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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27289.
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NCHRP Web-Only Document 376 Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements Brian Diefenderfer Adam Hand Ilker Boz University of Nevada Virginia Transportation Research Council Reno, NV Charlottesville, VA David Jones University of California Pavement Research Center Davis, CA Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 09-62 Submitted October 2022 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

COOPERATI VE RESEAR CH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 376 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Roberto Barcena, Senior Program Officer Anthony Avery, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer Correro, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 09-62 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction—Area of Bituminous Materials Ervin L. Dukatz, Jr., Flyereld Consulting, LLC, La Crosse, WI (Chair) Richard L. Bradbury, Maine Department of Transportation, Scarborough, ME Colin A. Franco, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence, RI Richard P. Izzo, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX Jusang Lee, Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette, IN Yusuf A. Mehta, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ Tanya M. Nash, Asphalt Testing Solutions and Engineering, Jacksonville, FL William R. Schiebel, RockSol Consulting Group, Thornton, CO Marta Vasquez, Baton Rouge, LA Jack S. Youtcheff, Jr., FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, Transportation Research Board, TRB Liaison ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 09-62 by the Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC – Prime Contractor), the University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC – Subcontractor), and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR – Subcontractor). This report was authored by Dr. Brian K. Diefenderfer (Principal Investigator), VTRC; Dr. David Jones (Co-Principal Investigator), UCPRC; Dr. Adam J. T. Hand, UNR; and Dr. Ilker Boz, VTRC. The work was performed under the general supervision of Dr. Diefenderfer at VTRC. The authors acknowledge and appreciate the assistance from the following individuals who participated in and/or supported data collection during Phase IV: Fernando Aragon, Aragon Geotechnical, Inc.; Steve Cross, Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association (ARRA); Benjamin Bowers, Auburn University; Jean-Martin Croteau, Colas Canada, Inc.; Stephanie Drain, S. Drain Engineering of IL, LLC; Jake Krohn and Aaron Roy, The Gorman Group, LLC; Anthony DaSilva, Graniterock; Megan Yount and Zack Robinson, The Heritage Group; Derek Frederixon, Mathy Construction; Oladotun Alade, Trevor Moore, and Mat Nayagam, The Miller Group; Nathan Morian, Nevada DOT; Tom Kane, New York State DOT; Mike Concannon, Pavement Recycling Systems; Gary Foux, Suit- Kote Corp.; Stephanus Louw, University of California Davis; Julissa Larios, University Nevada Reno; Peter Kemp and Tirupan Mandal, Wisconsin DOT; Jhony Habbouche and Linda Evans, Virginia Transportation Research Council.

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. v List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vi Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Background ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Results and Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 2 Test Data Collection .................................................................................................................... 2 Test Variability............................................................................................................................ 7 Influence of Compaction Density, Moisture Content, and Temperature on the Test Results... 11 Phase IV Test Threshold Values ............................................................................................... 17 Test Method Modifications ....................................................................................................... 22 Conclusions and Suggested Future Activities............................................................................... 22 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 22 Suggested Future Activities ...................................................................................................... 23 References ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Appendix A – Test Fixture Assembly .......................................................................................... 26 Appendix B – Test Fixture Technical Drawings .......................................................................... 28 Appendix C – Quick User Guide .................................................................................................. 35 Appendix D – Revised Data Collection Form .............................................................................. 39 Appendix E – Test Results............................................................................................................ 40 Appendix F – ANCOVA Results.................................................................................................. 47 iv

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. SPRT Results. CIR = cold in place recycling, E = emulsified asphalt, C = cement...................... 4 Figure 2. LPST Results. CIR = cold in place recycling, E = emulsified asphalt, C = cement. ..................... 4 Figure 3. SPRT Number of Blows Results, Maximum and Minimum Three-Test Average. CCPR = cold central plant recycling, CIR = cold in-place recycling, FDR = full depth reclamation, E = emulsified asphalt, F = foamed asphalt, C = cement, N = no cement, C+LS = cement plus lime slurry. ................... 6 Figure 4. SPRT Torque Results, Maximum and Minimum Three-Test Average. CCPR = cold central plant recycling, CIR = cold in-place recycling, FDR = full depth reclamation, E = emulsified asphalt, F = foamed asphalt, C = cement, N = no cement, C+LS = cement plus lime slurry........................................ 6 Figure 5. LPST Number of Blows Results, Maximum and Minimum Three-Test Average. CCPR = cold central plant recycling, CIR = cold in-place recycling, FDR = full depth reclamation, E = emulsified asphalt, F = foamed asphalt, C = cement, N = no cement, C+LS = cement plus lime slurry. ................... 8 Figure 6. LPST Torque Results, Maximum and Minimum Three-Test Average. CCPR = cold central plant recycling, CIR = cold in-place recycling, FDR = full depth reclamation, E = emulsified asphalt, F = foamed asphalt, C = cement, N = no cement, C+LS = cement plus lime slurry........................................ 8 Figure 7. SPRT Number of Blows or Torque Versus Coefficient of Variation. ........................................... 9 Figure 8. LPST Number of Blows or Torque Versus Standard Deviation. ................................................ 11 Figure 9. Density Versus SPRT Number of Blows or Torque. ................................................................... 12 Figure 10. Density Versus LPST Number of Blows or Torque. ................................................................. 12 Figure 11. Pavement Moisture Content Versus SPRT Number of Blows or Torque. ................................ 13 Figure 12. Pavement Moisture Content Versus LPST Number of Blows or Torque.................................. 13 Figure 13. Pavement Surface Temperature Versus SPRT Number of Blows or Torque. ........................... 14 Figure 14. Pavement Surface Temperature Versus LPST Number of Blows or Torque. ........................... 15 Figure 15. Example Normal Distribution with Threshold Value at a Left-Tail Area of 5 Percent (NASEM 2021). ....................................................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 16. Mean Values from Tests Conducted During Phase III and Phase IV. Error bars show plus/minus one standard deviation (pooled standard deviation). ............................................................. 19 v

LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Details of Projects Assessed During Phase IV Verification (2021). ............................................... 3 Table 2. SPRT Repeatability Comparisons. COV=Coefficient of Variation................................................ 9 Table 3. SPRT Repeatability Comparisons by Operator Type. COV=Coefficient of Variation. ................. 9 Table 4. LPST Repeatability Comparisons. ................................................................................................ 10 Table 5. LPST Repeatability Comparisons by Operator Type. .................................................................. 10 Table 6. ANCOVA Factor Descriptive Statistics. ...................................................................................... 16 Table 7. ANCOVA Results......................................................................................................................... 17 Table 8. Model Coefficient of Determination (Adjusted R2). ..................................................................... 17 Table 9. Threshold Values from Phase III and Phase IV. ........................................................................... 19 Table 10. Results of F-Test to Compare Variances between Phase III and Phase IV Test Results. ........... 20 Table 11. Results of t-Test to Compare Equal Means between Phase III and Phase IV Test Results. ....... 21 Table 12. Phase III and Phase IV Project Summary. .................................................................................. 22 Table 13. Threshold Values from Combined Phase III and Phase IV Data. ............................................... 22 Table 14. Revised Recommended Test Threshold Values Data. ................................................................ 23 vi

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NCHRP Web-Only Document 376: Rapid Tests and Specification Language for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, provides the results and analysis of field testing conducted to verify the short-pin raveling test (SPRT) and long-pin shear test (LPST) threshold values recommended in NCHRP Research Report 960: Proposed AASHTO Practice and Tests for Process Control and Product Acceptance of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements. Revised test threshold values were developed and are also presented in this report.

A training video is available to assist operators with properly conducting the tests.

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