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Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures (2023)

Chapter: Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests

« Previous: Chapter 3. Assessment of the Availability of Materials and Performance Data of Field Sections Identified in NCHRP 09-57
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
×
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Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4. Identification of Alternative Field Sections and Recommendations for Validating Cracking Tests." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27421.
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77 CHAPTER 4. IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE FIELD SECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VALIDATING CRACKING TESTS INTRODUCTION As was concluded in Chapter 3, alternative field sections are needed to validate laboratory cracking tests. The researchers explored three potential sources for the alternative field sections: LTPP Special Pavement Studies (SPS) 10, NCAT 2021 Test Track, and MnROAD 2022 Test Cycle. Although both the NCAT 2021 Test Track and the MnROAD 2022 Test Cycle have some newer and interesting mixtures (such as asphalt mixtures modified with plastics), the materials availability and field performance data are uncertain. Thus, the researchers focused on the LTPP SPS10 sections. This chapter documents the identified alternative sections first and then recommends the steps for validating laboratory cracking tests. ALTERNATIVE FIELD SECTIONS WITH SPS10 One of the lessons learned from working with FHWA MRL was that the materials of the older LTPP sections (such as SPS1 and SPS5) are not available. When identifying the alternative field sections, the researchers focused on the LTPP sections most recently constructed. In the last decade, FHWA initiated a study on long-term performance of WMA mixtures called LTPP- SPS10: Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Overlay of Asphalt Pavement. A total of 72 field sections, including both HMA and WMA sections, were constructed, with 63 sections distributed in nine different states (Arizona, Florida, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, and Washington) of the United States, and nine sections distributed in two provinces (Manitoba and Ontario) of Canada. The research team reviewed all the available information in the InfoPave™ website and selected a total of 36 test sections listed in Table 53 for validating cracking tests. The reasons for these selections are as follows: • Availability of materials: During the construction of each SPS10 field section, raw materials and plant mixtures were collected and later stored at FHWA MRL. The researchers confirmed the availability of both raw materials and plant mixtures of the 36 sections with FHWA MRL, as listed in Table 54. • Availability of performance data: The development of fatigue cracking, longitudinal cracking at wheel path (WP) (or top-down cracking), and transverse cracking versus time is well recorded for each test section. However, not all the sections have observed cracking. The 36 sections listed in Table 53 had some fatigue or transverse cracking, as described in Appendix G. As an example, Figure 38 shows the developments of fatigue cracking, longitudinal cracking at WP, and transverse cracking versus time for Florida SPS10 Section: 12-AA01. Note that one more round of cracking distress data will be available in InfoPave™ in the fall of 2022. • Same pavement structure with different asphalt mixtures on the same project: The biggest advantage of using SPS10 field test sections is that the only variables for each SPS10 field project have to do with asphalt mixtures, while the pavement structure, climate, and traffic basically are the same (Appendix H). Moreover, at least four different asphalt mixtures were used at any specific field project. Thus, each individual field project can be used for validating cracking tests. • Various climatic conditions: The 36 alternative field test sections are distributed in five states in different climatic zones, including dry, no-freeze; wet, no-freeze; and

78 wet, freeze. Detailed climatic information for each field project is described in Appendix I. When combined with the sections with available raw materials in Table 52, the different climatic conditions are well covered. • Various traffic levels: As listed in Table 53, various traffic levels range from 51 to 938 kESAL per year. Detailed traffic information for each SPS10 section is described in Appendix J. Table 53. Alternative Field Test Sections Identified. Field Test Sections No. of Test Sections Performance Data Raw Materials Plant Mix Climate Traffic (kESAL/year) 1 LTPP- SPS10 Arizona— IH 40 6 Yes Yes Yes Dry, No- Freeze 785 2 LTPP- SPS10 Arizona— IH 10 6 Yes Yes Yes Dry, No- Freeze 945 3 LTPP- SPS10 Florida 4 Yes Yes Yes Wet, No- Freeze Not calculated in InfoPave™ 4 LTPP- SPS10 Missouri 10 Yes Yes Yes Wet- Freeze 257 5 LTPP- SPS10 Oklahoma 6 Yes Yes Yes Wet- No- Freeze 51 6 LTPP- SPSP10 Manitoba- Canada 4 Yes Yes Yes Wet- Freeze 141

79 Table 54. Materials Availability of Alternative Field Test Sections with SPS10. LTPP SPS10 Raw Aggregates RAP RAS Asphalt Binder Additive1 Additive2 Plant Mix Florida 12AA01 20 x 5 gal 10 x 5 gal 10 x 1 gal ADHERE-6500 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 12AA02 15 x 5 gal 12AA03 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 12AA61 15 x 5 gal Missouri 29AA01 4 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 1 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 29AA02 2 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 3 x 1 gal 12 x 5 gal 29AA03 2 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 3 x 1 gal 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 29AA61 5 x 5 gal 2 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 29AA62 5 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 1 x 1 gal 2 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 29AA63 5 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal 2 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 29AA64 5 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 4 x 1 gal 14 x 5 gal 29AA65 5 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 4 x 1 gal 29AA66 5 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 10 x 1 gal 29AA67 5 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 1 x 5 gal 12 x 1 gal 1 x 1 gal Oklahoma 40AA01 20 x 5 gal 10 x 1 gal 10 x 1 gal 10 x 1 gal 3 x 3 L 15 x 5 gal 40AA02 15 x 5 gal 40AA03 15 x 5 gal 40AA61 1 x 1 gal 3 x 3 L 15 x 5 gal 40AA62 9 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 40AA63 20 x 5 gal 15 x 5 gal Arizona 04AA01 20 x 5 gal 19 x 5 gal 8 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 04AA02 15 x 5 gal 04AA03 2 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 04AA59 20 x 5 gal 15 x 5 gal 04AA60 15 x 5 gal 04AA61 12 x 5 gal 04BA01 39 x 5 gal 10 x 5 gal 8 x 1 gal 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 04BA02 15 x 5 gal 04BA03 15 x 5 gal 04BA59 12 x 5 gal 15 x 5 gal 04BA60 15 x 5 gal 04BA61 15 x 5 gal Manitoba 83AA01 5 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal 1 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 83AA02 5 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 83AA03 5 x 5 gal 3 x 5 gal 3 x 1 gal 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal 83AA61 5 x 5 gal 2 x 5 gal 3 x 1 gal 15 x 5 gal

80 Figure 38. Cracking Development of SPS10 Section 12-AA01. 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 9 1 . 0 1 2 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 4 5 / 1 0 / 2 0 1 6 9 / 2 2 / 2 0 1 7 2 / 4 / 2 0 1 9 6 / 1 8 / 2 0 2 0 1 0 / 3 1 / 2 0 2 1Lo ng itu di na l C ra ck in g at W P (m ) Survey Time Florida: 12-AA01 0 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 8 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 1 4 . 0 1 2 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 4 5 / 1 0 / 2 0 1 6 9 / 2 2 / 2 0 1 7 2 / 4 / 2 0 1 9 6 / 1 8 / 2 0 2 0 1 0 / 3 1 / 2 0 2 1 Tr an sv er se C ra ck in g (m ) Survey Time Florida: 12-AA01

81 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FIELD VALIDATION OF LABORATORY CRACKING TESTS Recommended Candidate Field Sections Table 55 lists the final 48 candidate field sections, including the original and newly identified field sections. As can be seen in Table 55, the 48 candidate field test sections have all the attributes needed for validating the cracking tests. Furthermore, they are well dispersed around the United States in different climate zones and under different traffic conditions. Additionally, the majority of the 48 candidate field sections are asphalt overlays, which is consistent with the most common practice for DOTs (Zhou et al. 2022). The original experimental designs for validating cracking tests were developed based on cracking modes: fatigue, top-down, reflective, and thermal cracking. One of the major findings from the literature review (Chapter 2) is that only two sets of cracking tests are needed—one set for traffic-related cracking (fatigue, top-down, and reflective cracking) and the other for thermal cracking. As shown in Chapter 2, the cracking tests being validated for fatigue cracking are also effective for assessing the top-down and reflective cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures. Therefore, the researchers accordingly recommend two sets of candidate field sections, one set for traffic-related cracking (Table 56) and the other for thermal cracking (Table 57). Recommended Candidate Laboratory Cracking Tests In NCHRP Research Report 987, the NCHRP 09-57A researchers considered both technical and practical factors and recommended three levels of laboratory cracking tests (Table 58) for field validation, depending upon available funding. The researchers of NCHRP 09-57A—Phase III reassessed them based on the available information and concluded that the approach presented in Table 58 is still valid to provide a path forward for validating cracking tests. Recommended Steps for Validating Candidate Laboratory Cracking Tests The goal of validating laboratory cracking tests is twofold: (1) to finalize laboratory cracking tests for traffic-related cracking and thermal cracking, and (2) to establish corresponding performance-related acceptance criteria. Note that benchmarking testing may be used to establish acceptance criteria but that, in most cases, it is not related to field performance. At this stage, the researchers do not know which candidate laboratory cracking tests will be validated in the future. However, the number of laboratory cracking tests most likely will be between three and 10 (Table 58). If five to seven cracking tests are validated in the future, the effort will require a substantial amount of asphalt mixtures. Considering the fact that a substantial number of SPS10 plant mixtures are available, the researchers recommend a hybrid approach: plant mixtures for validation and raw materials for the development of acceptance criteria, as described in the following steps. • Obtain the raw materials (aggregates, binders, RAP, RAS, and additives) and plant mixtures from FHWA MRL. • Validate candidate laboratory cracking tests using plant-produced and laboratory- compacted (PPLC) specimens. Although plant mixtures have been collected and stored at FHWA MRL for a while, they are useful to validate if the candidate

82 laboratory cracking tests correlate well with field performance of multiple test sections at each specific field site (or state): o Based on funding availability, select the candidate laboratory cracking tests from Table 58. o Select candidate field sections from Table 56 and Table 57. Note that each SPS10 site in each state has multiple sections with different materials but has the same climate, traffic, and pavement structure, which is another reason for the researchers to select SPS10 plant mixtures. o Prepare PPLC specimens following a proper reheating protocol for handling plant mixtures stored in 5 gallon buckets. o Conduct each candidate cracking test following the revised test standard in NCHRP Research Report 987. o Compare the laboratory cracking test data with the field performance to determine if each candidate laboratory cracking test is valid for traffic-related or thermal cracking. o Recommend final laboratory cracking tests for establishing acceptance criteria. • Establish acceptance criteria for the validated cracking tests using laboratory-mixed and laboratory-compacted (LMLC) specimens: o Based on the findings of field validation, select the number of laboratory cracking tests for developing acceptance criteria. o Select candidate field sections from Table 56 and Table 57 by considering various climate, traffic level, pavement structure, and field performance; note that the same field sections used for validating cracking tests may be used here; meanwhile it is important to include SPS8 (49-0803, 49-0804, 55-0805, and 55-0806) and SPS9 (28-0902, 30-0901, and 30-0903) sections at this stage to consider new pavement construction and the factor of asphalt layer thickness. o Prepare LMLC specimens following a proper aging procedure. o Conduct each laboratory cracking test following the revised test standard in NCHRP Research Report 987. o Develop the relationship between each laboratory cracking test and field pavement cracking performance. o Based on the relationship and the performance requirements, establish acceptance criteria for each cracking test. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter presented the alternative field sections for validating cracking tests and the recommended candidate field sections. The specific steps for validating traffic-related cracking tests and thermal cracking tests and establishing acceptance criteria were presented.

83 Table 55. Final 48 Candidate LTPP Field Sections for Validating Cracking Tests. LTPP State Section Raw Materials Plant Mix Perform. Data Pavement Structure Climate Traffic SPS9— New construction Mississippi 28-0902 Available Not available Available Available Available Available Montana 30-0901 Available Available Available Available Available Available 30-0903 Available Not available Available Available Available Available SPS8— New construction Utah 49-0803 Available Available Available Available Available Available 49-0804 Available Available Available Available Available Available Wisconsin 55-0805 Available Available Available Available Available Available 55-0806 Available Available Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays New Mexico 35-AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA62 Available Available Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays (newly identified sections) Florida 12AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 12AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 12AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 12AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available Missouri 29AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA62 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA63 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA64 Available Available Available Available Available Available 29AA65 Available Not available Available Available Available Available 29AA66 Available Not available Available Available Available Available 29AA67 Available Not available Available Available Available Available Oklahoma 40AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 40AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 40AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 40AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available 40AA62 Available Available Available Available Available Available 40AA63 Available Available Available Available Available Available Arizona 04AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04AA59 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04AA60 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA59 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA60 Available Available Available Available Available Available 04BA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available Manitoba, Canada 83AA01 Available Available Available Available Available Available 83AA02 Available Available Available Available Available Available 83AA03 Available Available Available Available Available Available 83AA61 Available Available Available Available Available Available

84 Table 56. Candidate Field Sections for Validating Traffic-Related Cracking Tests. LTPP State Section Raw Materials Plant Mix Perform. Data Pavement Structure Climate Annual Traffic 18-Kip KESAL SPS9— New construction Mississippi 28-0902 Available Not available Available Available Wet-No-Freeze 463 Montana 30-0901 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze 143 30-0903 Available Not available Available Available SPS8— New construction Utah 49-0803 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze 4 49-0804 Available Available Available Available Wisconsin 55-0805 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Low; Not computed yet 55-0806 Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays New Mexico 35-AA01 Available Available Available Available Dry, No- Freeze; Diurnal Cycling Region 868 35-AA02 Available Available Available Available 35-AA03 Available Available Available Available 35-AA61 Available Available Available Available 35-AA62 Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays (newly identified sections) Florida 12AA01 Available Available Available Available Wet-No- Freeze Low; Not computed yet 12AA02 Available Available Available Available 12AA03 Available Available Available Available 12AA61 Available Available Available Available Missouri 29AA01 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze 257 29AA02 Available Available Available Available 29AA03 Available Available Available Available 29AA61 Available Available Available Available 29AA62 Available Available Available Available 29AA63 Available Available Available Available 29AA64 Available Available Available Available 29AA65 Available Not available Available Available 29AA66 Available Not available Available Available 29AA67 Available Not available Available Available Oklahoma 40AA01 Available Available Available Available Wet, No- Freeze 51 40AA02 Available Available Available Available 40AA03 Available Available Available Available 40AA61 Available Available Available Available 40AA62 Available Available Available Available 40AA63 Available Available Available Available Arizona 04AA01 Available Available Available Available Dry, No- Freeze; Diurnal Cycling Region 785 04AA02 Available Available Available Available 04AA03 Available Available Available Available 04AA59 Available Available Available Available 04AA60 Available Available Available Available 04AA61 Available Available Available Available 04BA01 Available Available Available Available 945 04BA02 Available Available Available Available 04BA03 Available Available Available Available 04BA59 Available Available Available Available 04BA60 Available Available Available Available 04BA61 Available Available Available Available

85 Table 57. Candidate Field Sections for Validating Thermal Cracking Tests. LTPP State Section Raw Materials Plant Mix Perform. Data Pavement Structure Climate Traffic SPS9— New construction Montana 30-0901 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Available 30-0903 Available Not available Available Available Available SPS8— New construction Utah 49-0803 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Available 49-0804 Available Available Available Available Available Wisconsin 55-0805 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Available 55-0806 Available Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays New Mexico 35-AA01 Available Available Available Available Dry, No- Freeze; Diurnal Cycling Region Available 35-AA02 Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA03 Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA61 Available Available Available Available Available 35-AA62 Available Available Available Available Available SPS10— Overlays (newly identified sections) Missouri 29AA01 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Available 29AA02 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA03 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA61 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA62 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA63 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA64 Available Available Available Available Available 29AA65 Available Not available Available Available Available 29AA66 Available Not available Available Available Available 29AA67 Available Not available Available Available Available Arizona 04AA01 Available Available Available Available Dry, No- Freeze; Diurnal Cycling Region Available 04AA02 Available Available Available Available Available 04AA03 Available Available Available Available Available 04AA59 Available Available Available Available Available 04AA60 Available Available Available Available Available 04AA61 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA01 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA02 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA03 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA59 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA60 Available Available Available Available Available 04BA61 Available Available Available Available Available Manitoba, Canada 83AA01 Available Available Available Available Wet, Freeze Available 83AA02 Available Available Available Available Available 83AA03 Available Available Available Available Available 83AA61 Available Available Available Available Available

86 Table 58. Three Levels of Cracking Tests for Field Validation. Scenario 1: Sufficient Funding Scenario 2: Constrained Funding Scenario 3: Extremely Constrained Funding 1. ASTM D7313: DCT 2. AASHTO TP 105: SCB- LT 3. AASHTO TP 124: IFIT 4. ASTM D8044: SCB-Jc 5. ASTM D8225: IDEAL- CT 6. Tex-248-F: OT 7. AASHTO T 321: BBF 8. UF-IDT 9. AASHTO TP 107: AMPT-CF-LS 10. AASHTO TP 133: AMPT-CF-SS 1. ASTM D7313: DCT 2. AASHTO TP 124: IFIT 3. ASTM D8044: SCB-Jc 4. ASTM D8225: IDEAL- CT 5. Tex-248-F: OT 6. AASHTO T 321: BBF 7. AASHTO TP 107: AMPT-CF-LS; or AASHTO TP 133: AMPT-CF-SS 1. ASTM D7313: DCT 2. ASTM D8225: IDEAL-CT; or AASHTO TP 124: IFIT; or Tex-248-F: OT 3. AASHTO T 321: BBF; or AASHTO TP 107: AMPT- CF-LS; or AASHTO TP 133: AMPT-CF-SS

Next: Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations »
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Cracking and durability issues of asphalt pavements have been primary concerns of departments of transportation the last two decades. Several modes of asphalt pavement cracking exist—fatigue, top-down, reflective, and thermal—and all are influenced by thermal loading, traffic loading, or a combination of both.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 389: Ruggedness of Laboratory Tests to Assess Cracking Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, documents existing field validation efforts for these four modes of cracking.

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