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Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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55 CHAPTER 3. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND PERFORMANCE DATA OF FIELD SECTIONS IDENTIFIED IN NCHRP 09-57 INTRODUCTION Field validation is a crucial step in the adoption of laboratory cracking tests for mix design, quality control, and quality acceptance. The research team of Project 09-57 identified two major sources of field test sections for validating laboratory cracking tests: the LTPP program and MnROAD. Seven years have elapsed since the identification of those field sections in 2015. During the intervening time, many activities occurred. For example, MnROAD had another phase of construction in 2017. Therefore, it is critical to assess whether the materials, performance data, and necessary information from both LTPP and MnROAD field sections are still available for the validation efforts. This chapter documents the assessment findings. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND PERFORMANCE DATA OF 2008 MNROAD FIELD SECTIONS In 2015, NCHRP 09-57 identified nine MnROAD field sections for validating laboratory tests for thermal cracking and fatigue cracking. Of these nine sections, one is an MnROAD low- volume road 2008 section (Cell 24); six are MnROAD I-94 mainline 2008 sections (Cells 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, and 21); and two are cells in the MnROAD Stockpile Area for 2007 sections (Cells 83 and 84). The assessment of these field sections includes four major aspects: (1) availability of mix design information, (2) availability of materials, (3) availability of performance data, and (4) the availability of other necessary information (e.g., climate, pavement structure, and traffic). Detailed information is presented below. Availability of Mix Design Information of MnROAD Field Sections Reviewing the mix design information and the construction report, the researchers assembled the following details regarding the asphalt mixtures of these nine test sections. Cells 15–18 and 24 The asphalt mixes for these five test sections were designed with a Level 4 Superpave mix using a PG 58-34 asphalt binder and 20 percent RAP for a traffic level of 3–10 million ESALs. The aggregates and RAP proportions are listed in Table 33. Moreover, Cells 15–18 constructed on the MnROAD I-94 mainline had WMA with Evotherm 3G technology. In contrast, Cell 24 was a regular HMA section located on an MnROAD low-volume road.

56 Table 33. Aggregates and RAP Used in Cells 15–18 and 24. Proportions Pit Source of Material Specific Gravity 40% 73006 Martin Marietta St Cloud Washed Sand (Granite) 2.682 25% 73006 Martin Marietta St Cloud ½" Washed Chips (Granite) 2.731 15% 05056 Loken ¾" Rock 2.742 20% Mn/RD Crushed Millings 2.630 Cells 20–21 These two test sections had a Level 4 Superpave mix (3–10 million ESALs) with a PG 58-28 binder and 30 percent RAP. No WMA additive was used in Cells 20 and 21. The only difference between Cells 20 and 21 is RAP fractionation. Although the RAP itself was the same, the RAP used in Cell 20 was not fractionated. In contrast, the RAP included in Cell 21 was fractionated. Table 34 presents the aggregates and RAP proportions used in Cells 20 and 21. Table 34. Aggregates and RAP Used in Cells 20 and 21. Proportions Pit Source of Material Specific Gravity 35% 73006 Martin Marietta St Cloud Washed Sand (Granite) 2.682 20% 73006 Martin Marietta St Cloud ½" Washed Chips (Granite) 2.731 15% 05056 Loken ¾" Rock 2.742 30% Mn/RD Crushed Millings 2.630 Cells 83 and 84 These two field sections were originally designed for evaluating the impact of farm equipment on pavement performance. The only difference in the asphalt layers between these two cells was layer thickness. Cell 83 had a 3.5-inch asphalt layer, while Cell 84 was constructed with a 5.5-inch asphalt layer. A Level 3 Superpave virgin HMA with a PG 58-34 binder for a traffic level of 1–3 million ESALs was used in both test sections. Table 35 describes the aggregates and their portions for the asphalt mixture of Cells 83 and 84. Table 35. Aggregates Used in Cells 83 and 84. Proportions Pit Source of Material Specific Gravity 48% 71059 Barton Elk River #2 BA ¾" 2.642 8% 71002 Barton Elk River #1 Washed Sand 2.657 24% 19106 Kraemer Burnsville 9/16" Clear (Limestone) 2.683 20% 71059 Kraemer Burnsville Washed Sand (Limestone) 2.706 Availability of Asphalt Materials of the 2008 MnROAD Field Sections As seen in Chapter 2, either plant mixtures, laboratory mixtures from the raw materials, or field cores may be used for validating laboratory cracking tests. Each type of material has its pros and cons. For example, laboratory mixtures will be preferred if the focus is mainly on the balanced mix design in the laboratory. The researchers explored the availability of all three types of materials. Since LTPP InfoPave™ has no information regarding material availability from the

57 2008 MnROAD field sections, the researchers requested that MnROAD staff provide such information. The MnROAD staff provided the status of the raw materials and plant mixtures for each section. Table 36 and Table 37 show the raw materials’ availability of all nine cells, and Table 38 describes the status of plant mixtures. No field cores are available since the 2008 MnROAD field sections were completely removed in 2017. Table 36. Raw Materials’ Availability of the 2008 MnROAD: Cells 15–18, 20, 21, and 24. Raw materials Cell 15 Cell 16 Cell 17 Cell 18 Cell 20 Cell 21 Cell 24 Asphalt binder (gallons) 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 Evotherm 3G WMA additive 0 0 0 0 Not applicable Martin Marietta St Cloud washed sand (Granite) Around 5 yards of this material is available. The stockpile is overgrown with grass, but it could be cleaned up. Martin Marietta St Cloud ½" washed chips (Granite) Around 5 yards of this material is available. The stockpile is overgrown with grass, but it could be cleaned up. Loken ¾" rock None of Loken ¾" rock is available. This material was only used in 2008. Mn/RD crushed millings Around 5 yards of this material is available. The stockpile is overgrown with grass, but it could be cleaned up. Table 37. Raw Materials’ Availability of the 2008 MnROAD: Cells 83 and 84. Raw materials Cell 83 Cell 84 Asphalt Binder (gallons) 0 0 Barton Elk River #2 BA ¾" MnROAD staff is unsure of the materials in the stockpile area; There may have been either 3 or 4 of these materials. It is necessary to do some lab testing to confirm the compositions. These stockpiles are overgrown with grass and not in the best condition, but they could be cleaned up. Each available stockpile has around 5 yards of material. Barton Elk River #1 Washed Sand Kraemer Burnsville 9/16" Clear (Limestone) Kraemer Burnsville Washed Sand (Limestone) Table 38. Plant Mixtures’ Availability of the 2008 MnROAD Field Sections. Sections Cell 15 Cell 16 Cell 17 Cell 18 Cell 20 Cell 21 Cell 24 Cell 83 Cell 84 # of 3.5 gallon buckets 16 22 24 21 10 2 4 6 5 Availability of Performance Data of the 2008 MnROAD Field Sections The performance history of each 2008 MnROAD test section was well recorded and later stored in the FHWA LTPP InfoPave™ database. Detailed performance data can be found under the category of non-LTPP: MnROAD Data, as shown in Figure 33. Since the main purpose of assessing performance data is to validate laboratory cracking tests, the research team focused on extracting HMA transverse cracking and fatigue cracking

58 data for each field test section. Appendix A documents the detailed performance data from these nine MnROAD field sections. As an example, Figure 34 shows the transverse cracking and fatigue cracking performance of the Cell 15 section. As noted previously, Cell 24 was located on the MnROAD low-volume road to study effects of aging on asphalt pavements, while Cells 83 and 84 were constructed in the materials stockpile area for the primary purpose of determining pavement responses generated by various types of agricultural vehicles under the pooled fund study “Effects of Implements of Husbandry (Farm Equipment) on Pavement Performance,” which was completed on December 1, 2011. After the completion of the pooled fund study, Cells 83 and 84 were eliminated from further study. Figure 33. FHWA LTPP InfoPave™: Non-LTPP Test Sections.

59 (a) Transverse Cracking vs. Time (b) Fatigue Cracking vs. Time Figure 34. Cell 15 of MnROAD Test Section: Cracking Data from the Driving Lane. Availability of Other Necessary Information of the 2008 MnROAD Field Sections In addition to materials and pavement performance data, three more types of information are necessary to validate laboratory cracking tests and develop acceptance criteria: climate, pavement structure, and traffic information. For climate information, MnROAD has a well-

60 organized weather station database, and Table 39 presents the information included in the MnROAD weather database. Such information is enough for future validation work. Table 39. Description of Items Included in MnROAD Weather Database. Field Name Description DAY Date HOUR Hour of the day (0–23) QHR Quarter hour (0, 1, 2, 3) AIR_TEMP_DEG-C Air temp (Celsius) ATMOS_PRES-MBARS Atmospheric pressure (millibars) PRECIP_100TH_INCH Heated rain gauge precipitation (100th inch) REL_HUMIDITY_PCT Relative humidity (percent) NET_RADIATION_W_PER_M_SQUARED Net radiation (watts/square meter) NET_SHORTWAVE_W_PER_M_SQUARED Net shortwave radiation (watts/square meter) NET_LONGWAVE_W_PER_M_SQUARED Net longwave radiation (watts/square meter) WIND_GEGREES_FROM-NORTH Wind direction (degrees from north) AVG_WIND_SPEED_M_PER_SEC Wind average speed (meter/second) MAX_WND_GUST_M_PER_SEC Wind max gust (meter/second) GUST_DEGREES_FROM_NORTH Wind gust direction (degrees from north) Pavement structure has a significant impact on performance, especially on fatigue cracking. Appendix B presents the pavement structures of the MnROAD field sections. As an example, the pavement structure for Cells 15–18 is shown in Table 40.

61 Table 40. Pavement Structural Information from MnROAD Field Sections: Cells 15–18. Test Section Layer No. Type Thickness (in) Description Construction Date Cell 15 1 SG — Clay Subgrade July 1992 2 AC Layer 11 PG 64-22 HMA July 1992 3 Int. Layer 0.5 Microsurface Aug. 2003 4 Int. Layer 0.5 Microsurface Aug. 2004 5 AC Layer 1.5 PG 58-34 WMA w/ 20% RAP Sept. 2008 6 AC Layer 1.5 PG 58-34 WMA w/ 20% RAP Sept. 2008 Furthermore, the researchers also assembled traffic loading information in accumulated ESALs of 18 kips from the MnROAD field test sections, as presented in Table 41 and Table 42. Unfortunately, there is no traffic (farm equipment) information available for Cells 83 and 84, which limits the use of Cells 83 and 84 for validating laboratory cracking tests.

62 Table 41. Traffic Data from MnROAD Field Sections: Cells 15–18 and 20–21. Survey Date Accumulated ESALs 11/19/2008 109,091 3/19/2009 342,368 9/16/2009 588,113 4/2/2010 993,425 9/17/2010 1,154,076 4/11/2011 1,540,951 6/20/2011 1,597,566 9/28/2011 1,655.464 4/26/2012 2,028,319 9/24/2012 2,340,212 9/24/2013 2,953,518 5/8/2014 3,408,207 10/27/14 3,746,216 5/13/2015 4,231,061 10/6/2015 4,548,058 2/29/2016 4,916,647 4/25/2016 5,633,590 Table 42. Traffic Data of MnROAD Field Section: Cell 24. Survey Date Accumulated ESALs 11/20/2008 0 3/19/2009 2081 9/10/2009 4191 4/13/2010 8412 9/24/2010 10,882 4/25/2011 15,628 10/27/2011 16,876 4/26/2012 21,298 10/3/2012 24,239 9/27/2013 30,877 3/27/2014 34,795 5/7/2015 45,042 10/21/2015 47,160 3/1/2016 50,347

63 Overall Assessment of MnROAD Field Sections Table 43 summarizes the availability of MnROAD field sections in terms of performance data (transverse cracking and fatigue cracking), climate, pavement structure, traffic, plant mixtures, and raw materials. It is apparent that most information is available for MnROAD field sections. However, some of the raw materials used to produce those field sections are not available. To address the missing raw materials, the researchers suggest two options, as described below. • Option 1: Identification of alternative field sections. • Option 2: Use of plant mixtures. Plant mixtures are available for each identified MnROAD field section, and they represent the mixtures that were placed on the 2007/2008 MnROAD field sections. However, significant aging for these plant mixtures may have occurred over the last 13 years. Past experience has shown a significant difference between fresh plant mixtures (less than 1–2 years old) and shelf-aged plant mixtures. The longer the plant mixtures are stored, the stiffer they become. These 13-year-old plant mixtures can be used for validating cracking tests, but it is difficult to use them to establish acceptance criteria due to different aging conditions from laboratory-mixed, laboratory-compacted (LMLC) specimens. Furthermore, it will be difficult to compare the test results of these MnROAD plant mixtures with those of the LTPP LMLC or plant mixtures. Thus, caution should be exercised when using these or any other shelf-aged plant mixtures for validating laboratory cracking tests.

64 Table 43. Summary of Availability of Materials, Pavement Performance, and Other Information from MnROAD Field Sections. MnROAD Sections Cell 15 Cell 16 Cell 17 Cell 18 Cell 20 Cell 21 Cell 24 Cell 83 Cell 84 Performance data Transverse cracking Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Fatigue cracking Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Climate data Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Pavement structure Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Traffic Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Not Available Not Available Plant mixtures (No. of 3.5 gallon buckets) 16 22 24 21 10 2 4 6 5 Raw materials Asphalt binder Not available 6 gallons Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Evotherm 3G Not available Not available Not available Not available Not Applicable Aggregates Four types of aggregates were used to produce the asphalt mixtures for these 7 field sections. Three aggregates are still available, although their stockpiles are not in good shape; one aggregate, Loken ¾" rock, may be available from local sources. MnROAD staff is unsure on the materials for Cells 83 and 84. Lab testing is needed to confirm.

65 ASSESSMENT OF THE AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND PERFORMANCE DATA OF LTPP FIELD SECTIONS In 2015, the research team of NCHRP 09-57 identified 40 LTPP field sections (see Table 44) for validating laboratory tests for thermal cracking, fatigue cracking, and top-down cracking. Specifically, different climate conditions, mixture types, layer thicknesses, and traffic levels were considered when selecting the test sections. Similarly, the assessment of these field sections focused on four major aspects: (1) availability of asphalt mix designs, (2) availability of asphalt materials, (3) availability of performance data, and (4) the availability of other necessary information (e.g., climate, pavement structure, and traffic). Table 44. LTPP Field Sections for Validating Thermal, Fatigue, and Top-Down Cracking. Sections Cracking Modes Locations 01-0101 Top-down cracking Alabama 01-0102, 01-0103, 01-0104, 01-0105 Fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Alabama 01-0106 Top-down cracking Alabama 04-A901, 04-A903 Thermal cracking; fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Arizona 04-B901, 04-B903 Thermal cracking; top-down cracking Arizona 05-0803 Fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Arkansas 05-0804 Top-down cracking Arkansas 18-A901 Thermal cracking; top-down cracking Indiana 28-0805 Fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Mississippi 28-0902 Top-down cracking Mississippi 30-0901, 30-0902, 30-0903 Fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Montana 35-0501, 35-0502, 35-0503, 35-0504, 35- 0505, 35-AA01, 35-AA02, 35-AA03, 35- AA62, 35-0901, 35-0902, 35-0903 Thermal cracking; top-down cracking New Mexico 35-AA61 Top-down cracking New Mexico 35-0801, 35-0802 Thermal cracking; fatigue cracking; top-down cracking New Mexico 37-0801, 37-0859 Fatigue cracking North Carolina 37-0802 Top-down cracking North Carolina 49-0803 Fatigue cracking Utah 49-0804 Top-down cracking Utah 55-0805 Fatigue cracking; top-down cracking Wisconsin 55-0806 Top-down cracking Wisconsin Availability of Asphalt Mix Design Information for the 40 LTPP Field Sections Asphalt mixtures are comprised of blended aggregates, asphalt binders (conventional or polymer modified), recycled materials (e.g., RAP), WMA technologies, antistripping agents, etc. The researchers reviewed the mix information stored in the LTPP InfoPave™ database—essentially all the construction reports and published papers related to these 40 field sections. Information about mix designs, mix compositions, and combined aggregate gradations of these 40 LTPP field

66 sections are presented in Table 45, Table 46, and Table 47. Some information is lacking for some field sections despite the exhaustive efforts of the research team to locate the information. Table 45. Asphalt Mix Design Information of the 40 LTPP Field Sections. Sections Mix Design Method Design AV (%) Rice (Gmm) Asphalt Content (%) Binder Grade VMA (%) Effective AC (%) Alabama 01-0101 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 01-0102 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 01-0103 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 01-0104 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 01-0105 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 01-0106 Marshall, 75 blow 2.499 5.25 AC-20 Arizona 04-A901 Marshall, 75 blow 5.6 2.385 4.1 AC-30 14.5 3.9 04-A903 Superpave, 113 gyration 4 2.422 4.9 PG 64-16 14.2 4.3 04-B901 Marshall, 75 blow 6 2.483 3.8 PG 76-10 04-B903 Superpave 4 4.3 PG 70-10 Arkansas 05-0803 5.2 2.412 5.6 PG 64-22 16.3 05-0804 5.2 2.412 5.6 PG 64-22 Indiana 18-A901 Marshall 2.474 6.2 AC-20 16.5 Mississippi 28-0805 28-0902 Superpave, 106 gyration 4 2.393 5.7 PG 64-22 14.9 4.8 Montana 30-0901 Marshall, 75 blow 3 2.450 5.6 PG 70-28 Polymer (EVA) modified 15.1 30-0902 Superpave, 96 gyration 3.8 2.463 5.0 64-34 14.6 30-0903 Superpave, 96 gyration 3.8 4.8 64-22 14.6 New Mexico 35-0501 AC-20 35-0502 AC-10 35-0503 AC-10 35-0504 AC-20 35-0505 AC-20 35-AA01 Superpave 4 4.6 PG 70-28 14.2 35-AA02 Superpave 4 4.6 PG 70-28 14.2 35-AA03 Superpave 4 4.6 PG 70-28 14.0 35-AA61 Superpave 4 4.6 PG 70-28 14.3 35-AA62 Superpave 4 4.6 PG 70-28+ (polymer modified) 14.3 35-0801 Marshall 4.35 2.192 7.7 AC-20 17.6 35-0802 Marshall 4.35 2.192 7.7 AC-20 17.6 35-0901 Marshall 4.5 2.083 7.8 AC-20 35-0902 Superpave, 125 gyration 4.1 2.190 6.8 PG 64-22 15 5.2 35-0903 Superpave, 125 gyration 4.2 2.191 6.9 PG 58-22 15.1 4.93 North Carolina 37-0801 Marshall, 75 blow 4.5 2.350 6.7 PG 64-22 18.4 6.38 37-0802 Marshall, 75 blow 4.5 2.350 6.7 PG 64-22 18.4 6.38 37-0859 Marshall, 75 blow 4.5 2.350 6.7 PG 64-22 18.4 6.38 Utah 49-0803 Hveem 5.0 2.385 5.5 PG 58-34 15.5 49-0804 Hveem 5.0 2.385 5.5 PG 58-34 15.5 Wisconsin 55-0805 55-0806

67 Table 46. Mix Compositions of the 40 LTPP Field Sections. Sections NMAS (mm) RAP (%) Binder Type & Modification WMA (%) Antistripping (%) Alabama 01-0101 19 mm 0 AC-20 0 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 01-0102 19 mm 0 AC-20 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 01-0103 19 mm 0 AC-20 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 01-0104 19 mm 0 AC-20 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 01-0105 19 mm 0 AC-20 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 01-0106 19 mm 0 AC-20 Pave Bond LP, 0.5 Arizona 04-A901 19 mm 0 AC-30 04-A903 25 mm 0 PG 64-16 04-B901 19 mm 0 PG 76-10 04-B903 19 mm 0 PG 70-10 Arkansas 05-0803 0 PG 64-22 Lion MORLIFE 300, 0.5 05-0804 PG 64-22 Lion MORLIFE 300, 0.5 Indiana 18-A901 9.5 mm 0 AC-20 Mississippi 28-0805 0 28-0902 12.5 mm 0 PG 64-22 Hydrated Lime, 1.0 Montana 30-0901 19 mm 0 PG 70-28 Polymer (EVA) modified Hydrated Lime, 1.4 30-0902 19 mm 0 64-34 Hydrated Lime, 1.0 30-0903 19 mm 0 64-22 Hydrated Lime, 1.0 New Mexico 35-0501 0 AC-20 35-0502 30 AC-10 35-0503 30 AC-10 35-0504 0 AC-20 35-0505 0 AC-20 35-AA01 19 mm 20 PG 70-28 35-AA02 19 mm 20 PG 70-28 Foaming—2 35-AA03 19 mm 20 PG 70-28 Evotherm—0.5 35-AA61 19 mm 20 PG 70-28 Additive/Liquid 35-AA62 19 mm 20 PG 70-28+ (polymer modified) Chemical Additive/Liquid 35-0801 0 AC-20 0 35-0802 0 AC-20 35-0901 19 mm 0 AC-20 35-0902 19 mm 0 PG 64-22 35-0903 19 mm 0 PG 58-22 North Carolina 37-0801 9.5 mm 0 PG 64-22 37-0802 9.5 mm 0 PG 64-22 37-0859 9.5 mm 0 PG 64-22 Utah 49-0803 9.5 mm 0 PG 58-34 Lime, 1% 49-0804 9.5 mm 0 PG 58-34 Lime, 1% Wisconsin 55-0805 55-0806

68 Table 47. Aggregate Gradations of the Asphalt Mixes Used on the 40 LTPP Field Sections. Sections 1" 3/4'' 1/2'' 3/8'' No. 4 No. 8 No. 10 No. 16 No. 30 No. 40 No. 50 No. 100 No. 200 Alabama 01-0101 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 01-0102 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 01-0103 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 01-0104 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 01-0105 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 01-0106 100 98 83 74 63 49 35 24 16 9 5.1 Arizona 04-A901 100 93 82 75 58 42 30 23 14 7 6 04-A903 100 89 76 61 39 22 17 12 9 6 4 04-B901 100 94 68 49 33 25 17 12 8 6 3 04-B903 100 95 68 51 36 26 17 13 9 6 3 Arkansas 05-0803 05-0804 Indiana 18-A901 100 100 100 93.5 61.4 50.9 39.7 25.4 14.3 3.7 2.5 Mississippi 28-0805 28-0902 100 100 96 84 56 36 23 17 9 4.2 Montana 30-0901 100 97 80 68 42 29 20 15 10 7 4.5 30-0902 100 97 80 68 42 29 20 15 10 7 4.5 30-0903 100 97 80 68 42 29 20 15 10 7 4.5 New Mexico 35-0501 100 95 78 55 37 15 5.3 35-0502 100 95 78 72 55 37 15 5.3 35-0503 100 95 78 72 55 37 15 5.3 35-0504 100 95 78 72 55 37 15 5.3 35-0505 100 95 78 72 55 37 15 5.3 35-AA01 100 95 75 62 39 29 21 16 12 7 5 35-AA02 100 95 75 62 39 29 21 16 12 7 5 35-AA03 100 95 75 62 39 29 21 16 12 7 5 35-AA62 100 95 75 62 39 29 21 16 12 7 5 35-AA61 100 95 75 62 39 29 21 16 12 7 5 35-0801 35-0802 35-0901 100 96 80 70 51 34 13 4.5 35-0902 100 96 79 67 47 31 21 15 10 8 5.9 35-0903 100 96 79 67 47 31 31 21 15 10 5.9 North Carolina 37-0801 100 100 99 95 77 60 40 6.4 37-0802 100 100 99 95 77 60 40 6.4 37-0859 100 100 99 95 77 60 40 6.4 Utah 49-0803 100 100 100 96 66 46 25 5.1 49-0804 100 100 100 94 67 46 24 5.3 Wisconsin 55-0805 55-0806

69 Availability of Asphalt Materials for the 40 LTPP Field Sections The researchers took a two-step approach to confirm the availability of asphalt materials for the 40 LTPP field sections. First, in November 2021, the researchers scanned the LTPP InfoPave™ website (https://infopave.fhwa.dot.gov/) and obtained the availability of asphalt materials, including raw materials, plant mixes, and field cores. Second, the researchers contacted the FHWA Materials Reference Library (MRL) where the asphalt materials are stored to verify their actual status. This second step took more than 4 months to verify the actual status of each material. Table 48 lists the availability of asphalt materials for the LTPP field sections. Table 48. Materials Availability of the 40 LTPP Field Sections. Section Information from LTPP Website: Aggregates Verified Information from LTPP Website: Binders Verified Information from LTPP Website: Plant Mixture Verified Information from LTPP Website: Cores Verified 4" Cores 6" Cores 12" Cores 01-0101 — N/A 10 x 5 gal Found: 10 x 5 gal 01-0100: 1 x 5 gal 01-0104: 1 x 5 gal 01-0105: 1 x 5 gal Found: 01-0100: 1 x 5 gal 01-0106: 2 x 5 gal 8 Found: 01-0102: 2 x 12" 01-0102 8 4 01-0103 01-0104 01-0105 01-0106 04-A901 — N/A — N/A — N/A N/A 04-A903 04-B901 2 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 4 x 1 gal Found: 4 x 1 gal 2 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal N/A 04-B903 — 2 x 1 gal Found: 2 x 1 gal 4 x 5 gal Found: 4 x 5 gal 8 05-0803 — N/A 6 x 5 gal Found: 7 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 4 1 05-0803: 4 x 4" 05-0804 1 18-A901 — N/A — N/A — N/A N/A 28-0805 — N/A — N/A — N/A 12 1 Found all 28-0902 10 x 5gal Found: 10 x 5 gal 1 x 5gal Found: 2 x 5 gal — N/A N/A 30-0901 5 x 5gal Found: 30-0901: 5 x 5 gal 30-0902: 6 x 5 gal 30-0903: 5 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 30-0902 5 x 5gal — N/A 6 Found all 30-0903 5 x 5gal 2 x 5 gal Found: 2 x 5 gal — N/A 35-0501 — N/A 3 x 5 gal Found: For RAP: 3 x 5 gal For Vir AC: 3 x 5 gal RAP Mix: 3 x 5 gal Vir Mix: 3 x 5 gal Found all 1 Unknown 35-0502 1 Unknown 35-0503 35-0504 4 Found all 35-0505 4 Found all

70 35-AA01 20 x 5 gal Found all 10 x 1 gal Found all 15 x 5 gal Found all 13 Found all 35-AA02 — 15 x 5 gal 13 1 x 10" 35-AA03 — 15 x 5 gal 13 35-AA61 — 15 x 5 gal 13 1 x 10" 35-AA62 11 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 13 35-0901 — N/A 2 x 5 gal Found: 2 x 5 gal — N/A Unknown 35-0902 1 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 22 35-0903 1 x 5 gal Found: 1 x 5 gal 35-0801 55 gal Found: 1 x 55 gal — N/A 3 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal 8 3 Found: 8 x 4" 35-0802 5 3 Found: 4 x 4" 2 x 12" 37-0801 — N/A 37-0800: 1 x 5 gal Unknown Surface mix: 3 x 5 gal Binder mix: 3 x 5 gal Found: Surf mix: 3 x 5 gal Bind mix: 2 x 5 gal 8 Found: 4 x 12" 37-0802 Surface mix: 3 x 5 gal Binder mix: 3 x 5 gal Base mix: 3 x 5 gal Found: Surf mix: 3 x 5 gal Bind mix: 3 x 5 gal Base mix: 3 x 5 gal 12 2 Found: 10 x 4" 37-0859 N/A 49-0803 55 gal Found: Surf Agg: 1 x 55 gal Bind Agg: 1 x 55 gal 3 x 5 gal Found: 49-0800: 3 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal Found: 3 x 5 gal 16 1 Found: 15 x 4" 1 x 12" 49-0804 8 2 Found all 55-0805 55 gal Found: 1 x 55 gal HV Bind Agg: 1 x 55 gal 2 x 5 gal Found: 2 x 5 gal Surface mix: 3 x 5 gal Binder mix: 3 x 5 gal Found: Surface mix: 3 x 5 gal Binder mix: 3 x 5 gal 6 2 Found: 6 x 4" 55-0806 6 5 Found: 6 x 4" Availability of Performance Data of the 40 LTPP Field Sections The performance history of each of the 40 LTPP field sections was well recorded and stored in the LTPP InfoPave™ database. The researchers obtained the cracking performance history with time, including thermal cracking, fatigue cracking, and top-down cracking, for each section listed in Table 44. Appendix C documents the cracking performance history of each of the 40 LTPP field sections. As examples, Figure 35 shows the fatigue cracking development history of LTPP Section 28-0805; Figure 36 displays the top-down (longitudinal) cracking development history of LTPP Section 350903; and Figure 37 presents thermal transverse cracking development history of LTPP Section 04-A901.

71 Figure 35. Fatigue Cracking Development of LTPP Section 28-0805. Figure 36. Top-Down Longitudinal Cracking Development of LTPP Section 35-0903.

72 Figure 37. Thermal Transverse Cracking Development of LTPP Section 04-A901. Availability of Other Necessary Information for the 40 LTPP Field Sections In addition to materials and pavement performance data, three more types of information are necessary to validate laboratory cracking tests and develop acceptance criteria: pavement structure, climate, and traffic information. The researchers downloaded all the necessary information from the InfoPave™ website for each of the 40 LTPP field sections. Detailed information about pavement structure, climate, and traffic for the 40 LTPP field sections are described in Appendix D, E, and F, respectively. As examples, Table 49 shows the pavement structure of LTPP Section 28-0805; Table 50 displays the climate information of LTPP Section 350903; and Table 51 presents the traffic information of LTPP Section 04-A901. Table 49. Pavement Structure of LTPP Section 28-0805. Layer Number Layer Type Thickness (in) Material Description 1 Subgrade (untreated) Coarse-Grained Soil: Clayey Sand with Gravel 2 Unbound (granular) base 9 Soil-Aggregate Mixture (Predominantly Coarse-Grained) 3 Asphalt concrete layer 2 Hot Mixed, Hot Laid AC, Dense-Graded 4 Asphalt concrete layer 2 Hot Mixed, Hot Laid AC, Dense-Graded

73 Table 50. Climate Information of LTPP Section 35-0903. Year Annual Average Precipitation (mm) Annual Average Temperature (°C) Annual Average Freeze Index (°C days) Annual Average Humidity Min.- Max. (%) 1990 389.6 15.9 7 4-109 1991 325.9 15 0.4 3-120 1992 435.9 15.4 4 2-117 1993 256.3 16.1 1 3-114 1994 258.4 16.9 0.6 4-124 1995 181.1 16.5 0 4-106 1996 214.2 17 6 2-107 1997 314.9 16.5 10.6 3-109 1998 170.3 16.1 0 2-116 1999 101.8 16.6 0 2-100 2000 246.9 17.1 0 3-108 2001 194.9 16.8 0 3-111 2002 176.2 17.1 0 2-106 2003 194.3 17.5 1 2-111 2004 341.3 16.2 2 3-117 2005 234 17.1 2 3-120 2006 331.5 16.6 1 3-117 2007 252.8 16.5 7 5-111 Table 51. Traffic Information of LTPP Section 04-A901. Year Monitored Data Derived Data Computed Data Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT) AADTT 18-Kip ESAL (ESAL × 103) 1994 619 629 207 1995 657 657 234 1996 714 712 252 1997 770 770 238 1998 839 835 258 1999 875 875 259 2000 950 947 315 2001 1006 1006 332 2002 1885 2003 215 214 44 2004 221 220 52 2005 217 220 54

74 Overall Assessment of the 40 LTPP Field Sections Table 52 summarizes the availability of the 40 LTPP field sections in terms of raw materials, plant mix, performance data (fatigue, top-down, and thermal transverse cracking), pavement structure, climate, and traffic. As seen in Table 52, the majority of the information is available for each LTPP field section. However, only 12 field sections have adequate raw materials available: 28-0902, 30-0901, 30-0903, 35-AA01, 35-AA02, 35-AA03, 35-AA61, 35-AA62, 49-0803, 49-0804, 55-0805, and 55-0806. Note that field cores are not listed in Table 52 because only limited field cores are available, and they are more than 10 years old. It is apparent that more field sections with adequate asphalt materials are needed to effectively validate cracking tests and establish cracking acceptance criteria.

75 Table 52. Overall Assessment of the 40 LTPP Field Sections. Sections Raw materials Plant mix Perform. data Pavement structure Climate Traffic 01-0101 Not available Available: 5 gal. Available Available Available Available 01-0102 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 01-0103 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 01-0104 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 01-0105 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 01-0106 Not available Available: 10 gal. Available Available Available Available 04-A901 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 04-A903 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 04-B901 Available: 5 gal. aggr., 4 gal. bind. Available: 5 gal. Available Available Available Available 04-B903 Not available Available: 20 gal. Available Available Available Available 05-0803 Not available Available: 5 gal. Available Available Available Available 05-0804 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 18-A901 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 28-0805 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 28-0902 Available: 50 gal. aggr., 10 gal. bind. Not available Available Available Available Available 30-0901 Available; 25 gal. aggr., 5 gal. bind. Available: 5 gal. Available Available Available Available 30-0902 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 30-0903 Available: 25 gal. aggr., 10 gal. bind. Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0501 Not available Available: 15 gal. RAP mix: 15 gal. virgin mix Available Available Available Available 35-0502 Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0503 Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0504 Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0505 Not available Available Available Available Available 35-AA01 Available: 100 gal. aggr., 10 gal. bind. Available: 75 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-AA02 Available: 75 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-AA03 Available: 75 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-AA61 Available: 75 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-AA62 Available: 75 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-0801 Not available Available: 15 gal. Available Available Available Available 35-0802 Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0901 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0902 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 35-0903 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 37-0801 Not available Available: 15 gal. Available Available Available Available 37-0802 Not available Available: 15 gal. Available Available Available Available 37-0859 Not available Not available Available Available Available Available 49-0803 Available: 55 gal. aggr.: 15 gal. bind. Available: 15 gal. Available Available Available Available 49-0804 Available Available Available Available 55-0805 Available: 55 gal. aggr.: 10 gal. bind. Available: 15 gal. Available Available Available Available 55-0806 Available Available Available Available

76 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter documented the assessment of both the 2008 MnROAD and the 40 LTPP field sections identified by NCHRP 09-57 in 2015. The assessment of these field sections focused on the availability of materials (mix design, raw materials, plant mix, and field cores), performance data (fatigue, top-down, and thermal cracking), pavement structure, climate, and traffic. The researchers found that the data for performance, pavement structure, climate, and traffic are available for both the 2008 MnROAD and the 40 LTPP sections. The major issue is unavailable materials for many field sections. Based on the information presented in this chapter, the researchers concluded that a total of 12 field sections—28-0902, 30-0901, 30-0903, 35- AA01, 35-AA02, 35-AA03, 35-AA61, 35-AA62, 49-0803, 49-0804, 55-0805, and 55-0806— have everything needed to validate laboratory cracking tests. Chapter 4 discusses the need for a few more alternative sections in order to validate the relationships between laboratory cracking tests and field pavement cracking performance.

Next: Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests »
Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Get This Book
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 Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures
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Cracking and durability issues of asphalt pavements have been primary concerns of departments of transportation the last two decades. Several modes of asphalt pavement cracking exist—fatigue, top-down, reflective, and thermal—and all are influenced by thermal loading, traffic loading, or a combination of both.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 389: Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, documents existing field validation efforts for these four modes of cracking.

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