National Academies Press: OpenBook

Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas (2023)

Chapter: Appendix B. Case Studies

« Previous: Appendix A. Literature Review
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 129
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 130
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 131
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 132
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 133
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 134
Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 135
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 136
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 137
Page 138
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 138
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 139
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 140
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 141
Page 142
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 142
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 143
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 144
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 145
Page 146
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 146
Page 147
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 147
Page 148
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 148
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 149
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 150
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 151
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 152
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 153
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 154
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 155
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 156
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 157
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 158
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 159
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 160
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 161
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 163
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 164
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 165
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 166
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 167
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 168
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 169
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 170
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 171
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 172
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 173
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 174
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 175
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 176
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 177
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 178
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 179
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 180
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 181
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 182
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 183
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 184
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 185
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 186
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 187
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Case Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27424.
×
Page 188

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

129 Appendix B. Case Studies

130 Overview The catchment area of an airport is the region surrounding the airport where residents are likely to commute to the airport to access air travel. The size and shape of a catchment area are unique in that the catchment area is not only determined by the subject airport but also by the competing airports around it. Multiple factors, including airline operations, airport ground access, passengers’ travel preferences, and purposes, are playing distinctive roles in determining the boundary of airport catchment areas. Therefore, an airport needs to address these factors during the preliminary analysis before conducting a thorough catchment area study. This report selects five airports in the nation to represent US public airports of different hub categories and geographic locations (Figure 54). Though this sample is limited in size, we believe these airports could cover most of the scenarios that a public airport in the US could face. We expect a potential airport user of this report could follow our procedure and conduct their own preliminary analysis. The five airports selected by this report and their corresponding hub categorization and geographic locations are: • BOS – Boston Logan International Airport – Primary – Large Hub – New England Region: Boston, Massachusetts • DAL – Dallas Love Field – Primary – Medium Hub – Southwest Region: Dallas, Texas • ONT - Ontario International Airport – Primary – Medium Hub – Western-Pacific Region: Ontario, California • CAK - Akron-Canton Airport – Primary – Small Hub – Great Lakes Region: North Canton, Ohio • OAJ – Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport – Primary – Nonhub – Southern Region: Richlands, North Carolina The purpose of these case studies is to provide an overview of the market where these airports are located in. Not only do we intend to introduce where these airports are, but more importantly, we plan to provide a comprehensive description of their customers, competitors, and ground access. These preliminary analysis results will later become crucial input information when establishing airport catchment areas. Please be noted that these case studies do not intend to establish the precise boundary of airport catchment areas just yet. Any reference to catchment areas in these case studies is only to explore potentially the outer market boundary of an airport. The depictions of airport facilities and air services presented in these case studies are indicative of the status during the analysis period and might not precisely reflect the present-day conditions.

131 Figure 54. Hub Categories and Locations of Airports Selected for Case Studies In the rest of this appendix, we use the following structure to guide our case studies:  Position in the National Airspace System – Geographic location: In this section, we provide a brief overview of the location of an airport, its distance to nearby metropolitan areas, and the corresponding population of these metro areas. Using such information, we would be able to sketch the market background of the subject airport and prepare for further analysis. – Hub category: The FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a) and its airport categorization standard will be used to position the subject airport into the hierarchy of airports. We also compare the passenger enplanements at the subject airport with airports of the same category during 2000–2020 to identify if the traffic change at the subject airport aligns with the broad market movement. – Position in airline networks: We review the status of the subject airport in the network of operating carriers. This is a crucial step as different approaches should be taken to analyze a hub airport versus a spoke airport. We analyze nonstop flights originating from the subject airport as well as total traffic (direct + indirect) to different markets. Considering the disruption caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic, we use the sampling date of July 2019 for flight schedules and operating carriers.

132 • Market – Residents: Passenger traffic of an airport can be categorized by the primary purpose of traveling into leisure and business travel. For leisure travel, the size of the population within the catchment area and household income are the two primary factors determining travel demands. Therefore, we collect such census data from residential areas surrounding the subject airport to establish the size and “strength” of the potential leisure market for the subject airport. – Businesses: Business traveling demand to and from an airport is largely dependent on the number and size of businesses located in the catchment area of the airport. In this section, we use the data from the 2018 Statistics of U.S. Businesses (SUSB) to provide an estimate for the potential business travel demand of the region. – Top markets: Each airport serves flights to different destinations to meet the travel demands of local travelers. The catchment area of an airport is partially dependent on the destination, as travelers will weigh the time and airfare of itineraries originating from different airport options and make an optimal choice. Using the Origin and Destination Survey Data (DB1B) shared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) (2019a), we summarize the top markets that are connected to the subject airport during 2010 – 2020. Such information can be used in the later stages of the project to establish dynamic catchment areas of an airport. • Competition – Competing airports: The boundary of the catchment area of an airport is not only determined by the subject airport and its immediate surrounding neighborhood but more importantly affected by its competing airports. Large hub airports surrounded by smaller airports could reach far to attract residents of remote communities, while small airports located in the vicinity of large airports are facing the challenge of traffic leakage. In this section, we review potential competing airports of the subject airport so that this crucial information can be factored into later catchment area analysis. – Competing modes of transportation: Air transport is not the only mode of transportation. For regional destinations that are not too far from the subject area (usually within the 4-hour driving time range), ground transportation is very competitive. We review such short-haul regional destinations in this section, especially the ones that are also served by direct flights from the subject airport. This analysis will later help determine the attractiveness of air travel to passengers who have frequent demands of traveling within the region. • Ground Access – Self-drive: Travelers residing in the catchment area of an airport need to commute to the airport using ground transportation before starting air travel. For the majority of the US market, self-driving is the most used way of accessing airports. In this section, we will review the roadway system linking to the subject airport. This information can be used in later stages of analysis to determine the access time and cost. – Public transit: Some large hub airports are connected directly to the public transit system. Passengers who live near transit stations or have convenient connecting options to the public transit network would be able to access these airports efficiently. For airports located in multiple airport regions (MARs), whether an airport is served by public transit or not can be a decisive factor for travelers to make itinerary choices.

133 – Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services: In addition to self-driving and public transit, commercial vehicles for hire are another convenient way of accessing airports, especially for travelers who prefer time savings over cost savings. Airports typically support the operation of such commercial vehicles, and some even provide dedicated facilities to regulate their operations. We list and compare such services in this section. • Data availability – Informed and precise airport catchment area analysis cannot be conducted without quality data. We provide a preliminary assessment of the data availability in this section to guide the formal analysis of the next stage.

134 Case Study 1 – Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) Position in the National Airspace System Geographic location Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) is located mostly in East Boston (Suffolk County), Massachusetts. It is the busiest airport in terms of passenger volume and cargo handling in the New England region, which is composed of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont (FAA, 2021c). Due to its prime location near one of the busiest metropolitan areas – Boston and its role as a major international gateway airport on the East Coast, Boston Logan International Airport serves multiple communities in the New England region. Table 9 lists the population of major Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of New England and their corresponding distance to BOS. It is worth noting that these MSAs combined represent the potential market of BOS in the region. The boundary of BOS’ catchment area needs to be further identified using the tools to be developed by this project.

135 Table 9. Driving Distance from BOS to Metropolitan Statistical Areas of New England State MSA Population1 Distance to BOS (miles)2 MA-NH Boston-Cambridge-Newton 4,878,211 - MA-CT Worcester 945,752 41 Barnstable Town 213,164 72 Springfield 695,654 93 Pittsfield 124,571 139 RI-MA Providence-Warwick 1,623,890 57 NH Manchester-Nashua 418,735 59 CT Norwich-New London 264,999 103 Hartford-East Hartford- Middletown 1,201,483 106 New Haven-Milford 851,948 136 Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk 942,426 154 ME Portland-South Portland 543,221 107 Lewiston-Auburn 108,547 145 Bangor 151,655 236 NY Albany-Schenectady-Troy 878,550 173 Poughkeepsie-Newburgh- Middletown 678,527 190 Kingston 177,716 203 Glens Falls 124,362 219 Note: 1. The resident population is based on the annual estimates for incorporated places in 2019 (United States Census Bureau, 2021b). 2. Driving distance from urban centers is based on the fastest route suggested by Google Maps. Hub category Originally constructed in 1923 (Massport, 2021a), Boston Logan International Airport is one of the major airports in the United States. In the FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a), Boston Logan International Airport is classified as a Large Hub in the Primary Airport category in 2020, along with 27 other airports. During 2000 – 2020, annual passenger enplanements at Boston Logan International Airport have been on an uptrend trajectory most of the time except for 2020, the year when the COVID-19 disrupted the aviation industry globally. In terms of its ranking measured by passenger enplanement among all US public airports, BOS had climbed from initially the 20th in 2003 to the 16th in 2019. However, the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic reset its ranking back to 19th in 2020. Refer to Figure 55 for the change of annual passenger enplanements and the corresponding airport ranking of BOS since 2000.

136 Figure 55. Annual Passenger Enplanements at BOS and Its Ranking During 2000 – 2020 Position in airline networks As one of the largest hub airports in the New England region, Boston Logan International Airport has flights operated by different carriers to multiple domestic and international destinations. JetBlue (B6) uses BOS as a major hub serving the US and popular Caribbean destinations (Figure 56). Delta Air Lines also uses BOS as an important hub in its network, providing nonstop services to the US and Europe (Delta Air Lines, 2016). See Figure 57 for Delta operations from BOS. Compared with JetBlue and Delta, both United and American Airlines use BOS as a strategic destination airport, only providing nonstop services to their hub airports (Figure 58). In addition to major carriers, Cape Air, a regional airline, also uses BOS as a hub connecting to small airports in the New England region. Boston Logan International Airport is one of the primary international gateway airports on the east coast of the US. Besides US carriers, several international airlines are also operating into this busy New England hub, including Aer Lingus, Air Canada, Air France, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, El Al, Hainan Airlines, Iberia, Icelandair, Japan Airlines, KLM, LATAM, Lufthansa, Qatar Airways, Scandinavian Airlines, Swiss, Turkish Airlines, Virgin Atlantic, and WestJet as of 2021 (Massport, 2021b). The abundance of long-haul and international services at BOS determines its strong attraction for travelers who reside far from Boston. They may be incentivized by the lower airfare and fewer connections to choose BOS over their local airports when flying to certain destinations.

137 Figure 56. Nonstop Destinations Operated by JetBlue from BOS (July 2019) Figure 57. Nonstop Destinations Operated by Delta from BOS (July 2019) Figure 58. Nonstop Destinations Operated by United and American from BOS (July 2019) United American

138 Market Residents As one of the largest hub airports in the region, Boston Logan International Airport serves communities nearby and beyond. To better estimate the potential passenger demands around BOS, we expand the boundary of the market from only Boston, MA to the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT-ME Combined NECTA (See Figure 59). The Combined NECTA is the immediate catchment area of Boston Logan International Airport, where residents have the strongest incentive of choosing BOS over other airports due to its better connectivity, competitive airfare, and abundance of flight options. This does not suggest the market boundary of BOS will terminate at the border of the Boston-Worcester-Providence Combined NECTA. Distant residents are still likely to choose BOS over their local airports, especially when flying to destinations that are directly served by BOS departing flights or international destinations. We will establish the process of thorough catchment areas estimation later. Figure 59. Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT-ME Combined NECTA The Greater Boston region is one of the most populous urban areas in the US (United States Census Bureau, 2021f). According to the American Community Survey (ACS) results (Table 10), the estimated population living in the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT-ME Combined NECTA in 2019 is 8,026,366, and the total household number is estimated to be 3,090,499. Boston is also one of the wealthiest urban areas in the US (Guzman, 2020). Its median household income in 2019 was $85,875, and the mean household income was $116,510. Both figures are significantly higher than the national average, suggesting residents’ strong purchasing power and propensity to travel.

139 Table 10. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI- NH-CT-ME Combined NECTA Year Total Population1, 2 Total Household1, 3 Median Household Income2,3 Mean Household Income2,3 2019 8,026,366 3,090,499 $85,875 $116,510 2018 7,977,666 3,037,699 $80,313 $109,921 2017 7,919,344 3,016,778 $78,381 $106,338 2016 7,869,844 2,988,250 $75,443 $101,468 2015 7,840,274 2,964,939 $71,680 $97,377 2014 7,788,106 2,957,077 $69,694 $95,356 2013 7,733,566 2,939,210 $67,234 $91,727 2012 5,836,263 2,202,941 $70,861 $94,590 2011 5,787,813 2,205,408 $68,149 $91,117 2010 5,750,559 2,187,822 $67,205 $89,295 Note: 1. Data are sourced from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year estimates data from 2010-2019. 2. Population data are from Table DP05. 3. Household number and income data are from Table DP03. Local businesses Boston is one of the major economic hubs in the US. Located in the Northeast, Boston hosts some of the nation’s largest employers in health care, manufacturing, finance, and higher education (Boston Redevelopment Authority, 2011). The Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metro Area ranked 11th by the total number of firms among all the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) of the US in the 2018 Statistics of U.S. Businesses (SUSB) with 106,212 firms, 2,542,993 employees, and over $190 billion total annual payrolls (Table 11) (United States Census Bureau, 2021a). The employment size at the Boston MSA creates strong business travel demand both for outbound trips and inbound visits.

140 Table 11. 2018 Enterprise Employment Size by Metropolitan Statistical Areas (United States Census Bureau, 2021a) Rank Metropolitan Statistical Areas Name Firms Employment Annual Payroll ($1,000) 1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metro Area 507,200 8,503,944 621,116,155 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metro Area 325,677 5,400,184 327,818,010 3 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metro Area 204,233 4,186,029 256,948,625 4 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metro Area 173,866 2,259,507 112,587,014 5 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metro Area 130,430 3,195,952 183,340,573 6 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metro Area 121,391 2,734,972 187,228,963 7 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metro Area 118,887 2,672,372 158,492,623 8 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metro Area 117,069 2,418,086 142,366,233 9 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metro Area 113,954 2,629,134 164,663,969 10 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metro Area 109,371 2,214,178 212,042,488 11 Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metro Area 106,212 2,542,993 190,023,465 12 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metro Area 89,295 1,773,052 132,618,006 13 Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metro Area 81,611 1,801,262 101,594,678 14 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metro Area 78,381 1,800,506 92,005,118 15 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metro Area 78,075 1,845,882 108,544,715 Top markets Airlines serving Boston Logan International Airport provide nonstop flights to multiple domestic as well as international destinations. Using the Origin and Destination Survey Data (DB1B) collected and provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) (2019a), we summarize the top markets that are connected to Boston during 2010 – 2020. See Figure 60 for traffic changes of these top markets. During 2010 – 2020, the top outbound destinations from BOS include Chicago O’Hare (ORD), Los Angeles International (LAX), San Francisco International (SFO), Orlando International (MCO), Reagan National (DCA), and Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson (ATL) airports. The outbound traffic to these destinations had been consistently maintained above 500,000 per year except for 2020 when air travel demand across the board sank to the bottom due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Several large or medium airports that do not serve as hub airports in major airlines’ hub-and-spoke networks have also recorded decent traffic to and from BOS, for instance, Fort Lauderdale (FLL), Las Vegas (LAS), Chicago Midway (MDW), Palm Beach (PBI), Pittsburgh (PIT), Raleigh-Durham (RDU), Southwest Florida (RSW), San Diego (SAN), San Juan (SJU) and Tampa (TPA), indicating strong point-to-point travel demand between Boston and these urban areas.

141 Figure 60. Outbound Traffic from Boston to Top Destinations During 2010 – 2020

142 Competition Competing airports Though Boston Logan International Airport is the largest airport in the New England region, it does not suggest it is free of competition. Several Primary airports are in the vicinity of BOS, serving communities around them and receiving traffic outflown from the catchment area of BOS. Among these airports, Bradley International (BDL), located 110 minutes away from BOS in Window Locks, CT, is a medium-hub airport in the FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (FAA, 2018). Two Small Hubs, Manchester– Boston Regional (MHT) and Rhode Island T. F. Green International (PVD), are both within the 60-minute driving distance to BOS, meeting the travel demand of residents living in the outskirts of Boston well. In addition to these three airports, there are several other small-hub airports and nonhub airports within and around Massachusetts. These airports may offer competitive airfares and better connecting options for local travelers, depending on their destinations and operating carriers. We will offer a more thorough analysis in the later stage of the project to define the boundary of the catchment area of BOS. See Figure 61 for details of competing airports near BOS. Figure 61. Competing Airports in the Vicinity of BOS 2.3.2 Competing modes of transportation Boston Logan International Airport faces not only competition from surrounding airports but is also under the pressure of other modes of transportation for intraregional trips within New England. Previous

143 empirical studies (Li et al., 2019) performed for other regions suggest that rail services up to four hours are very competitive to air travel. We borrow that conclusion and review self-driving, rail, and long-distance bus options up to four hours of traveling time from BOS in this section. Several Amtrak routes originate from or go through Boston, providing frequent and convenient services for residents to commute between nearby states. For example, the Acela line linking Boston to Washington D.C. through major urban areas such as New Haven, CT and New York, NY, make it possible for travelers to bypass air transportation and travel between Boston and New York within four hours (See Table 12). The Lakeshore Line connects Boston to Chicago via major towns around the great lakes. In addition, there are also Northeast Regional line and MBTA line services in nearby areas, providing travelers a convenient and accessible mode of transportation besides aviation (Amtrak, 2021a).

144 Table 12. Comparing Different Transportation Modes from Major Urban Areas Near BOS Destination Driving Train/Metro (Direct) Long- distance Bus Flight Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Frequency Line T (H)2 Airline T (H)2 Nashua, NH 48 0.8 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Worcester, MA 49 0.8 MBTA 1.4 Multiple Peter Plan 1.2 n/a n/a Providence, RI 51 1 Acela 0.6 Multiple Greyhound 1.1 n/a n/a Manchester, NH 54 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Springfield, MA 93 1.5 n/a n/a n/a Peter Plan 3.4 n/a n/a Hartford, CT 102 1.6 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 1.8 n/a n/a Portland, ME 105 1.7 Downeaster 2.5 Multiple Concord 3.2 Cape Air 0.8 New Haven, CT 139 2.3 Acela 2.1 Multiple Greyhound 2.8 n/a n/a Bridgeport, CT 155 2.3 Northeast Reg. 2.8 Multiple Peter Plan 3.5 n/a n/a Albany, NY 171 2.5 Lake Shore 5.4 Daily Greyhound 4.5 n/a n/a Stamford, CT 177 2.7 Acela 2.8 Multiple Peter Plan 4.4 n/a n/a Burlington, VT 217 3.5 n/a n/a n/a Megabus 3.9 n/a n/a New York, NY 217 3.5 Acela 3.8 Multiple Peter Plan 4.6 Multiple 1.2 Note: 1. Driving distance is measured by Google Maps and shown in miles (M). 2. Driving time is quoted from various official sources and shown in hours (H). 3. n/a indicates direct service is not available. 4. Driving distance and time are quoted from urban centers using the fastest route option. Ground access Self-drive Located in one of the most developed regions in the US, Boston Logan International Airport is conveniently served by the Interstate I-90 freeway. I-90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the US, linking Boston to Seattle, WA, and its eastern end terminates at the Logan International Airport (GIS Geography, 2021). Other highways near BOS include I-93, which connects Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and I-95, running along the East Coast from Florida to Maine. These interstate highways, along with other roadways, provide ground access for residents and passengers from nearby regions to drive to and from Logan International Airport. See Figure 62 for the interstate highway system around the Boston area.

145 Source: Google Maps Figure 62. Interstate highways in the Greater Boston area Like other hub airports, BOS provides self-parking options for passengers who drive to the airport. Two types of parking, Terminal Parking and Economy Parking, are available for passengers with different preferences. Rates start at $29 a day for Economy Parking and $38 a day for regular parking as of September 2021 (Massport, 2021f). Public transit At Boston Logan International Airport, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) provides Blue Line Subway services and Silver Line Bus Rapid Transit service to and from Downtown Boston (Massport, 2021h). Passengers can take the free Silver Line from the airport to South Station Rail & Bus Terminal for connections to Commuter Rail, Amtrak, Bus, and the Red Line. Passengers who wish to ride the Blue Line can connect from all terminals using the Massport shuttle business. Free shuttle bus service between airline terminals, the Rental Car Center, the Water Transportation dock, and Airport Station on the MBTA Blue Line is available at Logan International Airport (Massport, 2021e). These buses normally run every 5-6 minutes, providing convenient connections for passengers to move around at BOS. There are also Logan Express services (operated by BOS) available at BOS for passengers to travel to Braintree, Framingham, and Woburn of Massachusetts. The Massport website (Massport, 2021d) lists services to Back Bay and Peabody, but these services are temporarily suspended as of September 2021, when this report is drafted.

146 Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services Like most commercial airports in the US, Boston Logan International Airport permits passengers to use Transportation Network Companies (TNCs, such as Uber or Lyft), to travel from and to the airport. BOS designates certain areas at Central Parking for pickups and drop-offs. BOS adds an Airport Fee of $3.25 for all the rides, which is passed onto the customers by the Transportation Network Companies (Massport, 2021g). In addition to self-driving, public transit, and TNC services, Boston Logan International Airport also provides multiple ground transportation options for travelers who have diverse accessing needs. These services include bus, limousine, hotel shuttle, and conventional taxi services (Massport, 2021c). Such services can be particularly useful for business travelers and inbound visitors. Data availability As one of the largest airports in the US, Boston Logan International Airports has excellent information availability. We tested various datasets and information sources that are necessary prior to formal analysis and can confirm that the following data are available: • Airline operational data (DB1b & T100) • Airport financial data • Census data – Population – Socioeconomic data • Public transit data • Geospatial data • Mobile data (provided by SafeGraph) • Billing data (ARC & MIDT)

147 Case Study 2 – Dallas Love Field Airport (DAL) Position in the National Airspace System Geographic location Dallas Love Field Airport (DAL) is a commercial airport located in northwest Dallas, Texas. Due to its geographic location in one of the large metropolitan areas and its main operating carrier – Southwest Airlines, Dallas Love Field Airport plays a vital role in providing diverse air transport options for residents of Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington and nearby regions. Table 13 shows Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) that are within 250 miles driving distance to DAL and their corresponding population estimates in 2020. Table 13. Driving Distance from DAL to MSAs of Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma within 250-mile Zone State MSA Population1 Distance to DAL (miles)2 Texas Sherman-Denison 138,318 75 Waco 277,005 97 Tyler 235,806 98 Longview 287,105 128 Wichita Falls 152,485 141 Killeen-Temple 468,453 154 Abilene 173,185 181 College Station-Bryan 268,224 181 Austin-Round Rock- Georgetown 2,295,303 195 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land 7,154,478 239 Texas-Arkansas Texarkana 148,838 180 Oklahoma Lawton 126,775 193 Oklahoma City 1,425,375 206 Note: 1. The resident population is based on annual estimates for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals in 2020 (United States Census Bureau, 2021d). 2. Driving distance from urban centers is based on the fastest route suggested by Google Maps. Hub category Dallas Love Field Airport was originally commissioned in 1917 (Dallas Love Field Airport, 2021c). It was the main airport in the Dallas area until Dallas/Fort Worth International was opened in 1974 as a major airport to serve the entire Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. According to the FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a), the annual passenger enplanements make DAL one of 35 Primary- Medium Hub airports in 2020.

148 Annual passenger volumes of Dallas Love Field Airport increased steadily from 2001 to 2020. Since 2015, DAL has witnessed an expedited climb in traffic volume. This pattern is also reflected in its annual enplanement ranking among all US public airports (Figure 63). Figure 63. Annual Passenger Enplanements at DAL and Its Ranking During 2000 – 2020 A few factors may have attributed to the passenger volume increase at DAL. Prior to 2014, the Wright Amendment was in place to limit flights to and from DAL only to destinations within Texas and neighboring states in order to protect the traffic of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (Armbruster, 2016). This law was partially repealed in 2006 and then fully repealed in 2014. The removal of such legal restrictions allows DAL to have new routes connecting to more destinations, thus leading to growing traffic. In addition, the acquisition of AirTran Airways in 2011 gave Southwest Airlines a stronger market presence in the US, contributing to the expansion of its network coverage and traffic growth at DAL, the main operating base (Southwest Airlines, 2011). The merger of the networks of the two carriers was completed formally in 2014 (Southwest Airlines, 2014). Position in Airline Networks As the main hub for Southwest Airlines, Dallas Love Field Airport offers multiple nonstop flights to almost all focus cities served by Southwest (See Figure 64). The dominance of the world’s leading low- cost carrier provides DAL travelers great connectivity to the rest of the nation, especially short to medium- haul destinations. Within the Dallas / Ft Worth Metroplex region, relative to DFW, DAL is critical and, in some cases, predominant in shorter-haul markets like Dallas-Houston, especially within Texas.

149 Other carriers combined have a limited presence at DAL, offering only limited services, mostly to their own bases. For instance, Alaska Airlines flew from DAL to four west coast airports in July 2019, which were Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), Portland International Airport (PDX), and Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA). Refer to Figure 65 for details. In addition to Southwest and Alaska, Delta Air Lines (DL) also operated in DAL in July 2019, connecting DAL to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL). Figure 64. Nonstop Destinations Operated by Southwest Airlines from DAL (July 2019) Figure 65. Nonstop Destinations Operated by Alaska Airlines from DAL (July 2019)

150 Market Residents Dallas Love Field Airport plays a crucial role in serving northern Texas, especially the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area (DFWA), a formally defined geographic and statistical entity. The DFWA MSA is composed of two Metropolitan Divisions (MDs), which area Fort Worth- Arlington MD and Dallas-Plano-Irving MD (The Texas Comptroller’s office, 2021a). The Fort Worth- Arlington MD encompasses Johnson, Parker, Tarrant, and Wise counties, while the Dallas-Plano-Irving MD comprises Collin, Dallas, Denton, Ellis, Hunt, Kaufman, and Rockwall county (The Texas Comptroller’s office, 2021b). See Figure 66 for details of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area is one of the most populated urban areas in the United States (Heinz, 2019). According to the American Community Survey (ACS) results (Table 14), the estimated population living in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington MSA was 7,573,136, and the total household number was about 3,090,499 in 2019 (United States Census Bureau, 2021f). The median household income of Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington MSA in 2019 was $72,265, and the mean house income was $100,213. Compared with the US median household income of $68,703 in 2019 (United States Census Bureau, 2020), residents of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington region have stronger purchasing power, thus leading to stronger travel demands. Figure 66. Counties of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area

151 Table 14. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington MSA Year Total Population1, 2 Total Household1, 3 Median Household Income2, 3 Mean Household Income2,3 2019 7,573,136 2,635,017 $72,265 $100,213 2018 7,540,371 2,623,878 $69,445 $96,898 2017 7,400,479 2,573,711 $67,382 $92,495 2016 7,232,599 2,538,547 $63,812 $89,029 2015 7,102,165 2,479,995 $61,644 $86,871 2014 6,954,003 2,445,239 $59,530 $83,408 2013 6,812,373 2,406,092 $57,398 $81,531 2012 6,647,496 2,337,076 $56,954 $77,915 2011 6,526,566 2,300,151 $55,546 $76,201 2010 6,402,922 2,274,493 $54,449 $74,372 Note: 1. Data are sourced from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year estimates data from 2010-2019. 2. Population data are from Table DP05. 3. Household number and income data are from Table DP03. As in any other metropolitan area, residents of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan area are not uniformly distributed, with more people residing in the east and south in the DFWA region. Therefore, the location of Dallas Love Field Airport makes it relatively easy for residents to access, as opposed to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to its west. Local businesses The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington region hosts headquarters of multiple Fortune 500 companies, such as Exxon Mobil, AT&T, and McKesson Corporation. According to the Statistics of US Businesses (2021a), The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington region ranked fifth by the number of firms and fourth in terms of local employment in 2018. The total annual payroll of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington region is over $183 billion (Table 15) (United States Census Bureau, 2021a). A strong local economy drives up demand for both outbound travel and inbound visits.

152 Table 15. 2018 Enterprise Employment Size by Metropolitan Statistical Areas (United States Census Bureau, 2021a) Rank Metropolitan Statistical Areas Name Firms Employment Annual Payroll ($1,000) 1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metro Area 507,200 8,503,944 621,116,155 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metro Area 325,677 5,400,184 327,818,010 3 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metro Area 204,233 4,186,029 256,948,625 4 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metro Area 173,866 2,259,507 112,587,014 5 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metro Area 130,430 3,195,952 183,340,573 6 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD- WV Metro Area 121,391 2,734,972 187,228,963 7 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE- MD Metro Area 118,887 2,672,372 158,492,623 8 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metro Area 117,069 2,418,086 142,366,233 9 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metro Area 113,954 2,629,134 164,663,969 10 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metro Area 109,371 2,214,178 212,042,488 11 Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metro Area 106,212 2,542,993 190,023,465 12 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metro Area 89,295 1,773,052 132,618,006 13 Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metro Area 81,611 1,801,262 101,594,678 14 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metro Area 78,381 1,800,506 92,005,118 15 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metro Area 78,075 1,845,882 108,544,715 Top markets Operating carriers at DAL, predominantly Southwest Airlines, provide multiple nonstop flights from Dallas to multiple domestic destinations. Using the Origin and Destination Survey Data (DB1B) collected and provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) (2019a), we summarize the top markets that are connected to DAL during 2010 – 2020. See Figure 67 for details of the top markets. Top markets with higher passenger volumes from DAL include Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson Airport (ATL), Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW), Denver International Airport (DEN), Houston William P. Hobby Airport (HOU), Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), and New York La Guardia International Airport (LGA). A close review of the traffic pattern reveals that several major airports, such as ATL, DEN, LAS, LAX, MCO, MDW, and PHX, have experienced strong traffic growth since 2014. Meanwhile, traffic to relatively smaller airports has experienced downward pressure during 2010-2020, for instance, Albuquerque International Sunport (ABQ), Austin International Airport (AUS), Houston William P. Hobby Airport (HOU), and San Antonio International Airport (SAT). Also, the impact of the COVID- 19 Pandemic on air travel demand is severe. Traffic from DAL to all airports shown in Figure 67 has experienced a significant drop compared with the records prior to the pandemic.

153 Figure 67. Outbound Traffic from Dallas to Top Destinations During 2010 – 2020 Competition Competing airports Located in the city of Dallas, Dallas Love Field Airport has the strongest competition in its vicinity – Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). The two hub airports also make the Dallas-Fort Worth- Arlington region a prominent multiple airport region (MAR) in the nation. The Dallas-Fort Worth- Arlington MAR is special in that each of the hub airports hosts a major carrier, with Southwest dominating DAL and American occupying DFW. The strong association between airlines and airports in this area leads to a unique challenge to researchers trying to make sense of passengers’ decision-making process: Do passengers select airline first or airport first when they are making travel itinerary choices? The determination of airport catchment areas, in this case, needs to consider multiple factors, including airfare, flight time, connections, ground access time and cost, frequent flyer program enrollment and status, travelers’ time value etc. We will provide a more thorough analysis in the later stage of the project. Texas offers excellent access to the air transportation network. In addition to DFW, several other airports are also surrounding Dallas Love Field Airport and competing for traffic (Figure 68). Among these competing airports, the Tyler Pounds Regional Airport (TYR) and the Waco Regional Airport (ACT) are relatively close to DAL. Both airports belong to the Primary-Nonhub airport category in the FAA’s NPIAS (FAA, 2021b). Down south, there are two hub airports, Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (AUS) and George W. Bush Houston International Airport (IAH). However, the distance between DAL and these two airports makes it less likely for passengers living in the immediate catchment area of either airport to commute a long distance to the remote airport in replace of their local airport.

154 The Will Rogers World Airport (OKC), situated in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is a Primary-Small Hub airport. OKC is the largest airport in Oklahoma by annual enplanements (FAA, 2022). However, with 205 miles between DAL and OKC, traffic leakage across the state border in either direction will not be very significant. Figure 68. Competing Airports Surrounding DAL Competing Modes of Transportation Texas is well connected. Besides airports nearby, railways and interstate highways are also competing with DAL for passengers traveling for short to medium-haul trips. Both Dallas and Fort Worth are connected by rail to major urban centers both within and outside of Texas, offering passengers an alternative option for travel. The Texas Eagle line link major towns in Texas to destinations such as Chicago and Los Angeles (Amtrak, 2021e). In addition, the Heartland Flyer line connects Fort Worth to Oklahoma City, providing a convenient option for travelers when they need to go north (Amtrak, 2021b). Like most of the other metropolitan areas in the US, the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington area is connected to the rest of the nation by several major highways, including I-20, I-30, I-35, and I- 45 (Figure 69). I-20 is an east-west interstate highway in the south, extending from Kent, TX to Florence, NC, through Fort Worth (GIS Geography, 2021). I-30 starts from Fort Worth, goes through Dallas, and ends at Little Rock, AR (GIS Geography, 2021). I-40 runs North-South, starting from Laredo, TX, and ending at Duluth, MN.

155 And I-45 is entirely within the state of Texas, which connects Dallas to the Houston area. These interconnected highways make it convenient for residents from nearby to travel to DAL to fly. Source: Google Maps Figure 69. Interstate Highways Surrounding Dallas For destinations that are less than 250 miles away from Dallas Love Field Airport, we collect and compare various transportation modes to measure the competitiveness of air transportation. The results are shown in Table 16. Using self-driving, most of these destinations can be reached within 4 hours. If switching to a long-distance bus such as Megabus or Greyhound, the traveling time ranges from 2 to 5 hours for areas that are directly served by these bus companies. Compared with self-driving or buses, air transportation seems to have an edge in terms of traveling time. However, individual travelers may still make their own choice after factoring in the total traveling time, which includes accessing time to and from airports.

156 Table 16. Comparing Different Transportation Modes from Dallas Love Field Destination Driving Train/Metro (Direct) Long-distance Bus Flight Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Freque ncy Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Abilene, TX 183 2.8 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 3.5 n/a n/a Arlington, TX 24 0.5 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Austin, TX 201 3.1 Amtrak 3.3 Multiple Multiple 3.3 Southwest 1 College Station, TX 188 3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Fort Worth, TX 33 0.6 TRE 1 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Houston, TX 239 3.4 n/a n/a n/a Multiple 4.1 Southwest 1 Longview, TX 128 1.9 Amtrak 2.5 Multiple Greyhound 3.1 n/a n/a Temple, TX 141 2.3 n/a n/a n/a Multiple 3.3 n/a n/a Sherman, TX 65 1.1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Tyler, TX 105 1.9 Amtrak 2.6 Multiple Greyhound 1.9 n/a n/a Waco, TX 107 1.9 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Wichita Falls, TX 137 2.1 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 2.8 n/a n/a Texarkana, AR/TX 181 3 Amtrak 5 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Lawton, OK 189 3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Oklahoma City, OK 203 3.3 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 4.9 Southwest 1.2 Note: 1. Driving distance is measured by Google Maps and shown in miles (M). 2. Driving time is quoted from various official sources and shown in hours (H). 3. n/a indicates direct service is not available. 4. Driving distance and time are quoted from urban centers using the fastest route option. Ground access Self-drive The interstate highway system enables convenient ground access from nearby regions to Dallas Love Field Airport. Within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington area, a combination of US highways and Texas state highways provides plenty of options for passengers who wish to drive to the airport. See Figure 70 for roadways around Dallas Love Field Airport. Unlike DFW airport that can be accessed conveniently from both the north and south via the International Parkway (State Highway Spur 97), the ground access to DAL is restricted to the intersection of Cedar Springs Rd and Mockingbird Ln. This limited access can become a bottleneck restricting the traffic to and from the airport during peak hours. See Figure 71 for a plot of traffic conditions near DAL representing a typical Friday evening. There is an ongoing conversation about adding a north entrance to ease the traffic (The Dallas Morning News, 2018). But this plan is still early in the planning stage. Parking facilities are essential for travelers driving to airports. Dallas Love Field Airport has three parking garages with different walking distances to the airport terminal. The typical daily rates at these parking garages vary between $7 and $15, depending on the specific garage and if the exact parking position

157 is covered by a roof (Dallas Love Field Airport, 2021b). Dallas Love Field Airports also offers valet parking services for travelers who value time and convenience at a daily rate of $26. Source: Google Maps Figure 70. Interstate Highways in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Area Source: Google Maps Figure 71. Typical Traffic Condition near DAL during Peak Hours

158 Public transit Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) provides bus, rail, and light railways services in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington area. Residents could use DART services to access both DAL and DFW. In particular, DAL is served by the Green Line and the Orange Line via Love Link 524 bus, while DFW connects to the Orange Line and the TEXRail service (Dallas Area Rapid Transit, 2021). These lines provide multiple connections and transfer options, especially in downtown Dallas. Residents across the Dallas-Fort Worth- Arlington area could save the needs of self-driving or using expensive TNC services when commuting to either airport. The availability of public transit in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington area will not only make it convenient for urban residents to access air transportation but, more importantly, reduce excessive emissions generated from other modes of access and slow down the ever-increasing expansion of parking facilities at airports. Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services Taxi and limousines services are available at Dallas Love Field. Passengers can make a reservation for the Limousines service ahead of their trips. The taxi stand is located on the transportation lower level (Dallas Love Field Airport, 2021d). Travelers need to cross the street toward the parking garage to reach the pickup areas. Taxis charges a flat rate to downtown Dallas of 21$, which includes the DAL loading fee and an additional $2 surcharge for each extra passenger (Dallas Love Field Airport, 2021a). With respect to TNC services, the lower-level roadway is only one permitted area for TNC pickups at DAL, while drop-offs are permitted on the upper level at the Ticketing Hall. Transportation Network Companies at DAL include Alto, Lyft, Uber, and Wingz (Dallas Love Field Airport, 2021d). Data availability As one of the largest metropolitan areas in the US, the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington has excellent information availability. We tested various datasets and information sources that are necessary prior to formal analysis and can confirm that the following data are available and ready to be deployed: • Airline operational data (DB1b & T100) • Airport financial data • Census data – Population – Socioeconomic data • Public transit data • Geospatial data • Mobile data (provided by SafeGraph) • Billing data (ARC & MIDT)

159 Case Study 3 – Ontario International Airport (ONT) Position in the National Airspace System Geographic location Ontario International Airport (ONT) is located near downtown Ontario, California. Being 56 miles away from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Ontario International Airport offers residents living in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area an alternative option to avoid the traffic congestion near LAX. To better capture potential passengers who may use Ontario International Airport (ONT) when they need to take commercial flights, we select major Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of Southern California to list their respective population and distances to ONT. See Table 17 for more information. Table 17. Population and Driving Distance from ONT to Major MSAs in California State MSA Population1 Distance to ONT (miles)2 California Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario 4,678,371 - Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim 13,109,903 40 San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad 3,332,427 107 Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura 841,387 140 Bakersfield 901,362 149 El Centro 180,267 172 Santa Maria-Santa Barbara 444,766 197 Note: 1. The resident population is based on annual estimates for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals in 2020 (United States Census Bureau, 2021d). 2. Driving distance from urban centers is based on the fastest route suggested by Google Maps. Hub category Located in Southern California, Ontario International Airport is one of the Primary-Medium Hub airports in FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a). During 2000–2018, the annual passenger enplanements at ONT have been consistently declining. This Global Financial Crisis of 2008 hit ONT hard, with major carriers cutting services to and from ONT to reduce the impact of slowing demand and rising costs (Pae, 2008). In 2016, the ownership, management, and operation of ONT has been transferred from Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) back to the Ontario International Airport Authority (OIAA), a joint powers authority between the city of Ontario and San Bernardino County (Richards, 2017). The transfer of ownership allowed the OIAA to focus on developing the airport and expand the air service network at ONT to better serve the local community, and the declining trend of passenger enplanement started to be reversed. In 2019, the airport has witnessed 5,583,732 annual enplanements, the highest since 2009. 2020 was the year that the entire aviation sector was brought down by the COVID-19 Pandemic. ONT was not an exception. The annual enplanements dropped to 2,538,482, the lowest in the last twenty years. However, the magnitude of decline at ONT was less than that at other airports, boosting the enplanement ranking of ONT from 57 a year ago to 54 in 2020. See Figure 72 for the change of passenger enplanements at ONT and the corresponding rankings during 2000–2020.

160 Figure 72. Annual Passenger Enplanements at ONT and Enplanement Rankings During 2000 – 2020 Position in airline networks Ontario International Airport plays a crucial role in the networks of airlines that aim to set their feet into the competitive but rewarding Southern California market. ONT is the preferred airport for people living in the Inland Empire including San Bernardino/Riverside counties, Orange County, and part of Eastern LA county, when those residents are taking short-haul (intra-CA/West Coast/LAS/PHX/etc.) trips and long- haul trips when nonstops are available. Close to a dozen passenger airlines are currently operating at this medium-hub airport, including AHA!, Alaska, American, Avianca, China Airlines, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Southwest, United, and Volaris (Ontario International Airport, 2021a). In addition, three cargo carriers, Amazon, FedEx, and UPS, also have a strong presence at ONT. Among all the airlines operating at ONT, Southwest Airlines offers the most extensive network measured by the number of direct destinations served in July 2019. Passengers could reach popular west coast destinations as well as nearby cities such as Las Vegas and Phoenix. See Figure 73 for the network of Southwest at ONT. Other network carriers mostly use ONT as a typical spoke airport in their hub-and- spoke networks, only providing connection to their network hubs.

161 Even though Ontario International Airport is in the vicinity of one of the largest international gateway airports in the US –Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), a couple of international airlines still choose ONT as an alternative option to access the US market and serve the diverse travel demands of various ethnic markets within the Los Angeles metro area. Volaris, a Mexico-based Ultra Cost Carrier (ULCC), operates from Ontario to Mexico City and Guadalajara (Ontario International Airport, 2020). China Airlines, one of the largest airlines based in Taiwan, operates scheduled flights between Ontario and Taipei, in addition to their services to the nearby LAX (Chiang & Lin, 2021), which signals the strong travel demand between Southern California and Taiwan. Figure 73. Nonstop Destinations Operated by Southwest Airlines from ONT (Sampling Date: July 2019) Market Residents The Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), also known as the “Inland Empire” in California (Inlandempire.us, 2019), is a high population density MSA (United States Census Bureau, 2021f). This MSA is composed of Riverside County and San Bernardino County. Surrounding the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSA are Orange County, San Diego County, and Los Angeles County. Figure 74 depicts the census tract of these counties and the location of Ontario International Airport. According to the Census Bureau (United States Census Bureau, 2021f), the estimated population living in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSA in 2019 was 4,650,631, while the total household number was 1,379,706. The median household income of this MSA in 2019 was $70,954, and the mean house income was $91,251 (See Table 18). The median household income of the Riverside-San Bernardino- Ontario MSA is lower than that of the entire California, which was estimated to be $75,235 in 2019.

162 Figure 74. Riverside, San Bernardino, Ontario, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Diego counties Table 18. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSA Year Total Population2 Total Household3 Median Household Income3 Mean Household Income3 2019 4,650,631 1,379,706 $70,954 $91,251 2018 4,622,361 1,366,750 $65,671 $86,183 2017 4,580,670 1,344,956 $61,994 $81,378 2016 4,527,837 1,348,213 $58,236 $76,407 2015 4,489,159 1,343,526 $56,087 $73,425 2014 4,441,890 1,317,650 $54,586 $71,067 2013 4,380,878 1,297,675 $53,220 $70,282 2012 4,350,096 1,285,948 $51,695 $67,048 2011 4,304,997 1,294,496 $52,042 $67,813 2010 4,245,773 1,265,050 $53,548 $68,462 Note: 1. Data are sourced from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year estimates data from 2010-2019. 2. Population data are from Table DP05. 3. Household number and income data are from Table DP03. Local businesses The Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSA was the 19th largest metropolitan statistical area in 2018 based on the number of firms, according to the 2018 Statistics of US Businesses (SUSB). Details of the ranking are provided in Table 19. Following Los-Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, San Francisco-Oakland- Hayward, and San Diego-Carlsbad MSAs, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSA ranked the fourth in California by the number of firms in 2018. Given the proximity of Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

163 and Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario MSAs, Ontario International Airport has the potential of expanding its market beyond the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario area. Table 19. 2018 Enterprise Employment Size by Metropolitan Statistical Areas (United States Census Bureau, 2021a) Rank Metropolitan Statistical Areas Name Firms Employment Annual Payroll ($1,000) 15 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metro Area 897,728 14,322,202 809,391,940 16 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metro Area 838,083 10,368,410 595,226,864 17 Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metro Area 823,373 10,338,273 596,243,334 18 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metro Area 757,968 9,009,999 424,263,386 19 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metro Area 711,374 9,650,992 407,297,374 20 Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metro Area 675,880 8,669,449 472,606,550 21 St. Louis, MO-IL Metro Area 648,667 9,776,793 488,518,970 22 Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL Metro Area 630,726 8,395,545 369,054,898 23 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metro Area 625,049 9,462,035 521,422,210 24 Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metro Area 563,859 8,306,534 434,666,876 25 Pittsburgh, PA Metro Area 522,006 8,574,153 430,236,394 26 Austin-Round Rock, TX Metro Area 504,717 6,954,522 390,823,405 27 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metro Area 484,637 8,293,168 982,600,316 28 Kansas City, MO-KS Metro Area 478,975 7,487,323 380,206,715 29 Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade, CA Metro Area 470,776 6,128,952 323,522,712 Top markets Using the Origin and Destination Survey Data (DB1B) provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2019b), we plot the change of outbound traffic from ONT to top destinations during 2010 – 2020 (Figure 75). Of all the airports that are directly reachable from ONT, the Sacramento International Airport (SMF) and the Oakland International Airport (OAK) claim the highest passenger traffic. Annual enplanements from ONT to SMF and OAK are above 400,000 for most of the time except for 2020 due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. This is an interesting observation as neither ONT nor OAK is the primary airport in the regions where they are located. The strong traffic flow between these airports suggests many passengers traveling between the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California are selecting secondary airports over primary airports. This is not uncommon for busy multiple airport regions (MARs). In addition to SMF and OAK, other popular west coast destinations from ONT include Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX), Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport (SJC), and Portland International Airport (PDX). Services provided by network carriers such as United and American Airlines make Denver International Airport (DEN) and Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) popular destinations from Ontario International Airport.

164 Figure 75. Outbound Traffic from ONT to Top Destinations During 2010-2020 Competition Competing airports Located in the Greater Los Angeles multiple airport region (MAR), Ontario International Airport is facing strong challenges from surrounding airports, especially Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). As one of the largest international gateway airports, LAX hosts flights originating from both domestic and international airports. Almost all major carriers provide frequent services to and from LAX, making it an obvious choice for residents and visitors. Meanwhile, busy activities at LAX and the high traffic volume in the Los Angeles area create congestion in Southern California and restrict ground access to LAX. This leads to business opportunities for ONT in that it can attract customers with its convenient ground access, especially for passengers of eastern suburbs bound for short to medium-haul destinations. Besides LAX and ONT, other airports in the Greater LA region include Long Beach/Daugherty Field Airport (LGB), Hollywood Burbank Airport (BUR), and John Wayne Airport (SNA) of Orange County, with each of them hosting a decent amount of traffic despite their proximities to LAX. To the east of ONT, the Palm Springs International Airport (PSP) is about 70 miles (or 80 minutes of driving). And to the south of LA stands the San Diego International Airport (SAN). However, considering the distance between ONT and SAN and their hub status, it is less likely for SAN traffic to be leaked to ONT. See Figure 76 for the location of ONT and its competing airports.

165 Figure 76. Competing Airports in the Vicinity of ONT Competing modes of transportation Three Amtrak routes go through Ontario. They are Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited, and Texas Eagle. These train lines provide convenience for passengers who would like to venture into an alternative mode of transportation other than flying or driving. The Southwest Chief runs between Chicago and Los Angeles and goes through major towns such as Kansas City, MO, Albuquerque, NM, and Flagstaff, AZ (Amtrak, 2021c). The Sunset Limited Line starts from Los Angeles, CA, and goes to New Orleans, LA via Palm Springs, CA, San Antonio, and Houston of Texas (Amtrak, 2021d). And lastly, Texas Eagle connects Los Angeles to Chicago by running through Texas (Amtrak, 2021e). In addition to these three lines, the Coast Starlight line serving Seattle–Los Angeles could also be used by residents of Ontario to access Portland, OR and Seattle, WA. For passengers who choose to drive to the airport, Ontario International Airport is sited in the crossing of Interstate highways I-10 and I-15, and California State Route 60 (SR60). I-15 was constructed to link San Diego County to the Inland Empire. I-15 runs through California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, and Montana, and I-10 stretches from Santa Monica, California to Jacksonville, Florida, passing through all southern states in the US. Additionally, I-215, an auxiliary interstate highway of I-15, serving the local communities goes through the Inland Empire. SR60 serves the cities and communities on the eastern side of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and runs along the south side of the San Gabriel Valley. See Figure 77 for roadways that provide ground access to ONT.

166 Source: Google Maps Figure 77. Interstate Highways Surrounding Ontario International Airport For destinations that are within the 250-mile driving range from Ontario International Airport, we compare different options of transportation, including self-driving, train/metro, long-distance bus, and flights. The results are shown in Table 20. It is obvious that self-driving is the most convenient way of traveling, as public transit in this area mostly needs connections.

167 Table 20. Comparing Different Transportation Modes from Ontario Destinatio n Driving Train/Metro (Direct) Long-distance Bus Flight Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Freque ncy Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Anaheim, CA 33 0.6 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Long Beach, CA 55 1.1 Metrolink & Light rail 2.1 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Oxnard, CA 101 1.8 Metrolink & Light rail 2.75 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a San Diego, CA 111 1.9 Metrolink & Light rail 5.5 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Saint Barbara, CA 134 2.3 Amtrak & Metrolink 4 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Bakersfield, CA 149 2.5 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 2.25 n/a n/a El Centro, CA 172 3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Saint Maria, CA 197 3.9 Amtrak & Metrolink 7 Multiple n/a n/a n/a n/a Las Vegas, NV 232 3.6 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Multiple 1.1 Note: 1. Driving distance is measured by Google Maps and shown in miles (M). 2. Driving time is quoted from various official sources and shown in hours (H). 3. n/a indicates direct service is not available. 4. Driving distance and time are quoted from urban centers using the fastest route option. Ground access Self-drive Interstate highway I-10 is the arterial road linking to Ontario International Airport. Multiple exits are available on I-10 for passengers who drive to terminals or parking lots at ONT. Several parking lots and options are provided at ONT for passengers of different needs (Ontario International Airport, 2021d). The rates of parking vary, depending on the lot and length of parking. Lot 2 and 4 offer more short-term parking options. Visitors could park their vehicle by hours or by days. For passengers who are looking for long- term options, Lot 3 and 5 would offer more economical options. Public transit Metrolink is a commuter rail system in Southern California consisting of seven lines and 62 stations. It is an efficient and effective travel solution for residents of the six Southern California counties. However, unlike San Francisco International Airport or Chicago O’Hare International Airport that is directly connected to the local metro system, Ontario International Airport is disconnected to Metrolink. Passengers who wish to access Ontario International Airport using public transit could take the Riverside Line and get off the train at the Ontario – East station, which is about 2 miles away from ONT (Metrolink, 2021). Passengers then need to use other modes of transportation, such as TNC or taxi, to get to the airport.

168 Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services ONT is accessible through TNC services. As of October 2021, three TNC apps are available at ONT, which are Lyft, Wingz, and Opoli (Ontario International Airport, 2021b). Uber, arguably the most popular TNC in the US, ceased operations at ONT in 2019 because of rising fees charged by ONT (Uber, 2019). ONT provides a convenient and designated area for TNCs outside of Terminal 2, 4, and the international terminal. Taxis, provided by Bell Cab, are available at Ontario International Airport (Ontario International Airport, 2021c). Arrival passengers to ONT could ride at the taxi ranks in front of every terminal. In addition, limousines services are also available at ONT. The website of Ontario International Airport lists six limousine companies for passengers to pick from. Similarly, rental cars and hotel shuttles are also available at ONT for passengers of varying needs. Data availability As one of the largest metropolitan areas in the US, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area has excellent information availability. We tested various datasets and information sources that are necessary prior to the formal analysis and can confirm that the following data are available and ready to be deployed: • Airline operational data (DB1b & T100) • Airport financial data • Census data – Population – Socioeconomic data • Public transit data • Geospatial data • Mobile data (provided by SafeGraph) • Billing data (ARC & MIDT)

169 Case Study 4 – Akron-Canton Airport (CAK) Position in the National Airspace System Geographic Location Akron-Canton Airport (CAK) is a commercial airport in Northeast Ohio. Located between the City of Akron and City and Canton in Ohio, the airport is governed by an Airport Authority with eight trustees appointed by Summit County and Stark County. Akron-Canton Airport is not only eyeing residents from its immediate communities but also markets itself as a cheaper and convenient alternative option for the Cleveland-Elyria region, which is directly served by Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) (Akron-Canton Airport, 2021b). The airport is surrounded by small to medium Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. See Table 21 for a list of MSAs near CAK and their associated population estimates. Table 21. Population and Driving Distances from CAK to Major MSAs State MSA Population1 Distance to CAK (miles)2 Ohio Akron 701,449 15 Canton-Massillon 396,669 16 Cleveland-Elyria 2,043,807 50 Mansfield 120,891 71 Columbus 2,138,946 133 Toledo 641,549 148 West Virginia- Pennsylvania Youngstown-Warren- Boardman 531,420 72 West Virginia-Ohio Weirton-Steubenville 115,184 85 Wheeling 137,217 118 Note: 1. The resident population is based on annual estimates for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals in 2020 (United States Census Bureau, 2021d). 2. Driving distance to urban centers is based on the fastest route suggested by Google Maps. Hub category According to the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems of FAA (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a), CAK was a Primary-Nonhub airport in 2020, suggesting the airport received less than 0.05% but more than 10,000 of the annual U.S. commercial enplanements in 2020(FAA, 2021b). A detailed review of airport enplanements data reveals that Akron-Canton Airport dropped from Primary-Small Hub airport to Primary-Nonhub airport in 2018. To illustrate the change of passenger traffic at CAK, we plot its annual enplanements along with other small-hub airports and nonhub airports (using the 2020 categorization results) in Figure 33. It is visible in Figure 78 that annual passenger enplanements at CAK peaked in 2012. Since then, passenger traffic of CAK has continued to decline, along with its ranking among all airports measured by annual enplanement. Similar trends may also be found in other nonhub airports near medium-hub airports. This warrants a further investigation to identify potential causing factors.

170 Figure 78. Annual Passenger Enplanements at CAK and Other Airports During 2000 – 2020 Position in Airline Networks Akron-Canton Airport (CAK) now serves as a typical spoke airport in the hub-and-spoke networks of major network carriers. Both United Airlines and American Airlines are operating between CAK and multiple East Coast hubs, providing a one-stop solution to popular domestic and international destinations (Figure 79). In addition, Spirit Airlines flies from CAK to Orlando International Airport (MCO) as of November 2021, offering residents a convenient travel option to Florida. Please be noted this information is based on operations at CAK as of late 2021. Subsequent air service development activities since then may have changed air services available at CAK.

171 Figure 79. Nonstop Destinations Operated by American and United Airlines from CAK (July 2019) Market Residents Situated between Akron and Canton, Akron-Canton Airport serves two Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in its vicinity (Figure 80). Both MSAs represented a combined population of 1.1 million as of 2019 (Table 22). However, it is worth noting that the total population of this area remains stagnant during 2010–2019. The 2019 median household income for Akron and Canton-Massillon was $57,158 and $55,706, respectively, which are lower than the US median household income of $68,703 (United States Census Bureau, 2020). United Airlines American Airlines United & American

172 Figure 80. Census Tracts within the MSAs of Akron and Canton-Massillon

173 Table 22. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Akron and Canton-Massillon MSAs Year Combined Population2 Combined Household2 Median Household Income3 Mean Household Income3 Akron Canton- Massillon Akron Canton- Massillon 2019 1,100,999 451,365 $57,158 $55,706 $80,800 $71,573 2018 1,103,500 450,670 $60,019 $51,624 $79,792 $66,980 2017 1,103,432 454,755 $56,106 $51,198 $75,838 $65,527 2016 1,103,502 447,873 $51,598 $50,811 $70,083 $66,227 2015 1,107,219 445,324 $51,580 $49,313 $70,288 $65,874 2014 1,107,748 442,968 $50,538 $47,729 $67,821 $62,048 2013 1,109,393 441,490 $49,984 $45,168 $67,507 $61,862 2012 1,105,717 442,650 $49,731 $45,157 $65,187 $57,113 2011 1,107,149 434,677 $47,032 $41,770 $62,438 $55,297 2010 1,106,189 440,944 $46,521 $42,365 $60,782 $55,183 Note: 1. Data are sourced from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year estimates data from 2010-2019 (United States Census Bureau, 2021f). 2. Population data are from Table DP05. 3. Household number and income data are from Table DP03. Local Businesses According to the Statistics of US Business (SUSB), Akron and Canton-Massillon jointly host approximately 20,169 firms, which hire over 444,000 employees in total as of 2018 (United States Census Bureau, 2021a). The annual payroll totals $20 billion. Notable companies headquartered in Akron include Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, First Energy, and Timken Steel, suggesting certain business travel demands to and from this area. The nearby Cleveland-Elyria metro area is significantly larger than Akron and Canton-Massillon, with its close to 40,000 registered firms and near 1 million employment market. However, the Cleveland-Elyria metro area sits within the immediate catchment of Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE). Most of the business travel demands will not be easily leaked from CLE to CAK. See Table 23 for more information. Table 23. 2018 Enterprise Employment Size by Metropolitan Statistical Areas Near CAK (United States Census Bureau, 2021a) Rank Metropolitan Statistical Areas Name Firms Employment Annual Payroll ($1,000) 30 Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metro Area 39,591 923,095 48,719,876 80 Akron, OH Metro Area 13,078 293,328 14,065,130 139 Canton-Massillon, OH Metro Area 7,091 150,596 6,108,802

174 Top Markets Passengers who fly out of Akron-Canton Airport are mostly traveling to large metropolitan areas, including Atlanta, New York, Orlando, and Tampa. Most of these destinations are on the east coast of the US. We plot the change of traffic to these popular destinations in Figure 81. It is quite visible that CAK served much higher passenger traffic during 2010–2014. However, since 2015, outbound demand from CAK has dropped systematically. This was caused by the removal of several nonstop services due to airline consolidation. As of 2019, the top markets out of CAK are Atlanta, Charlotte, Orlando, Chicago, and Fort Myers. Figure 81. Outbound Traffic from CAK to Top Destinations During 2010 – 2020 Competition Competing Airports Akron-Canton Airport (CAK) competes with Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) since the driving distance between the two airports is only 53 miles via I-77. As a Primary-Medium Hub airport, CLE provides more nonstop and connecting options for travelers to both domestic and international destinations. Therefore, CAK positions itself as an alternative airport in the region for residents who prefer to save time and money.

175 CAK has John Glenn Columbus International Airport (CMH) and Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT) to its south. Driving times from CAK to CMH and PIT are 130 minutes and 110 minutes, respectively, assuming normal traffic conditions. The spatial proximity and strong hub status of these competing airports suggest Akron-Canton Airport faces strong competition from CMH and PIT in attracting travelers of north- central, central, and west Ohio, such as Mansfield, Cambridge, and Youngstown-Warren-Boardman. See Figure 82 for the locations of CAK and its main competing airports. Figure 82. Geographic Locations of Akron-Canton (CAK) and Surrounding Airports As previously introduced in Figure 78, passenger enplanements at Akron-Canton Airport have experienced enduring decline since 2013. To discern if this trend is only present at CAK or it is a regional phenomenon, we compare the passenger enplanements change of CAK, CLE, CMH, and PIT in Figure 83. Using the 2009 airport enplanement as the reference, Figure 83 depicts the relative change of passenger enplanement at each airport during 2010–2020. It is visible the passenger traffic decline at CAK started in 2013 and continues into 2020. However, a similar decline trend is not observed in CLE, CMH, or PIT, where passenger enplanements had been consistently growing during 2015-2019. The sudden traffic slump of all four airports in 2020 was due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

176 Note: Passenger enplanements of 2009 = 1 Figure 83. Relative Passenger Enplanements Change at CAK and Surrounding Airports During 2010 – 2020 Contributing factors to the dichotomous trends of CAK and surrounding airports might be multifaceted. In 2014, United Airlines announced the decision of downgrading hub operations at Cleveland and reducing its daily Cleveland flights by about 60% following its merger with Continental Airlines (Mutzabaugh, 2014c). The vacancy left behind United at Cleveland was quickly taken by low-cost carriers (LCCs) such as Frontier (Mutzabaugh, 2014a), JetBlue, Spirit Airlines (Mutzabaugh, 2014b), and Southwest Airlines (Figure 84). Meanwhile, AirTran Airways, which had operated in CAK for years as a substitute lower-cost airport alternative to CLE, finalized its merger with Southwest Airlines and ceased operations in 2014. After the merger, Southwest gradually pulled its operations out of CAK and added more capacity to CLE (Figure 84) to compete with other LCCs for the greater Cleveland market. During this period, the gradual phasing out of smaller regional jet with 50 seats or fewer by US airlines also led to reduced capacities to airports such as CAK. These factors combined caused the change of passenger traffic at CAK and surrounding airports, as identified in Figure 83.

177 Figure 84. Outbound Passenger Volumes of CAK and Competing Airports by Marketing Airlines Competing modes of transportation For residents of the Akron-Canton region, major metropolitical areas that are within the 4-hour driving range include Cleveland, Toledo, Columbus, Pittsburgh, and Detroit. As of November 2021, there is no airline operating from CAK to any of these destinations. In addition, Amtrak lines in Ohio run through Cleveland. Akron-Canton residents must rely on intermodal connections if they wish to ride trains to these Midwest destinations. Limited travel options in this region make self-driving the only sensible way of commuting from the Akron-Canton region. With the interstate highways I-71, I-76, and I-77 going through Akron and nearby I-70 and I-90, travelers can reach Detroit, MI, which is located almost 200 miles away from Akron, in about three hours. Refer to Table 24 for details.

178 Table 24. Comparing Different Transportation Modes from Akron, OH Destinati on Driving Train/Metro (Direct) Long-distance Bus Flight Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Frequency Dis (M)1 T (H)2 Line (fastest) T (H)2 Cleveland, OH 37 0.8 Multi-stop 1.1 Multiple Multiple 2.0 n/a n/a Pittsburgh, PA 112 2.0 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 2.4 n/a n/a Columbus, OH 125 1.9 n/a n/a n/a Barons 2.8 n/a n/a Toledo, OH 137 2.1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Detroit, MI 194 3.0 n/a n/a n/a Greyhound 8.0 n/a n/a Note: 1. Driving distance is measured by Google Maps and shown in miles (M). 2. Driving time is quoted from various official sources and shown in hours (H). 3. n/a indicates direct service is not available. 4. Driving distance and time are quoted from urban centers using the fastest route option. Ground access Self-drive Akron-Canton Airport is conveniently situated next to interstate highway I-77, making it easy for passengers from north and south to access. The airport provides several parking options in its parking facilities adjacent to the main terminal building. The daily parking rate ranges between $12 at Long-Term Lot A to $15 at Covered Short-Term. Passengers can walk from Short-Term parking to the terminal in minutes, and free shuttle service to the terminal is available for passengers parking at the long-term parking lot (Akron-Canton Airport, 2021c). Public Transit Akron-Canton Airport is accessible using public transit from both Akron and Canton. When departing from Akron, travelers can take the Akron Metro Line 110 (Green/Springfield). The outbound bus departs from RKP Transit Center in Downtown Akron and arrives at CAK in 47 minutes. Eight services are provided each day, with the first bus departing Akron at 6 am and the last bus returning from CAK airport at 6:51 pm. See Table 25 for the outbound bus scheduled from RKP Transit Center to CAK airport for Fall 2021.

179 Table 25. Weekday Outbound Schedule from RKP Transit Center to CAK Airport, Fall 2021 (Akron Metro, 2021) RKP Transit Center E Exchange & Brown E. Market & Goodyear Blvd Aircraft Service Rd @ Lockheed Martin Massillon Rd & Krumroy Rd Mayfair Rd & Raber Rd PIONEER PLASTICS Massillon Rd & Steese Rd Akron- Canton Airport 6:00 AM 6:07 AM 6:12 AM 6:19 AM 6:24 AM 6:31 AM 6:34 AM 6:39 AM 6:47 AM 7:00 AM 7:07 AM 7:12 AM 7:19 AM 7:24 AM 7:31 AM 7:34 AM 7:39 AM 7:47 AM 8:30 AM 8:37 AM 8:42 AM 8:49 AM 8:54 AM 9:01 AM - 9:08 AM 9:16 AM 12:00 PM 12:07 PM 12:12 PM 12:20 PM 12:25 PM 12:32 PM - 12:39 PM 12:47 PM 2:00 PM 2:07 PM 2:12 PM 2:19 PM 2:24 PM 2:31 PM - 2:37 PM 2:45 PM 3:00 PM 3:07 PM 3:12 PM 3:19 PM 3:24 PM 3:31 PM - 3:37 PM 3:45 PM 5:00 PM 5:07 PM 5:12 PM 5:19 PM 5:24 PM 5:31 PM - 5:37 PM 5:45 PM 6:00 PM 6:07 PM 6:12 PM 6:19 PM 6:24 PM 6:31 PM - 6:37 PM 6:45 PM Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) operates express routes in western Stark County and around Akron-Canton Airport starting from February 2020 (Akron-Canton Airport, 2021a). Line 81 Canton -Akron Express runs between Canton Cornerstone Transit Center and Akron METRO Transit Center via Akron-Canton Airport multiple times a day from Monday to Saturday. The driving time from either end of the bus service to CAK is only 24 minutes (SARTA, 2021). Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services Multiple ground access options are available at Akron-Canton Airport, including taxi, airport limo, and TNC services, for travelers to connect to and from the airport. Both Uber and Lyft offer curbside pickup and drop-off services at CAK. CAK offers a taxi and limo ready lane for passengers using such services. Passengers will meet their drivers at the passenger pickup area outside of the main terminal.

180 Data availability Data of Akron-Canton Airport is sufficient to conduct a thorough catchment area analysis. We tested various datasets and information sources and can confirm that the following data are available and ready to be deployed: • Airline operational data (DB1b & T100) • Airport financial data (limited) • Census data – Population – Socioeconomic data • Public transit data • Geospatial data • Mobile data (provided by SafeGraph) • Billing data (ARC & MIDT)

181 Case Study 5 – Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport (OAJ) Position in the National Airspace System Geographic location Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport (OAJ) is in Onslow County, North Carolina. The airport is approximately 14 miles to Jacksonville, 57 miles to Wilmington, and 85 miles to Fayetteville, NC. Located near the Atlantic coast, Jacksonville Airport is the gateway to the Topsail area, which is known for its outdoor and water activities (VisitNC.com, 2021). Jacksonville has several Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas around it, with the 2020 population estimates ranging from 55,720 (Kinston) to 301,283 (Wilmington). Refer to Table 18 for the population estimates of Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Areas near OAJ. Considering the status of OAJ as a nonhub airport, passengers from distant communities have very low incentives to drive to OAJ to start their journal. Therefore, we only list MSAs that are within the 100-mile radius of OAJ in Table 26. Table 26. Population of Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Areas Near OAJ (within the 100-mile radius) State MSA Population1 Distance to OAJ (miles)2 North Carolina Jacksonville 203,943 14 Kinston3 55,720 34 New Bern 123,198 51 Wilmington 301,284 57 Goldsboro 123,967 56 Morehead City3 69,558 58 Greenville 182,924 70 Note: 1. The resident population is based on annual estimates for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals in 2020 (United States Census Bureau, 2021d). 2. The driving distance is between the airport and the urban center of MSA based on the fastest route suggested by Google Maps. 3. Morehead City and Kinston are Micropolitan Statistical Areas. Hub category Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport was a Primary-Nonhub airport in 2020 in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (FAA, 2021a), which suggests its annual passenger enplanements are more than 10,000 but less than 0.05% of the annual US commercial enplanements. We compared the annual passenger enplanements at OAJ with other Primary-Nonhub airports during 2000–2020 (See Figure 85). It is visible that passenger traffic at OAJ has been on an uptrend trajectory in this period. Its enplanement ranking had climbed from initially 308 in 2001 to 182 in 2020. The improvement of passenger flow at OAJ is a strong indication of business development success at OAJ and local economic growth at Jacksonville.

182 Figure 85. Annual Passenger Enplanements at OAJ and Its Ranking During 2000 – 2020 Position in Airline Networks As a Primary-Nonhub airport, Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport is a typical spoke airport serving local communities in the hub-and-spoke networks of major airlines in the United States. Two major carriers, American Airlines and Delta Air Lines, are offering direct flights from OAJ to their hubs. American flights are operated by PSA Airlines, a regional airline that is a wholly owned subsidiary of American, between OAJ and Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) (Albert J. Ellis Airport, 2021a). Delta flights are operated by their regional subsidiary, Endeavor Airlines, between OAJ and Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL). Multiple flights are operated by both carriers in a day so that residents and visitors to this region have convenient flight options. Market Residents Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport is in Onslow County, NC. Onslow County has a total area of 767 square miles (United States Census Bureau, 2019) and includes the incorporated towns of Holly Ridge, Richlands, Swansboro, North Topsail Beach, as well as unincorporated Sneads Ferry (Onslow County, 2021). See Figure 86 for the location and composition of Onslow County in North Carolina. According to the Census data (United States Census Bureau, 2021f), the estimated population living in Onslow County in 2019 was 197,938, while the total household number was 63,604. The median household income of this region in 2019 was $49,544, and the mean house income was $67,207 (See Table 27). This is lower than the mean household income of $54,602 for North Carolina in 2019 (United States Census Bureau, 2019).

183 Figure 86. Census tracts within Jacksonville MSA Table 27. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Jacksonville MSA (Onslow County) Year Total Population2 Total Household3 Median Household Income3 Mean Household Income3 2019 197,938 63,604 49,544 67,207 2018 197,683 66,834 50,639 61,979 2017 193,893 62,941 49,883 61,862 2016 187,136 61,766 47,150 56,900 2015 186,311 64,771 45,832 56,869 2014 187,589 61,873 47,581 59,652 2013 185,220 60,764 44,673 54,335 2012 183,263 61,842 44,250 54,584 2011 179,719 59,806 45,573 51,630 2010 179,471 60,242 41,787 52,360 Note: 1. Data are sourced from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1-year estimates data from 2010-2019. 2. Population data are from Table DP05. 3. Household number and income data are from Table DP03. Local businesses Jacksonville is relatively a small metropolitan statistical area measured by the number of firms and local employment size. As of 2018, there were 2,356 firms hiring 36,233 employees with an annual payroll totaling $1.05 billion in Jacksonville (United States Census Bureau, 2021a). The largest employer in Jacksonville is the Department of Defense. Camp Lejeune, the largest Marine Corps base on the East Coast, accommodates more than 43,000 service members at Jacksonville (Acton, 2016). The City of Jacksonville

184 has recently created the Jacksonville Business Park to attract external investment and foster local business incubation (City of Jacksonville, 2021a). The business park is located conveniently between the City of Jacksonville and Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport and is expected to generate more business and travel demands for the region. Wilmington, which is approximately 50 miles to the south of Jacksonville, is a popular destination as a gateway to Cape Fear Coast beaches. Wilmington hosted 7,773 firms and provided more than 111,000 jobs with an annual payroll of $4.75 billion in 2018 (United States Census Bureau, 2021a). Given the short distance between Jacksonville and Wilmington, travelers may look at flight options from several nearby airports when booking flights to and from this region. Top markets Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport is served by Delta Air Lines and American Airlines. Unsurprisingly, the top markets that are currently served by direct flights from OAJ are Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) and Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT), both of which are major airline hubs. In terms of annual passenger volume, ATL tops CLT with a significant margin during 2010– 2020. US Airways, before merging with American Airlines, briefly operated direct flights between Jacksonville and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) during 2012–2014. See Figure 87 for the outbound traffic from OAJ to these airports. Most travelers who start their journeys at OAJ are connecting via ATL or CLT to their destinations. We review the Origin and Destination Survey Data DB1B data (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2019b) and plot passenger traffic from OAJ to these popular destinations. Among the 12 destinations that are included in Figure 45, San Diego International Airport (SAN) claims the highest market share. The relative strong demand between OAJ and SAN is related to the Department of Defense (DoD), as both Jacksonville and San Diego host large Marine Corps Base Camps (Marines, 2021a, 2021b).

185 Figure 87. Direct and Indirect Outbound Traffic from OAJ to Top Destinations During 2010 – 2020 Competition Competing airports Several small or nonhub airports are located within a reasonable driving distance of Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport, including Coastal Carolina Regional Airport (EWN), Wilmington International Airport (ILM), Pitt-Greenville Airport (PGV), and Fayetteville Regional Airport (FAY). Of these four airports, only Wilmington International airport belongs to the Primary-Small Hub category. Three other airports are Primary-Nonhub airports, the same as OAJ. In terms of destinations served by direct flights, Wilmington International is connected to six US hub airports, while OAJ and three other nonhub airports have fewer options. Same as OAJ, these small or nonhub competing airports also serve as spoke airports in the hub- and-spoke networks of major carriers. Therefore, it is relatively difficult for OAJ to “pull” traffic from the vicinities of other airports. Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU), a Primary-Medium Hub airport, is about 2 hours of driving time (or 120 miles) away from Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport. Considering the direct flight options and possibly lower airfares at RDU, a decent number of passengers living within the immediate catchment area of OAJ may drive to the remote airport to fly, thus creating traffic leakages from OAJ. See Table 28 and Figure 88 for details of competing airports around OAJ.

186 Table 28. Competing Airports Near OAJ Airport LocID Hub Category Distance1 (From OAJ) Destinations (Direct)2 Jacksonville Albert J Ellis OAJ N - ATL, CLT Coastal Carolina Regional EWN N 53 CLT Wilmington International ILM S 56 ATL, CLT, DCA, DFW, LGA, PHL Pitt-Greenville PGV N 68 CLT Fayetteville Regional FAY N 91 ATL, CLT, DFW Raleigh-Durham International RDU M 120 (Multiple) Note: 1. Distance is based on driving distance using the fastest option from Google Maps. 2. Destinations are based on flight schedules of July 2019. Source: ArcGIS Figure 88. Geographic Locations of OAJ and Surrounding Airports We also plot the progress of passenger enplanements at OAJ and nearby airports during 2000–2020 to inspect if the traffic of these airports is moving in a synchronized manner. As seen in Figure 89, measured by the direction and scale of enplanement changes, these five airports in eastern North Carolina are very similar to each other. The only noticeable exception is between OAJ and EWN in 2005, since which OAJ started to have higher enplanements. This plot suggests economy, employment, and purposes of travel for this region have been remaining stable.

187 Figure 89. Enplanements of OAJ and Surrounding Airports During 2000 – 2020 Competing Modes of Transportation For residents of Jacksonville, there are a few options other than flying to reach some nearby destinations. Amtrak provides Thruway bus services to connect eight cities located in eastern North Carolina to Wilson, NC (Amtrak, 2021f), where passengers can get on either the Carolinian or Palmetto line. However, as the connection service by Amtrak is time-consuming, it does not constitute a popular mode of transportation for residents. Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport only provides direct flights to Charlotte, NC and Atlanta, GA. Considering Atlanta is more than 450 miles away from Jacksonville, we will only compare how people choose to get to Charlotte here. By flight, this trip takes about 80 minutes with American Airlines. And by driving, the commuting time is approximately 4 hours and 11 minutes, depending on traffic. Even this distance is not short by normal standards, the airfare difference of itineraries originating from OAJ and CLT might still constitute an incentive for some Jacksonville travelers to skip the connecting flight option and choose to drive to CLT. Ground access Self-drive Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport can be accessed by the roadway system from multiple directions. The airport website provides detailed instructions on how to drive to the OAJ airport from different origins (Albert J. Ellis Airport, 2021b). For passengers who need to use the airport parking facilities, there are more than 500 spaces for short and long-term parking at OAJ. In terms of the parking rates, the first 15 minutes are free of charge. The hourly rate is $2.00, and the daily maximum parking charge is $9.00. For passengers who wish to park long-term, OAJ airport waives the parking charge for the 7th day with their weekly maximum rate of $54.00 (Albert J. Ellis Airport, 2021d).

188 Taxi/Transportation Network Company (TNC)/Other access services Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport is not served by the public transit system of Jacksonville (City of Jacksonville, 2021b). Taxis services are available for inbound passengers after arrivals (Albert J. Ellis Airport, 2021c). Popular TNC applications such as Uber and Lyft are available for travelers to book (RideGuru, 2021). Local hotels may offer shuttle services to and from the airport, depending on the lodging providers (Albert J. Ellis Airport, 2021c). In addition, major rental car agencies, such as Avis, Budget, and Hertz, are available at OAJ airport. Data Availability Though Jacksonville Albert J Ellis Airport is a Primary-Nonhub airport, essential data that necessary to conduct airport catchment area analysis are relatively complete. We tested various datasets and information sources and can confirm that the following data are available and ready to be deployed: • Airline operational data (DB1b & T100) • Census data – Population – Socioeconomic data • Ground transportation data • Geospatial data • Mobile data (provided by SafeGraph) • Billing data (ARC & MIDT)

Next: References »
Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas Get This Book
×
 Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The catchment area of an airport encompasses areas where passengers are more likely to use the subject airport, even when there are other airport options in the vicinity.

ACRP Web-Only Document 56: Toolkit for Establishing Airport Catchment Areas, from TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program, comprises various analytical tools, such as the Travel Utility Analysis tool, that enable airport industry practitioners to calculate the likely responses of travelers to different market and operational inputs, thus forecasting potential catchment areas for airports.

Supplemental to the report are three case studies: Case 1: Akron-Canton Airport (CAK), OH; Case 2: Ontario International Airport (ONT), CA; and Case 3: Albert J. Ellis Airport (OAJ), NC.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!