National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
×
Page 61
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
×
Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 7 - Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27291.
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Page 64

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55   Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies Investment Strategies Investment strategies are very closely connected with financial plans. Like financial plans, they are a required component of federally compliant TAMPs for state DOTs (23 USC 119). “Investment strategy means a set of strategies that result from evaluating various levels of funding to achieve State DOT targets for asset condition and system performance effectiveness at a minimum practicable cost while managing risks” (23 CFR 515.5). TAMPs are required to include investment strategies that address perfor- mance gaps, LCP, and risk management analysis [23 CFR 515.7(e)]. The antic- ipated costs to deliver the investment strategies for each year of the TAMP are also required to be included in the financial plan [23 CFR 515.7(d)(1)]. Delivery of maintenance has a crucial role in lowering life-cycle costs, risk management, and ensuring the safe operation of the highway system. The inclusion of maintenance costs in TAMPs facilitates a comprehensive understanding of the agency’s financial situation and investment strategies. Effective investment strategies provide a clear understanding of how the agency will use its funding to reach asset condition goals and minimize long-term costs while addressing risks. Investment strategies are important communication tools, informing external stakeholders and the public of how the agency intends to manage its assets given the situation and what the agency could do if its financial situation were to improve or worsen. Investment Strategy Development Process In an integrated TAM program, investment strategies are informed by the needs and challenges of planning, engineering, maintenance, and operations activities, which in turn are guided by the objectives of the financial plan. Investment strategies are developed using results from LCP, risk management, and performance gap analysis. They support agencies in understanding how individual investment decisions support the broader achievement of an agency’s asset condition, system performance, and capital expansion goals. The process for developing TAMP investment strategies has been well-documented through past research from FHWA (FHWA 2017a) and NCHRP Research Report 898 (Spy Pond Partners et al. 2019). While the overall process presented in NCHRP Research Report 898 applies to maintenance costs, as shown in the original steps listed in Table 7-1, it does not directly address the need to account for maintenance costs across multiple programming and budget allocation processes (Spy Pond Partners et al. 2019). C H A P T E R 7 Investment strategies describe how an agency will direct its available resources to implement its life cycle and risk management strategies. Although the level of investment in maintenance is typically much smaller than capital construction contracts, maintenance expenditures are essential to the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of the highway network. This chapter discusses key aspects of incorporating maintenance costs into the development and execution of effective investment strategies.

56 A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan One aspect of maintenance investment strategies that is not directly addressed in previous TAM guidance is the use of maintenance performance-based budgeting to support overall asset management investment strategies. The MQA performance-based budgeting practice, as described earlier in this Guide, is the primary means for connecting maintenance budget expenditures to asset and system performance and is therefore essential to the process of including maintenance costs in TAMP investment strategies. The processes presented in NCHRP Research Report 898 and FHWA guidance are largely focused on capital program strategies (Spy Pond Partners et al. 2019). As described earlier, maintenance can be performed through projects by contract or the delivery of services from maintenance field crews. Therefore, the process needs to be adjusted for maintenance activities that are not delivered through construction projects. This is usually done with data from MQA programs that are stored in an MMS. The last column of Table 7-1 presents adjusted steps in comparison to the process presented in NCHRP Research Report 898. The following subsections provide details on each of these steps. Step 1—Define the Role of Maintenance in Each Scenario Scenario planning supports the TAMP development by demonstrating the impact of different alternatives on future asset conditions and risks. Scenarios allow the TAMP to describe the potential impacts of current trends and potential risks on future asset conditions. By comparing various scenarios, an agency can better communicate the reasons for selecting the preferred investment strategy to be included in the TAMP. The preferred strategy is generally based on optimizing the use of funding under the most likely financial conditions. Scenarios may be constructed to represent potential changes in future funding, policies, or events. Funding scenarios are usually the easiest to represent in asset management systems. Policy changes may be modeled in a scenario by limiting the types of activities funding can be used to support. For example, a scenario could limit funding for maintenance or require funding to be spent only on rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. NCHRP Research Report 898 provides a list of typical scenarios found in TAMPs. These are designed to inform decisions related to TAMP policies and investment strategies. 1 Define investment scenarios Define the role of maintenance in each scenario 2 Identify current and planned projects Identify existing commitments to future investments in maintenance 3 Use management systems to predict future conditions Incorporate MMS and MQA data to improve predictions of future conditions 4 Perform initial budget allocations Perform initial budget allocations, including maintenance 5 Identify candidate projects Identify candidate projects and field crew capacity 6 Select projects Select projects and maintenance priorities for each scenario 7 Review prediction of future conditions Review predicted future conditions and predicted maintenance needs 8 Finalize funding levels by use Finalize funding levels by use 9 Perform gap assessment Document maintenance strategies for addressing performance gaps 10 Document assumptions and strategies Document assumptions and strategies Step Adjusted Steps NCHRP Research Report 898 Steps Table 7-1. Adjusted steps for developing investment strategies.

Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies 57   Including maintenance in scenario planning involves identifying the types of maintenance needs that will be required under each scenario and determining the type and number of maintenance activities that are needed. Maintenance activities are generally needed both to help achieve the forecasted conditions and to address system deficiencies if forecasted conditions do not meet the desired state of good repair. As asset conditions decline for a given asset class, the type—and possibly cost—of maintenance activities needed to manage that asset class can change significantly. For example, an inventory of bridges with the majority of structures in good condition and only a few structures in poor condition is likely to require significant preventive maintenance to extend service life and involve relatively few repairs. However, a bridge inventory with a considerable number of bridges in poor condition could require frequent repairs to keep bridges safe and in service. Agencies generally prioritize repairs that keep poor assets safe and functioning. Therefore, such repairs will tend to be funded prior to other work types. If a scenario forecasts an increase in the number of assets in poor condition, funding for maintenance repairs or routine main- tenance may need to be increased. If that funding is taken from other asset management work types, it could lead to an even greater number of assets in poor condition and possibly a need for additional maintenance funding. To support the incorporation of maintenance in each investment scenario, it is important to consider the role of each type of maintenance activity in each scenario. Some maintenance costs may stay constant in each scenario, while others may vary greatly. Step 2—Identify Existing Commitments to Future Investments in Maintenance In this step, the agency assesses the commitments already in place regarding future maintenance work. This requires understanding maintenance budget commitments as well as programmed and planned projects. Programmed projects are those that have committed funding, while planned projects may be in the development pipeline but have not received funding commitments. Generally, projects closer to delivery are programmed, while those further in the future are planned. Maintenance can be delivered by multiyear agree- ments, either with other government agencies or contractors. In these cases, executed maintenance agreements or contracts may establish future investment commitments. Developing investment strategies requires accounting for expected costs, including maintenance delivered through all possible mechanisms. Historical data can provide a basis for estimating future investments or can be used to establish unit costs. Unit costs can then be used to calculate the cost to meet different needed levels of accomplishments to achieve asset management or maintenance LOS (MLOS) targets. Step 3—Incorporate MMS and MQA Data to Improve Predictions of Future Conditions For major assets, this step involves running the asset management systems to predict future conditions for each scenario. Maintenance costs can be incorporated into this analysis at three points. Typical Scenarios • Funding that is estimated to be reasonably available • Funding required to achieve targets • Funding required to maintain asset value • Current funding level • Funding required to maintain current asset conditions and performance • Alternative funding levels • Consideration of selected risks Source: Spy Pond Partners et al. 2019.

58 A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan 1. Account for Assumed Maintenance Costs in an Asset Management System Analysis Pavement and bridge management systems forecast asset deterioration based on perfor- mance curves that are developed from historical data. In some cases, agencies are able to develop asset-specific performance curves. If agencies lack quality work history data, it may not be possible to model performance differently for assets that have received maintenance from those that have not. In these cases, the performance curves assume some level of maintenance is delivered, but the system may not account for the costs of that assumed maintenance. 2. Use Performance-Based Management to Estimate the Maintenance Needs of Ancillary Assets As described in Chapter 4, maintenance costs can be tied to performance models through an MQA or other performance data. This analysis is typically done using a simple spreadsheet or statistical analysis tools to develop maintenance cycles for ancillary assets. MDOT SHA has developed such a system and is expanding it to multiple ancillary assets. 3. Determine the Cost to Address Funding Gaps for Other Work Types Once the asset conditions have been forecasted, the resulting conditions can indicate changes in the type and level of maintenance activities that will be required. For example, if pavement conditions are expected to decline (meaning an increase in pavements rated in poor condition), this can be expected to lead to an increase in the need for pothole patching and other safety maintenance activities. Conversely, if pavement conditions are expected to improve, with more pavement rated in good condition, then pothole patching costs can be expected to decline, but crack sealing costs may be expected to increase. A similar shift from repairs and routine maintenance to preventive maintenance can be expected with improvements or declines in bridge conditions. Step 4—Perform Initial Budget Allocations, Including Maintenance Establishing initial budget allocations establishes the basis for trade-off analysis and the determination of the preferred investment levels in maintenance and other work types. To begin, the categories are established. Categories can be based on asset class, network, functional classi- fication, investment type (e.g., maintenance, rehabilitation), and/or by geographic location. When incorporating maintenance costs into a TAMP, including work type in the category definitions is helpful. Incorporating maintenance into budget categories requires an understanding of how main- tenance costs align with current budget categories and where misalignments may exist. Once the categories are established, initial allocations are assigned based on the expected level of performance from investments in each category. Identifying and quantifying the impact of main- tenance activities on the performance of pavements, bridges, and other assets are also critical. Cross-Asset Trade-Off This is the process of determining how to allocate funding across multiple types of assets or investments. At a minimum, this process defines how to allocate funds available for asset management uses between distinct asset classes. Agencies can make explicit trade-offs between assets (e.g., pavement versus bridge) or between investment types (e.g., system expansion versus preservation). Likewise, if an agency’s management system partitions the budget for a given asset class, then the process may include allocating resources across investment (e.g., treatment type) or network classification (e.g., NHS and non-NHS). Traditionally, cross-asset resource allocation

Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies 59   is addressed using informal methods in which a small group of decision makers arrives at a negotiated solution after subjectively reviewing the available data, often relying heavily on past precedent or formula allocations. In recent years transportation agencies have sought to use more structured approaches that make use of available data as well as to improve the documentation and reproducibility of their decisions. NCHRP Research Report 806: Guide to Cross-Asset Resource Allocation and the Impact on Transportation System Performance describes and classifies different cross-asset resource allocation approaches (Maggiore et al. 2015). Two structured approaches detailed in this report and used increasingly by state DOTs are multiobjective decision analysis (MODA—a decision-science approach consisting of using preferences to guide project selection through weighting, scaling, scoring, prioritization, and optimization techniques) and the Delphi method (Delphi techniques are structured group communication processes in which consensus on complex issues, where knowledge is uncertain and incomplete, is achieved by experts using an iterative process.). Example: Maryland Condition Assessment Reporting System Maryland Condition Assessment Reporting System (MCARS) is what MDOT SHA uses to conduct the annual condition data collection efforts for roadside assets. MCARS data is collected using windshield surveys while traveling at highway speeds. The data collection effort is a partnership between the central maintenance office, the district offices, and the maintenance shops. During the survey process, each asset element is assigned a pass/fail condition that MDOT SHA uses to support the state’s budgeting efforts, with the aid of historical expenditures and unit cost data. Roadside signs are an example of the challenge of using MCARS results to estimate maintenance needs. MDOT SHA is exploring using commercial off-the-shelf-based asset management software as an agency- wide asset management repository for some of its assets across multiple transportation business units (TBUs). To maximize the benefits of enhanced management software, MDOT SHA is also developing enterprise asset management software (EAMS) to coordinate asset management across multiple TBUs. The agency-maintained asset classes will still be managed in their respective systems. Therefore, the EAMS will only hold data elements that are common across all agency-maintained asset classes. As a result, the new EAMS will enhance MDOT SHA's cross-asset trade-off process. While MDOT SHA investigates which EAMS will best meet its needs, GIS-based tools are used to support business processes that will make it easy to transition to an enterprise system. Figure 7-1, a screenshot of MDOT SHA’s current traffic barrier operations dashboard, illustrates the functionality that is planned to eventually reside in MDOT SHA's EAMS, showing how MDOT SHA collects, houses, manages, and analyzes its traffic barriers inventory. SOURCE: MDOT SHA. Figure 7-1. Illustration of MDOT SHA's EAMS.

60 A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan Cross-Program Trade-Off In cross-program trade-offs, agencies apply the same principles of MODA to determine how to balance funding between different programmatic objectives or performance areas such as safety, asset conditions, and system performance. Maintenance work can play a key role in accomplishing each performance area. As described in Chapter 4, the relationship between the maintenance costs, accomplishments, and resulting performance will be needed to allow for effective trade-off. It may be necessary to associate each maintenance with a specific program. This is because some maintenance activities may impact multiple programs. In some cases, there is a clear con- nection between an activity and a program, e.g., pothole patch or bridge deck sealing. However, many roadside maintenance activities impact multiple program areas. For example, roadside vegetation control benefits both drainage (pavement life cycle) and safety. For this reason, it may be necessary to collectively consider maintenance costs that are not tied to a specific asset as a separate program area. NDOT’s MQA program allows the agency to consider these types of maintenance costs as a separate program and determines the impacts of different levels of funding on the agency’s ability to achieve MLOS goals. Example: NDOT’s Maintenance Quality Assurance Program Since 2012, NDOT has collected asset inventory and condition data collection by leveraging a “boots on the ground” approach. NDOT has also recently implemented a new MMS that supports performance- based budgeting and helps ensure accurate maintenance cost and accomplishment data. Since the program’s implementation, NDOT has hired a full-time employee to lead the MQA effort. The MQA lead is tasked with identifying one thousand 0.1-mile survey samples, assessing all the samples, and developing LOS scorecards. Survey condition data is recorded using ArcGIS Collector. Survey locations are viewable in ArcGIS and live updates of survey progress can be reported, as shown in Figure 7-2. Survey locations shown in red dots in the ArcGIS output (855, 520, and 866 on the map) indicate a completed survey, and green dots in the ArcGIS output (539 on the map) indicate surveys to be completed. SOURCE: NDOT. Figure 7-2. NDOT condition survey status map. NDOT uses the MQA results for its own information, but the results are not tied directly to funding. Consistent asset condition data collection enables an agency like NDOT to identify trends over time. Figure 7-3 provides an example of this trend analysis from previous asset condition assessments.

Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies 61   Step 5—Identify Candidate Projects and Field Crew Capacity With the budget allocated and current projects accounted for, the next step is to identify potential means of using the remaining budget to achieve the asset management objectives and address risks. For maintenance work, this often includes both contract and field crews. This will typically be an iterative process in which contracted maintenance projects are identified and then the remaining maintenance needs are met with field crew capacity. This process may identify adjustments in the type of maintenance to be delivered by field crews as compared to prior years. If this is the case, it is important to return to an assessment of capacity to determine whether the field crews possess the necessary equipment, tools, materials, and knowledge to deliver the needed work. If not, steps will need to be taken to properly resource the crews or shift some maintenance activities from field crews to maintenance by contract, allowing the field crews to deliver the work for which they are resourced. SOURCE: NDOT. Figure 7-3. NDOT LOS score trend.

62 A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan Step 6—Select Projects and Maintenance Priorities for Each Scenario It is likely that the list of commitments identified in Step 2 and candidate projects identified in Step 5 exceed available funding. To develop the preferred investment strategy, it may be necessary to evaluate several scenarios at each investment level that represent ways to prioritize the use of funding. This may increase the number of scenarios identified in Step 1. Evaluating an array of scenarios provides an understanding of the threats or opportunities related to changes in funding and provides insight into how maintenance needs might change. Selecting projects to fulfill each scenario is described in NCHRP Research Report 898 (Spy Pond Partners et al. 2019). Typically, projects are selected to maximize progress toward agency targets, maximize user benefits, and minimize life-cycle agency costs, subject to budget con- straints. The MODA approach is suitable if the optimum is selected for fewer, more broadly defined categories. In other cases, districts or regions should select projects based on their knowledge of localized factors in conjunction with guidance on agency objectives and life-cycle policies. There are additional concerns that should be considered when incorporating maintenance costs. It is important to consult maintenance managers in this process. Maintenance managers can provide insights into the best use of maintenance funds and the best means of delivering specific maintenance activities. Maintenance managers can provide specific insights regarding trade-offs, such as: • Determining the priority of commitments to maintenance versus other work types. It is unlikely that any scenario will omit a specific work type. However, it may be necessary to revisit steps to assess the relative priorities across budget categories, particularly for scenarios with reduced funding levels. • Considering the impacts of reducing maintenance by contract projects versus expectations of agency maintenance crews. In some cases, maintenance projects that are not selected will simply lead to an unmet maintenance need. However, in other cases, the maintenance activities in that candidate project may be considered high enough priority that maintenance managers would redirect field crews to deliver that work. In these cases, removing the project from a scenario will not necessarily lead to the desired savings and may result in other work that is assumed to be done by field crews going undone or needing to be delivered by some other means, such as standby emergency projects, which are often more expensive per unit of accomplishment. To evaluate these scenarios, the committed projects are entered into the relevant asset man- agement systems, and those systems are allowed to determine the best means of using any remaining available funding. If a scenario does not provide sufficient funding to include all current commitments, the system can be run without any commitments. This allows for a com- parison between committed projects and recommended projects that can be used to understand how commitments can be prioritized within the reduced budget. For scenarios that can address the committed projects but not all candidates, develop scenarios that represent different sets of priorities. These could include • Optimizing the conditions of a specific asset class, • Balancing funding between assets, • Prioritizing maintenance and preservation, • Minimizing specific risks, and • Prioritizing work on assets in poor condition.

Incorporating Maintenance into Investment Strategies 63   Step 7—Review Predicted Future Conditions and Predicted Maintenance Needs At this point, several scenarios have likely been identified as possibilities for using the avail- able funding for contracts. Each of those scenarios will have different impacts on conditions and therefore different maintenance needs. Scenarios resulting in improved conditions for a given asset class will increase the need for preventive maintenance of that asset class. Scenarios that result in deteriorated conditions may require additional resources to be dedicated to repairs or routine maintenance to keep the system safely operating. Further, changes in condition and resulting changes in maintenance needs could require investment in different types of equipment or training to ensure the needed maintenance can be delivered in a timely manner and provides the desired results. According to NCHRP Research Report 898, “With the new list of projects, repeat Step 3 to re-run your management systems to obtain revised predictions of future conditions for each scenario” (Spy Pond et al. 2019). Each set of projects that is analyzed with the asset management systems could result in different maintenance needs, and there could be more than one way of addressing those maintenance needs. Addressing those needs may lead to changes in selected projects and additional scenarios to be run. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to select a scenario or combination of scenarios that best meets the needs of the system and provides the best use of maintenance resources. Step 8—Finalize Funding Levels by Use The result of Steps 6 and 7 is a set of scenarios that have inputs representing different funding levels, priorities, and outputs representing resulting conditions, risks, and maintenance needs. In this step, the scenario results are evaluated to determine the best level and mix of funding. This may require a return to the trade-off practices of Step 4. This process requires more than reviewing resulting asset conditions and determining which scenario provides the best overall conditions or the best trade-off between assets. Maintenance managers will likely need to be consulted to develop an understanding of the impact on their resources to deliver the maintenance needed by each scenario. By involving maintenance managers at this step, changes to the maintenance budget can be identified to address the maintenance needs of the selected scenario. This could include short-term changes, such as increasing the budget for rental equipment needed for specific work or long-term changes such as altering the fleet pattern to support a commitment to delivering a specific maintenance activity. Main- tenance managers may also be able to identify opportunities to change the types of maintenance activities delivered by contract and field crews. An example of this is described in Chapter 5 for NYSDOT’s bridge maintenance program. The final funding levels can be represented in the TAMP based on the five required work types of initial construction, maintenance, preservation, rehabilitation, and reconstruction (23 CFR 515). With an understanding of the maintenance need from the selected scenario, maintenance costs can be summarized following the process described in Chapter 4. Step 9—Document Maintenance Strategies for Addressing Performance Gaps In Steps 7 and 8, the maintenance needs for the selected investment scenario were identi- fied, and strategies were developed for addressing those needs through contracted maintenance and agency crews. While the costs are captured in a table of planned expenditures, the TAMP

64 A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan should also include a description of the purpose, priorities, expected accomplishments, and expected impact of the maintenance investments. This narrative should describe how the main- tenance strategy recognizes and addresses the risks and opportunities presented by the preferred investment strategy. Information could include the following on how to address maintenance investments: • Change asset conditions, either improvements or declines. • Deliver maintenance activities through the most cost-effective means. • Use maintenance resources to mitigate specific risks or vulnerabilities. • Determine the role of maintenance in supporting system resilience. Step 10—Document Assumptions and Strategies The final step is to document the work performed through the previous 9 steps. The following information should be considered specific to the inclusion of maintenance costs. • Investment scenarios. In documenting the investment scenarios defined in Step 1, note the level of funding each one assumes for maintenance activities and why it was decided to be included in the scenario analysis. This may involve dedicated maintenance budgets as well as maintenance projects. • Projects. Document the current planned maintenance projects and other commitments identified in Step 2. Also, describe the maintenance needs resulting from each of the invest- ment scenarios. • Allocation approach. Document how funding was allocated to address the maintenance needs. How were maintenance managers involved in the process? • Prioritization approach. Document how maintenance costs were prioritized both as inputs to scenarios and then adjusted to account for the maintenance needs based on resulting asset conditions and risks. How was maintenance incorporated into cross-asset or cross-program optimization?

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Since 2018, State departments of transportation (DOTs) have been required to develop risk-based transportation asset management plans (TAMPs) and to update processes for developing these plans every four years. To date, several DOTs have described challenges in showing clear connections between maintenance investments and asset condition.

NCHRP Research Report 1076: A Guide to Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, leads practitioners through a six-part framework designed to tackle the biggest challenges agencies face in projecting future maintenance costs in TAMP activities. Supplemental to the report is a pocket guide.

Supplemental to the report are NCHRP Web-Only Document 372: Incorporating Maintenance Costs into a Transportation Asset Management Plan, an Executive Summary, an Implementation Memorandum, an Overview Presentation, and a Publication Announcement.

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