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Suggested Citation:"Vision Framework Development and Refinement." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27263.
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Suggested Citation:"Vision Framework Development and Refinement." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27263.
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Suggested Citation:"Vision Framework Development and Refinement." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27263.
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Suggested Citation:"Vision Framework Development and Refinement." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27263.
×
Page 13
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Suggested Citation:"Vision Framework Development and Refinement." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27263.
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solutions. They also said a new vision could require new roles and • Small group exercises to review external trends, uncertainties, and approaches for state DOTs and other agencies—and welcomed potential disruptions and sort these trends into tides, waves, and the opportunity for future collaboration toward a common vision. ripples to highlight those most likely to have the greatest impact on transportation during the next few decades. The group iden- The interviews were augmented by a synthesis of available infor- tified four broad sets of trends and uncertainties as the highest mation on community values related to transportation, based on priorities: risk and resilience, disparity and equity, demographic public opinion surveys as well as summaries of public input received and consumer changes, and innovation and technology. from statewide and regional long-range planning processes. There is no single source of information on customer values at a national • Small group exercises to consider four potential future scenarios level, and many available surveys were conducted prior to the based on a combination of two primary assumptions: COVID-19 pandemic. The information available suggests people – Degree of resilience—low (communities are volatile, disrupted, place a high value on transportation’s role in providing access to jobs, and uncertain) to high (communities are flexible, agile, and services, and other daily activities; place a high priority on safety, responsive). convenience, and reliability; and view technology and innovations with a mix of optimism and concern. Key findings are summarized – Degree of opportunity for individuals and families—low (dis- below, and details are provided in Appendix G. parate access and significant gaps) to high (equitable access to technology, energy, quality of life, and standard of living). • Safety, travel time and congestion, connectivity, the availability of travel options, and the condition of existing roads and bridges The groups identified potential transportation visions and strat- are often identified through state DOT surveys as priorities for egies in each scenario. the public, with their relative importance varying in part due to • Large group discussion to synthesize key themes and ideas from external factors such as economic conditions. the two days. • Multiple state and regional surveys identify safety as a concern, Appendix H includes a summary of the Vision Retreat, including particularly for bicyclists, pedestrians, and other vulnerable road the agenda and list of participants. users. Many respondents express concern about distracted driving or speeding but also report practicing these unsafe behaviors. Surveys also show personal safety and security as a concern for VISION FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT potential public transportation riders. AND REFINEMENT • Respondents to most surveys reported the use of multiple modes Informed by the research and engagement activities, the research of transportation, with highways as the predominant mode for team developed an initial framework for a vision and related imple- commuting to work. The percentage of Americans rating access mentation activities in May 2022. This draft vision framework was to highways and transit as important when deciding where to live shared with the AASHTO Board of Directors at its May 2022 meeting dropped in 2020, reflecting changes in travel and housing prefer- and was subsequently shared during in-person or virtual workshops ences during the pandemic. The share of people who said side- with the four regional AASHTO boards, the Vision Retreat participants, walks and places to walk are very important factors climbed over and a small number of additional partner organizations between 50 percent for each generation except those aged 75 and older June and October 2022. A revised vision framework was shared with (National Association of Realtors, 2020). the AASHTO Board of Directors at its October 2022 meeting. The AASHTO Board adopted a resolution supporting the vision framework • About 40 percent of adults aged 50 and older report using dig- and continuing implementation activities at that time. ital technology in a new or different way. However, more than two in five do not believe technology is designed for all ages Draft Vision Framework (AARP, 2022). The initial draft of the vision framework included three components: Vision Retreat • A vision, expressed as seven shared goals or ambitions for state DOTs, including a desired end state for transportation over the The research findings and engagement results provided background next decade. Table 7 lists the seven goals and the intended 2030 information for a Vision Retreat held March 22–23, 2022, at the outcomes. Orlando International Airport. The event convened 53 leading prac- titioners and thought leaders in and related to transportation, includ- • Initial concepts for five breakthrough ideas or moonshots that ing the NCHRP 20-24(138) project panel, 10 additional state DOT would advance these shared goals through collective action CEOs, and 36 additional subject matter experts. The objectives of between now and 2030. Table 8 lists the initial moonshot concepts. the Vision Retreat were to build a collective understanding of the • A structure for a proposed spectrum of actions state DOTs could external trends, uncertainties, and possibilities that will shape the pursue individually to make progress toward the shared goals. The future of transportation and to identify visions, aspirational goals, spectrum of actions was initially organized around 10 “levers of and breakthrough ideas for the future of transportation. The retreat change” that individual DOTs could adjust—from external partner- agenda included: ships to investment decisions to workforce capacity. Examples of • A panel discussion on the external trend and uncertainties shaping how selected levers could be adjusted, from modest to transfor- the future of transportation. mational change, were identified to spur further input. 10

TABLE 7 Draft Vision Framework: Goals/Ambitions and Outcomes GOAL DESIRED OUTCOME Community-centered transportation Reflects community vision and connections at all scales—local, regional, megaregional, national, and global. Safe & secure No fatalities or serious injuries to customers on all modes of the transportation system; the transportation system reduces risks to the public from natural disasters and human decisions. Accessible & affordable Affordable and convenient transportation options to access jobs, health care, education, food, recreation, and other services for all Americans—regardless of geographic location, age, ability, or socioeconomic status. Seamless & reliable Convenient, human-centered choices on demand for complete trips for both people and goods from origin to destination, with no unnecessary delays and quick transfers between modes and systems. Healthy & thriving Transportation investments help grow the economy and enhance the quality of life for all Americans. Clean & sustainable Zero net emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon-free) and air quality pollutants, and protection and enhancement of the natural environment. Agile & resilient Communities protected against and able to recover from service disruptions, climate change, and other natural and human-made hazards. TABLE 8 Draft Moonshot Concepts WHAT IF WE? WHAT COULD IT MEAN? Reorient our transportation goals and Focus on moving people and freight, not vehicles. investments to support communities Build and sustain diverse, inclusive partnerships. Make major transportation decisions in the context of community visions. Refocus planning process, performance measures, and investment decisions on building and sustaining communities. Rethink how we connect communities Within communities—place greater emphasis on sidewalks, trails, micromobility, and other human-scaled transportation. Between communities within a region—create more options for local and regional trips, including urban and regional transit; strengthen first/last-mile connections. Between regions within a megaregion—provide more connectivity options such as high-speed ground transportation and urban air mobility; redefine how interregional corridors interface with communities. Between megaregions within the United States—create “Interstate 2.0”: rebuild critical corridors (all modes) with 21st century design and materials; close connectivity gaps on multiple modes—highways, rail, water, and air—to support interstate commerce; refocus corridor rights-of-way as pathways for mobility, energy, water, broadband, other systems. Between U.S. and global trading partners—continue to enhance global gateways and corridors for trade and visitors. Reinvent how transportation systems Research, develop, and promote adoption of “Transportation 4.0” solutions—applications of are operated and managed Industry 4.0 technologies (automation, connectivity, artificial intelligence) for transportation through public/private collaboration. Advance human-centered, machine-enabled transportation to enhance safety, mobility, and access. Refresh how transportation systems Electrify everything—deploy a nationwide network to use electricity and alternative fuel are powered sources throughout the transportation system. Use the transportation system to help generate and store energy, such as solar highways and pavement sensors. Redesign how customers experience Create a mobility marketplace that allows customers to choose the travel option(s) that most transportation effectively meet their needs and preferences. Enable a choice of providers, ratings of trips/mode/vehicles for efficiency, consumption-based payment, and mobility budgets for customers. 11

Appendix I includes the draft vision framework prepared follow- Appendix J includes the summaries of the regional AASHTO ing the AASHTO Board of Directors’ May 2022 meeting. Board workshops and the Vision Retreat follow-up webinar. In addition, the project team scheduled individual briefings with the leadership of multiple state DOTs to share the vision frame- Input on Draft Vision Framework work and receive input on implementation. These discussions pro- The project team received input on the draft vision framework from vided additional input to help expand the list of potential actions multiple sources during the summer and fall of 2022. Table 9 summa- and refine the vision and moonshot language. The DOT briefings rizes key input received during this period. demonstrated interest from individual states in making aggressive TABLE 9 Input Received on Draft Vision Framework GROUP/DATE INPUT AASHTO Board of Directors Support community-centered transportation at the core of the vision; support related goals May 12, 2022 including greater emphasis on safety and equity. Support the approach of a shared vision that could be implemented by individual states in different ways. Support the initial moonshot concepts. Support new and enhanced partnerships. Add to the spectrum of actions, such as the potential for a greater state DOT role in land use. WASHTO Board of Directors Develop inclusive language and images to incorporate all modes and apply to all communities. June 7, 2022 Expand safety goal to address concerns about the use of transportation system for criminal activity such as human trafficking or drug trafficking. Support approach of actions that could differ among states, or between urban and rural areas within states. Expand actions, particularly related to integrating transportation with other decisions like housing and public health. NASTO Board of Directors Strengthen emphasis on safety and all forms of mobility. July 13, 2022 Add actions related to multistate coordination. Emphasize the importance of a clearly understood vision everyone can work toward. MAASTO Board of Directors Develop a crosswalk between the aspirational goals and the moonshot concepts. July 27, 2022 Strengthen emphasis on how transportation can support access to opportunity, including coordination with health and human services partners. Further expand the moonshot concept of a digital overlay on the existing interstate system. SASHTO Board of Directors Expand emphasis on potential transformative changes in partnership with private-sector August 30, 2022 technology providers. Expand actions related to policy and investments. World Road Congress (PIARC) Incorporate opportunities to build on global best practices and collaborate with partner Technical Committee 1.1, organizations on research and tools for the future of transportation agencies. Performance of Transport Administrations September 26, 2022 Vision Retreat Participants Develop measurable targets for aspirational goals. (“Challenge Network”) Create moonshots specifically focused on achieving aspirational goals related to safety and September 30, 2022 access to opportunity; strengthen moonshot related to sustainability. Strengthen language about adaptive capacity for agencies. Expand actions related to partnerships, including how DOTs can collaborate with MPOs, toll authorities, and other modal partners. WASHTO Board of Directors Support refined goals, enhanced moonshot concepts, and expanded list of actions. October 6, 2022 MAASTO Board of Directors Support refined goals, enhanced moonshot concepts, and expanded list of actions. October 13, 2022 Association of Metropolitan Planning Support strong DOT/MPO collaboration toward vision. Organizations October 25–26, 2022 12

TABLE 10 State DOTs Represented in Second-Round Interviews with Agency Leadership Colorado Department of Transportation Ohio Department of Transportation District Department of Transportation Oregon Department of Transportation Idaho Transportation Department Rhode Island Department of Transportation Maine Department of Transportation South Carolina Department of Transportation Massachusetts Department of Transportation Texas Department of Transportation Minnesota Department of Transportation Vermont Agency of Transportation New York State Department of Transportation Wyoming Department of Transportation North Dakota Department of Transportation progress toward particular moonshot concepts (including safety, TABLE 11 Partner and Stakeholder Organizations access to opportunity, and clean energy/greenhouse gas reduc- Participating in Second-Round Interviews with Leadership tion), as well as prioritizing particular levers of change (including workforce development, public/private partnerships, and future Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta funding strategies). The briefings also demonstrated that the vision PolicyLink framework provides a common national structure that could be Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority scaled and adapted for individual states. Table  10 lists the addi- The Ray tional DOT CEOs and leadership team members interviewed in United for ALICE September–October 2022. In addition, the research team provided additional one-on-one briefings to partners who were unable to attend the Vision Retreat meeting in October 2022. This revised framework included three follow-up webinar or who could provide additional input on partic- components: ular moonshot concepts. These additional briefings helped refine the moonshot concepts and partnership opportunities related to • A vision, now expressed as a single statement focused on access to opportunity and the digital overlay on the Interstates. community-centered transportation and supported by six shared Table 11 lists additional partner briefings. goals for state DOTs. Table 12 lists the vision and six goals. • Revised concepts for seven breakthrough ideas or moonshots that would advance these shared goals through collective action Revised Vision Framework between now and 2030. These included refinements of the initial Based on this input, the project team developed a revised vision five concepts plus two new ones related to safety and access to framework, which was shared at the AASHTO Board of Directors opportunity. Table 13 lists the revised moonshot concepts. TABLE 12 Revised Vision Framework Vision: COMMUNITY-CENTERED TRANSPORTATION A transportation system focused on connecting communities, moving people and goods, and meeting customer needs at all scales, from local to global—delivered as a partnership between state departments of transportation and other public-, private-, and civic-sector partners. GOAL DESIRED OUTCOME Safe and secure No fatalities or serious injuries to customers on all modes of the transportation system; the transportation system has limited vulnerability to criminal activity, terrorism, and cyberattack and is not a conduit for human trafficking, smuggling, or spread of disease. Accessible and affordable Affordable and convenient transportation options to access jobs, health care, education, food, recreation, and other services for all people and families, regardless of geographic location, age, ability, or socioeconomic status. Seamless and reliable Convenient, human-centered choices available on demand to move people and goods from origin to destination, with minimal delay and quick transfers between modes and systems. Healthy and thriving Transportation investments that help grow prosperity and improve the health of all Americans. Clean and sustainable Zero net emissions of greenhouse gases and air quality pollutants, and enhancement of the natural environment. Agile and resilient Communities protected against and able to recover from extreme weather and climate trends, service disruptions, and other risks; transportation agencies able to adapt to risks, disruptions, and uncertainties. 13

TABLE 13 Revised Moonshot Concepts WHAT IF WE? WHAT MIGHT WE DO? Make aggressive progress toward Vision Advance systemic solutions involving engineering, technology, behavioral change, and Zero; reduce highway fatalities by xx percent community design to reduce fatalities to levels not seen since the post-World War II era. by 2030 Advance targeted solutions for pedestrians, bicyclists, and other vulnerable road users. Work with partners to reduce the share Build and strengthen nontraditional partnerships with health, human services, and of households who cannot afford basic workforce development organizations. survival costs by xx percent by 2030 through Close critical gaps in access to jobs, health care, education, recreation, and other services. enhanced transportation accessibility and Provide more mobility options for households—including the option to not travel. affordability Increase the affordability of transportation. Create a mobility marketplace so Enable customers to choose the travel option(s) they want and need, including aspects transportation works for our customers like safety, convenience, accessibility, affordability, efficiency, and sustainability. Make it easy for people to budget and pay for the transportation services they consume. Ensure all customers can access mobility information and options, including customers who do not have access to a smart device, bank account, or credit card. Change how we operate and manage the “Light up the Interstates”—deploy and enhance a nationwide digital infrastructure to transportation system support mobility and connectivity needs, using Interstate highway right-of-way as a starting platform. Deploy “Transportation 4.0”—including vehicle automation, connectivity, and artificial intelligence—to enhance safety, mobility, and access through public/private collaboration. Advance human-centered, machine-enabled transportation to enhance safety, mobility, and access, as well as options to substitute communications for travel. Improve energy efficiency and reduce Deploy a nationwide network to use electricity and alternative fuel sources for transportation. transportation emissions by xx percent by Improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions throughout the transportation system 2030 lifecycle, from construction to operations. Use the transportation system to generate and store energy, such as solar highways and pavement sensors. Rethink how we connect communities and Develop more options for how we connect communities, regions, and megaregions regions to meet customer needs, including next-generation transit, advanced air mobility, and high-speed ground transportation. Create “Interstate 2.0”: rebuild critical corridors with advanced design and materials and multiple modes and uses; close connectivity gaps on highway, rail, water, and air to support interstate commerce. Use corridor rights-of-way as pathways for mobility, energy, water, broadband, and other systems. Prioritize strategies and investments to Build and sustain diverse, inclusive partnerships reflecting community visions and needs strengthen communities at all scales. Make major transportation decisions in collaboration with community visions and customer needs. Focus planning processes, performance measures, and investment decisions on building and sustaining communities. Balance the needs and preferences of multiple scales of communities and customers impacted by transportation decisions, from local to global. Note: xx indicates specific aspirational targets to be identified in Phase 2. 14

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The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) have initiated a multi-year process to describe and advance the implementation of a vision for the next era of transportation in the United States.

NCHRP Research Results Digest 404: Collective and Individual Actions to Envision and Realize the Next Era of America’s Transportation Infrastructure: Phase 1, from NCHRP, explores and articulates what state DOTs can do collectively and individually to establish and realize a transformative vision of the next era of America’s transportation infrastructure, a vision and infrastructure to support the nation’s continued prosperity and well-being.

Supplemental to the digest is a document containing Appendices A through K.

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