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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 258 The Evolution of Knowledge Management at Airports Frances D. Harrison Spy Pond Partners, LLC Arlington, MA Katherine Preston Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, Inc. Burlington, MA Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Administration and Management Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration 2023
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 258 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- Project 01-49 tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with ISSN 2572-374X (Online) other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- ISBN 978-0-309-70920-0 aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state Library of Congress Control Number 2023947925 and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is Â© 2023 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- published or copyrighted material used herein. cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. Cover photo credit: Aerial view of the airfield at Long Beach in California. iStock/Gannet77 ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight NOTICE Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the program sponsors. TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published research reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. are available from Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, and can be ordered through the Internet by going to training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 258 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-49 PANEL Field of Administration Ann B. Richart, Washington State Department of Transportation, Tumwater, WA (Chair) Shelly Lesikar deZevallos, West Houston Airport, Houston, TX Andy Entrekin, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX Jeanette Saunders, Airport Minority Advisory Council, Shaker Heights, OH Chris White, Albert J. Ellis Airport, Richlands, NC Craig Williams, Kalamazoo/Battle Creek International Airport, Kalamazoo, MI Christina Nutting, FAA Liaison Qinya Pang, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Claire E. Randall, TRB Liaison
FOREWORD By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Research Report 258: The Evolution of Knowledge Management at Airports is a resource that airports can use to help mitigate the loss of institutional knowledge when employees change jobs or retire. Knowledge management (KM) techniques and practices can be employed to identify, capture, organize, and transfer institutional knowledge. KM can also help airports adapt to a change or a disruption in the operating environment by proÂ actively planning for and facilitating the learning processes needed for successful adaptation. This report explains how KM can benefit airports and how to get started. Any individual seeking to implement continuous learning and knowledge transfer, whether for an entire orga- nization or a department, will find the report useful. Industry-wide, airports are experiencing disruptive and continuous changes that include the rapid introduction of new technology, financial constraints, retirements, and the need to replace seasoned veterans. These changes are compounded by a diminishing pipeline of individuals interested in working at airports. KM is the process of sharing information and know-how within an organization to sustain or increase efficiency in the face of continual changes. KM also allows for improved decision making, based on experience, and a stream- lined process for onboarding new employees. The research team, led by Spy Pond Partners, LLC, began by determining the state of KM practice at airports by reviewing literature and conducting interviews. This led to the identi- fication of use cases that further informed the content and structure of the report. The team concluded its research by conducting pilot implementations at airports of various sizes. This report can benefit airports of all sizes and can be implemented for the enterprise or an individual department and scaled later.
CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1âIntroduction 3 Why Is a Guide on Airport Knowledge Management Needed? 3 For Whom Is This Guide Intended? 4 Chapter 2â KM for Airports 4 What Is KM? 6 Why KM? 9 Chapter 3â Implementing KM 9 Plan 24 Implement 29 Monitor and Refine 31 Chapter 4â KM Techniques 31 KM Implementation Planning 33 Knowledge Capture, Documentation, and Reuse 35 Person-to-Person Knowledge Transfer and Learning 38 Information Management 39 Workforce Management 41 Learning Culture 44 Appendix Aâ Resources for KM Implementation Planning 53 Appendix BâResources for Knowledge Capture, Documentation, and Reuse 66 Appendix CâResource for Person-to-Person Knowledge Transfer and Learning 67 Appendix Dâ Resource for Information Management 74 Appendix Eâ Resource for Workforce Management 75 Appendix FâLearning Culture: Case Study on Improving Efficiency Through Lean Six Sigma and KM at Columbus Regional Airport Authority 81 References 83 Bibliography Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.