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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27290.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27290.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27290.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27290.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27290.
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NCHRP Web-Only Document 372 Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan Brad W. Allen Kathryn A. Zimmerman Gregory M. Duncan Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Urbana, IL Rob Zilay Jeff Holabaugh Dye Management Group Bellevue, WA Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 23-08 Submitted October 2022 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 372 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Jennifer Weeks, Senior Program Officer Anthony Avery, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer Correro, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 23-08 PANEL Field of Administration—Area of Agency Administration Anita K. Bush, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City, NV (Chair) John H. Daly, Alpha Infrastructure Management Group, Flint, MI Christopher M. Diaczok, Maryland Department of Transportation, Hanover, MD Louis E. Feagans, Jr., Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, IN Ning Li, Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, VA Nadereh Moini, New Jersey Sports & Exposition Authority, Lyndhurst, NJ Patrick Norman, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Carthage, NC Ken Valentine, Vermont Agency of Transportation, Barre, VT Steven J. Wilcox, Mott MacDonald, Saratoga Springs, NY Morgan Kessler, FHWA Liaison

iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 1 Background ............................................................................................................................................... 1 Project Purpose and Objectives ............................................................................................................... 3 Research Approach ................................................................................................................................... 3 Organization of This Report ...................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 7 Summary of Current Knowledge .............................................................................................................. 7 Literature Search ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Peer Exchange Findings .......................................................................................................................... 20 Case Study Findings ................................................................................................................................ 33 CHAPTER 3 ............................................................................................................................................. 41 A Framework for Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a TAMP ......................................................... 41 Challenges to Incorporating Maintenance Costs in a TAMP .................................................................. 41 Framework Overview ............................................................................................................................. 41 Defining Maintenance ............................................................................................................................ 42 Data to Support Integrating Maintenance into a TAMP ........................................................................ 44 Incorporating Maintenance into Performance Predictions: Life-Cycle Planning, Gap Analysis, and Scenario Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 48 Incorporating Maintenance into Risk Management .............................................................................. 51 Incorporating Maintenance into Financial Plans .................................................................................... 53 Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies ........................................................................ 54 Implementation, Monitoring, and Continual Improvement .................................................................. 55 CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................................. 58 Implementation and Further Research .................................................................................................. 58 Implementation Plan .............................................................................................................................. 58 Future Research Needs and Enhancements ........................................................................................... 61 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 63 NCHR Web-Only Document 372 contains the conduct of research report for NCHRP Project 23-08 and accompanies NCHRP Research Report 1076: A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Readers can read or purchase NCHRP Research Report 1076 on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org).

v L I S T O F T A B L E S Table 1. Maintenance Strategies ................................................................................... 43 Table 2. Maintenance activity categories. ..................................................................... 44 L I S T O F F I G U R E S Figure 1. Framework for incorporating maintenance costs into a TAMP ....................... 42 Figure 2. TxDOT contract purchase order data collection process ............................... 45 Figure 3. Screenshot of QlikView. ................................................................................. 45 Figure 4. ALDOT condition assessment process. ......................................................... 47 Figure 5. MnDOT pavement patching models ............................................................... 48 Figure 6. MDOT SHA's triple bottom line risk-based decision-making approach .......... 52 Figure 7. Financial plan development process for maintenance costs. ......................... 53 Figure 8. Adjusted Steps for Investment Strategies ...................................................... 54 Figure 9. Maintenance management lifecycle ............................................................... 55 Figure 10. E-mail blast. ................................................................................................. 59

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Since 2018, state departments of transportation (DOTs) have been required to develop risk-based transportation asset management plans (TAMPs) and to update these plans every four years. However, the absence of maintenance cost data in a TAMP prevents agencies from fully capturing the total investment made to preserve and improve highway infrastructure assets.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 372: Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, documents research conducted to develop a framework that state DOTs and other transportation agencies can use to incorporate maintenance costs into their TAMP.

The document is supplemental to NCHRP Research Report 1076: A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan.

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