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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27296.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27296.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27296.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27296.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27296.
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NCHRP Web-Only Document 342 Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation CONDUCT OF RESEARCH REPORT Conor Semler Sarah Searcy Meredyth Sanders Steve Bert Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Ishtiak Ahmed Boston, MA Chase Nichols North Carolina State University Institute Rebecca Sanders for Transportation Research and Safe Streets Research & Consulting Education Portland, OR Raleigh, NC Mary Elbech Mobycon Durham, NC Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 15-78 Submitted September 2022 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

COOPERATI VE RESEAR CH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 342 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Dianne Schwager, Senior Program Officer Dajaih Bias-Johnson, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer Correro, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 15-78 PANEL Field of Design—Area of General Design Celeste A. Gilman, Washington State Department of Transportation, Seattle, WA (Chair) Al Beatty, CALSTART, Brooklyn, NY Antonette C. Clark, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA Michelle L. Danila, Toole Design, Boston, MA Nnenna April Eke, Walter P Moore, Dallas, TX Jeremy W. Fletcher, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL (Deceased) Karla J. Kingsley, City of Portland (OR) Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR Peter Ohlms, Virginia Department of Transportation, Charlottesville, VA Elizabeth Hilton, FHWA Liaison Clayton Wellman, FHWA Liaison Patricia Bush, AASHTO Liaison DEDICATION The authors would like to pay tribute to Jeremy Fletcher. Jeremy was an important contributor on the NCHRP Project 15-78 Panel and had an enormous impact on our research. His perspective challenged us and guided the development of our work. At team meetings, we would frequently ask ourselves, “What would Jeremy think?” to evaluate a new idea. His commitment to the research and candid feedback made our products better.

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables and Figures ...................................................................................................................vi Summary ............................................................................................................................................ 1 Research Report Organization ....................................................................................................... 1 Purpose of NCHRP Project 15-78 ................................................................................................... 1 Research Approach......................................................................................................................... 1 Findings and Application ................................................................................................................ 2 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1: Background ...................................................................................................................... 4 Research Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 4 Research Objective ......................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 2: Research Approach .......................................................................................................... 6 Phase 1............................................................................................................................................ 6 Phase 2 ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 3: Findings and Application ................................................................................................ 10 3A. Literature Review ................................................................................................................... 10 3B. Agency Peer Exchange ........................................................................................................... 13 3C. Execution of Research Plans .................................................................................................. 21 Decision-Making Framework Development ................................................................................ 40 Chapter 4: Summary and Suggested Research................................................................................ 44 Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 44 Suggested Research...................................................................................................................... 45 Appendix A: Literature Review......................................................................................................... 47 Appendix B: Agency Peer Exchange Meeting Notes...................................................................... 130 Appendix C: Case Study Summary Memorandum......................................................................... 205 Appendix D: Decision Support Matrix ............................................................................................ 351 NCHRP Web-Only Document 342 contains the conduct of research report for NCHRP Project 15-78 and accompanies NCHRP Research Report 1036: Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: A Guide. Readers can read or purchase NCHRP Research Report 1036 on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org). iv

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1. Representative Findings ..................................................................................................... 11 Table 2: Case Study Locations .......................................................................................................... 22 Table 3: Somerville, MA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ...................................... 25 Table 4: Arlington, VA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary .......................................... 26 Table 5: Richmond, VA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ........................................ 28 Table 6: Richmond, VA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ........................................ 29 Table 7: Tampa, FL Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary............................................... 30 Table 8: Oakland, CA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ........................................... 31 Table 9: San Francisco, CA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ................................... 32 Table 10: Seattle, WA Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary .......................................... 33 Table 11: Minneapolis, MN Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ................................. 34 Table 12: Washington, DC Reallocation Project Analysis Results Summary ................................... 35 Figure 1. Example Intersection Assessment Comparison ............................................................... 38 Table 13. Example Intersection Assessment Comparison Measures .............................................. 38 Figure 2. Cross-Section Decision-Making Framework ..................................................................... 41 vi

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Trade-offs between uses of roadway cross sections are understood through a variety of lenses, from safety and operations to comfort and mode choice. Estimates of the impacts of cross-section decision-making on outcome measures include environmental, equity, and economy.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 342: Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: Conduct of Research Report, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, is supplemental to NCHRP Research Report 1036: Roadway Cross-Section Reallocation: A Guide.

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