. Public Roads (85)4. Doggett, S., D. R. Ragland, and G. Felschundneff. 2018. Evaluating Research on Data Linkage to Assess Under- reporting of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injury in Police Crash Data. Safe Transportation Research and Education Center, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. Equitable Cities. n.d. Arrested Mobility Podcast. Arrested Mobility. https://arrestedmobility.com/episodes/. FHWA. 2022a. Shared Mobility and Equity Primer. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/resources/shared_micromobility _equity_primer.pdf. FHWA. 2022b. Road Safety Audits (RSA). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/. FHWA. 2022c. Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC), 4th edition definitions. https://safety.fhwa .dot.gov/hsip/spm/conversion_tbl/pdfs/kabco_definitions.pdf. FHWA. 2022d. Pedestrian and Bicycle Funding Opportunities: U.S. Department of Transportation Transit, Safety, and Highway Funds. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. https:// www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/funding/funding_opportunities.pdf?u=092922. FHWA. 2020. The Safe System Approach. FHWA-SA-20-015. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Fang, K., A. W. Agrawal, and A. M. Hooper. 2019. How and Where Should I Ride This Thing? “Rules of the Road” for Personal Transportation Devices. Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose, CA. https://transweb.sjsu.edu /sites/default/files/1713-Fang-Agrawal-Hooper-Rules-Personal-Transportation-Devices.pdf. Fischer, P. S. 2020. Understanding and Tackling Micromobility: Transportation’s New Disruptor. Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC. https://www.ghsa.org/sites/default/files/2020-08/GHSA _MicromobilityReport_Final_1.pdf. Golub, A., V. Satterfield, M. Serritella, J. Singh, and S. Phillips. 2019. Assessing the Barriers to Equity in Smart Mobility Systems: A Case Study of Portland, Oregon. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 7, no. 4: 689–697. Government of the District of Columbia. 2021. MoveDC 2021 Update. District Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. Government of the District of Columbia. 2020. 20 MPH Default Speed Limit Emergency Rulemaking. Washington, DC. https://ddot.dc.gov/publication/20-mph-default-speed-limit-emergency-rulemaking. Government of the District of Columbia. 2019. Terms and Conditions for the Public Right of Way Occupancy Permit For [PH Name]. Washington, DC. Harmon, K. J., L. Sandt, K. Hancock, E. Rodgman, and L. Thomas. 2021. Using Integrated Data to Examine Characteristics Related to Pedestrian Injuries. Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety, Chapel Hill, NC. Highway Safety Research Center. 2022. “Micromodes.” University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. https://www .micromodes.org/. Kuntzman, G. 2020. NYPD’s Racial Bias in ‘Jaywalking’ Tickets Continues into 2020. Streetsblog NYC. May 7, 2020. https://nyc.streetsblog.org/2020/05/07/nypds-racial-bias-in-jaywalking-tickets-continues-into-2020/. Laing, L., and R. Klitzsch. 2021. Putting the Pieces Together: Addressing the Role of Behavioral Safety in the Safe System Approach. Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC. Lawson, B. n.d. E-Scooter Share Pilot Program. https://www.44thward.org/infrastructure/bike-pedestrian -infrastructure/e-scooter-share-pilot-program/. Lazo, L. 2022. D.C. Wants to Double Its 24 Miles of Protected Bike Lanes. It Plans to Start with 10 Miles This Year. The Washington Post, February 3, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/transportation/2022/02/03 /dc-protected-bike-lanes/. Lowe, K. 2016. Environmental Justice and Pedestrianism: Sidewalk Continuity, Race, and Poverty in New Orleans, Louisiana. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2598. https:// doi.org/10.3141/2598-14. Luxen, E. 2019. Metro Council Votes to Reduce Number of Scooters. News Channel 5. https://www.newschannel5 .com/news/metro-council-votes-to-reduce-number-of-scooters.

42 E-Scooter Safety Toolbox Maus, J. 2022. Portland Wants to Get Serious with E-Scooters and Move Beyond ‘Pilot’ Phase. BikePortland. June 15, 2022. https://bikeportland.org/2022/06/15/portland-wants-to-get-serious-with-e-scooters-and -move-beyond-pilot-phase-356685. National Association of City and Transportation Officials (NACTO). 2020. Shared Micromobility in the US: 2019. New York, NY. National Association of City and Transportation Officials (NACTO). 2019. Managing Mobility Data. New York, NY. https://nacto.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NACTO_IMLA_Managing-Mobility-Data.pdf. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Health-Care Utilization as a Proxy in Disability Determination. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.17226/24969. National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA). 2022. Pedestrians: 2020 Data. Traffic Safety Facts DOT HS 813 310. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC. National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA). 2021. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists: 2029 Data. Traffic Safety Facts DOT HS 813 197. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2022a. About MMUCC. Washington, DC. https:// www.nhtsa.gov/mmucc-1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2022b. 2020 FARS/CRSS Coding and Validation Manual. Report No. DOT HS 813 251. Washington, DC. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public /ViewPublication/813251. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2011. Model Performance Measures for State Traffic Records Systems. https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/TR%20Performance %20Measures.pdf. Pascale, Jordan. 2021. This Scooter Will Angrily Beep at You if You Ride on a Sidewalk | DCist.” National Public Radio, May 17, 2021. https://www.npr.org/local/305/2021/05/17/997484617/this-new-scooter-will-angrily -beep-at-you-if-you-ride-on-a-d-c-sidewalk#:∼:text=If%20it%20detects%20a%20rider,beeps%20again%2C %20albeit%20more%20positively. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. n.d. Micromobility. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, NC. https://www.pedbikeinfo.org/topics/micromobility.cfm. Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT). 2022. “E-scooter Pilot Program.” Portland Bureau of Transporta- tion. https://www.portland.gov/transportation/escooterpdx. Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT). 2019a. Portland 2018 E-Scooter Findings Report. Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR. Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT). 2019b. “Scoot Smart” [Video]. YouTube. December 3, 2019. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=jX3rIcFIZZU. Portland Bureau of Transportation and Alta Planning & Design. 2020. City of Portland Bureau of Transportation E-Scooter Findings Report. Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR. Rajaee, M., B. Echeverri, Z. Zuchowicz, K. Wiltfang, and J. F. Lucarelli. 2021. Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities of Sidewalk Quality in a Traditional Rust Belt City. SSM-Population Health. 16: 100975. Ride Report. 2022a. Open Data Portal: Denver, Colorado. https://public.ridereport.com/denver?vehicle=scooter &time=2022-Q4. Ride Report. 2022b. Open Data Portal: Portland, Oregon. https://public.ridereport.com/pdx?c=%7B%22lng%22 %3A-122.66912041389526%2C%22lat%22%3A45.53058031931519%7D&z=10.217880286485617. Riggs, W. 2016. Inclusively Walkable: Exploring the Equity of Walkable Housing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Local Environment. 21, no. 5: 527–554. Rubin, V. 2009. Making Equity and Inclusion Central to Federal Transportation Policy. PolicyLink, Oakland, CA. SAE. 2019. SAE J3194 Taxonomy & Classification of Powered Micromobility Vehicles. https://www.sae.org/binaries /content/assets/cm/content/topics/micromobility/sae-j3194-summar---2019-11.pdf. Sanders, T., K. Rabinowitz, and B. Conarck. 2017. Walking While Black: Jacksonville’s Enforcement of Pedes- trian Violations Raises Concerns That It’s Another Example of Racial Profiling. ProPublica. https://features .propublica.org/walking-while-black/jacksonville-pedestrian-violations-racial-profiling/. Sandt, L. 2019. The Basics of Micromobility and Related Motorized Devices for Personal Transport. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, NC. https://www.pedbikeinfo.org/cms/downloads/PBIC_Brief_ MicromobilityTypology.pdf. Santacreu, A., G. Yannis, and O. de Saint Leon. 2020. Safe Micromobility. International Transport Forum, Paris, France. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2019. Risk and Protective Factors. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/20190718-samhsa-risk-protective-factors.pdf. Timms, M. 2019. Nashville Scooters: What Riders Should Know Before Hopping on an Electric Scooter. The Tennessean. May 20, 2019. https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/2019/05/20/bird-lime-lyft-scooter -nashville-rules-helmet-sidewalk/3745163002/.

References 43   Transportation Research and Education Center. n.d. Equity in Bike Share Research. Portland State University. https://trec.pdx.edu/bikeshare-research. U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). 2020. State TRCC Personnel. https://www.transportation.gov /government/traffic-records/state-trcc-personnel. Washington State Traffic Safety Commission. 2021. Safe System Approach. Presentation. http://wtsc.wa.gov /wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2021/01/WSDOT-Safe-System-Milton-1-21-21.pdf. Wen, Y., and C. Cherry. 2022. Electric Scooter Survey Question Toolkit. New Urban Mobility. https://www.numo .global/resources/electric-scooter-survey-question-toolkit.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

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Since their introduction in the United States in 2017, the use of electric scooters (e-scooters) has expanded to the streets and sidewalks of many cities, and all indicators point to continued growth.

BTSCRP Research Report 9: E-Scooter Safety Toolbox, from TRB's Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program, presents findings from a multiyear research effort that sought to build on existing research to date, identify key gaps in knowledge and data related to e-scooter behavioral safety, and develop evidence-based guidelines that can enhance the coordination of behavioral safety programs and countermeasures with a broader toolbox of approaches to improve safety for all road users.

Supplemental to the report are BTSCRP Web-Only Document 5: E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions and a presentation.

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