National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27300.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2023 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1071 Application of Big Data Approaches for Trafc Incident Management Kelley Klaver Benjamin B. Pecheux AEM Corporation Herndon, VA Grady Carrick Enforcement Engineering, Inc. Ponte Vedra Beach, FL Keith Smith Oi Yee Liu Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. Waterford, MA Subscriber Categories Data and Information Technology • Operations and Trafc Management • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1071 Project 03-138 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-69920-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2023945787 © 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1071 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Trey Joseph Wadsworth, Senior Program Officer Mazen Alsharif, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Lisa Whittington, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-138 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control Melissa Lynn Clark, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA (Chair) Majed N. Al-Ghandour, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC Brenda Bustillos, Texas Department of Transportation, Houston, TX Jojo France-Mensah, Boston Consulting Group, Wylie, TX Eric J. Hemphill, North Texas Tollway Authority, Plano, TX Dave L. Huft, South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre, SD Dawn A. Miller, Michigan Department of Transportation, Pinckney, MI Kelli Raboy, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Srinath Krishna Ravulaparthy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pasadena, CA Eileen M. G. Singleton, Baltimore Metropolitan Council (BMC), Baltimore, MD Paul Jodoin, FHWA Liaison Victor T. Hom, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Liaison Robert Thomas White, AASHTO Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1071 applies the guidelines presented in NCHRP Research Report 904: Leveraging Big Data to Improve Traffic Incident Management to validate the feasibility and value of the big data approach for Traffic Incident Management (TIM) among transportation and other responder agencies. NCHRP Research Report 1071 also documents application chal- lenges and provides tools and techniques to overcome these challenges. This report will be of immediate interest to state and local transportation planners and decision-makers as they seek to understand big data approaches and associated tools. Big data is evolving and maturing rapidly, and much attention has been focused on the opportunities that big data may provide state departments of transportation (DOTs) in man- aging their transportation networks. Using big data could help state and local transportation officials achieve system reliability and safety goals, among others. However, challenges for DOTs include how to use the data and in what situations, such as how and when to access data, identify staff resources to prepare and maintain data, or integrate data into existing or new tools for analysis. Research was needed to document issues and demonstrate the feasibility and value of big data approaches for state DOTs and other agencies to enhance operations and TIM programs. Under NCHRP Project 03-138, “Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management (TIM),” AEM Corporation was asked to (1) demonstrate the feasibility and practical value of big data approaches to improve TIM and (2) provide guidelines, including techniques and tools, to address the findings and recommendations of NCHRP Research Report 904. The research team developed four use cases that exhibit applications of big data in TIM, as well as guidelines on how transportation officials might anticipate and navigate known challenges. In addition to the final report, published as NCHRP Research Report 1071, Appendix A through Appendix P on assessments of the use cases, a research results presentation, and an implementation memo are available on the National Academies Press website (nap. nationalacademies.org) by searching for NCHRP Research Report 1071: Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management. F O R E W O R D By Trey Joseph Wadsworth Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Research Objectives 3 1.2 Organization of Report 4 Chapter 2 Gather Information and Data and Define Use Cases 4 2.1 Conduct Interviews with Partners and Data Providers 6 2.2 Define Use Cases 8 Chapter 3 Datasets and Data Quality 8 3.1 Approach 10 3.2 Results 37 Chapter 4 TIM Big Data Use Cases 39 4.1 Use Case 1: Improving Incident Detection and Verification to Expedite Response 46 4.2 Use Case 2: Real-Time TIM Timeline and Performance Measures 54 4.3 Use Case 3: Understanding Secondary Crashes 63 4.4 Use Case 4: Exploratory Analysis of Third-Party CV Data for Crash Detection 71 Chapter 5 Estimated Costs of Cloud Environments and Data Pipelines 72 5.1 Estimated Cost of Data Sources for TIM Big Data Environments and Pipelines 73 5.2 Estimated Cost of Data Storage, Processing, and Analysis for TIM Big Data Environments and Pipelines 74 5.3 Estimated Costs of Data Products 78 Chapter 6 TIM Big Data Guidelines 79 6.1 Data Acquisition and Quality 83 6.2 Data Environment, Platform, and Architecture 84 6.3 Data Management 85 6.4 Data Processing, Tools, and Mining Techniques 87 6.5 Data Pipeline Development and Operations Costs 88 6.6 Data Sharing 89 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 89 7.1 Conclusions 91 7.2 Recommended Next Steps 93 References and Bibliography 95 Acronyms and Abbreviations 97 Appendices C O N T E N T S

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Big data is evolving and maturing rapidly, and much attention has been focused on the opportunities that big data may provide state departments of transportation (DOTs) in managing their transportation networks. Using big data could help state and local transportation officials achieve system reliability and safety goals, among others. However, challenges for DOTs include how to use the data and in what situations, such as how and when to access data, identify staff resources to prepare and maintain data, or integrate data into existing or new tools for analysis.

NCHRP Research Report 1071: Application of Big Data Approaches for Traffic Incident Management, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, applies the guidelines presented in NCHRP Research Report 904: Leveraging Big Data to Improve Traffic Incident Management to validate the feasibility and value of the big data approach for Traffic Incident Management (TIM) among transportation and other responder agencies.

Supplemental to the report are Appendix A through Appendix P, which detail findings from traditional and big data sources for the TIM use cases; a PowerPoint presentation of the research results; and an Implementation Memo.

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