National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

Image

Proceedings of a Workshop

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality through a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health (Contract Number: HHSN263201800029I, Task Order Number: 75N98022F00012). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-71474-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-71474-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/27448

This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2024 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal treatment revisited: The current state of racial and ethnic disparities in health care: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/27448.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

WORKSHOP PLANNING COMMITTEE ON UNEQUAL TREATMENT REVISITED: THE CURRENT STATE OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH CARE1

GEORGES C. BENJAMIN (Cochair), Executive Director American Public Health Association

JENNIFER (JEN) E. DEVOE (Cochair), John and Sherrie Saultz Professor and Chair, Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University

MARGARITA ALEGRIA, Chief of the Disparities Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital; Harry G. Lehnert, Jr. and Lucille F. Cyr Lehnert Endowed Chair, Mass General Research Institute; Professor, Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

JOHN ZAVEN AYANIAN, Alice Hamilton Distinguished University Professor of Medicine and Healthcare Policy; Inaugural Director, Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan

ELAINE E. BATCHLOR, Chief Executive Officer, MLK Community Healthcare

DARRELL J. GASKIN, William C. and Nancy F. Richardson Professor in Health Policy; Director, Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

VALARIE BLUE BIRD JERNIGAN, Professor of Rural Health and Medicine; Director, Center for Indigenous Health Research and Policy; Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences

THOMAS A. LAVEIST, Dean and Weatherhead Presidential Chair in Health Equity, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University

MONICA E. PEEK, Ellen H. Block Professor of Health Justice, Section of General Internal Medicine; Associate Director, Chicago Center for Diabetes Translation Research, the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

VINCENT GUILAMO-RAMOS, Dean and Bessie Baker Distinguished Professor of the Duke University School of Nursing; Vice Chancellor for Nursing Affairs, Duke University; Director, Center for Latino Adolescent and Family Health, Duke University

BRIAN RIVERS, Director, Cancer Health Equity Institute; Professor, Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine

SARA ROSENBAUM, Professor Emerita of Health Law and Policy, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University

RUTH SHIM, Luke & Grace Kim Professor in Cultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences; Associate Dean of Diverse and Inclusive Education, University of California, Davis School of Medicine

KOSALI I. SIMON, Distinguished Professor and Herman B. Wells Professor; O’Neill Chair and Associate Vice Provost of Health Sciences, O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Bloomington

PAUL C. TANG, Adjunct Professor, Clinical Excellence Research Center, Stanford University

REGINALD TUCKER-SEELEY, Vice President of Health Equity, ZERO—The End of Prostate Cancer

CONSUELO HOPKINS WILKINS, Senior Vice President and Senior Associate Dean for Health Equity and Inclusive Excellence, Professor of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Study Staff

FRANCIS AMANKWAH, Senior Program Officer

CHIDINMA CHUKWURAH, Senior Program Assistant

AMIRA DAOUD, Research Associate

ROSE MARTINEZ, Senior Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

SHARYL NASS, Senior Director, Board on Health Care Services

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

National Academy of Medicine Fellows

ALICIA COHEN, James C. Puffer, M.D./American Board of Family Medicine NAM Fellow; Investigator, VA Providence Healthcare System; Assistant Professor of Family Medicine Alpert Medical School, Brown University; Assistant Professor of Health Services, Policy, and Practice, Brown University School of Public Health

TRACY MADSEN, American Board of Emergency Medicine NAM Fellow; Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine; Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology, Alpert Medical School, Brown University; Director of Clinical Research, Brown Emergency Medicine

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Liaison

JOSHUA A. SALOMON, Professor of Health Policy, Department of Health Policy, School of Medicine, Center for Health Policy, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies; Director, Prevention Policy Modeling Lab, Stanford University

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by LUCILE L. ADAMS-CAMPBELL, Georgetown University Medical Center. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

Acknowledgments

The workshop planning committee thanks the speakers, who generously shared their expertise and time to make the workshop a success. The workshop planning committee is grateful for the support of the National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and National Institute on Aging) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACA Affordable Care Act
AI artificial intelligence
AIAN American Indian Alaska Native
AMA American Medical Association
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHW community health worker
CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
EHR electronic health record
FQHC federally qualified health center
GAO Government Accountability Office
HHS Department of Health and Human Services
HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration
I/DD intellectual and developmental disabilities
IHS Indian Health Service
KP Kaiser Permanente
LGBTQ+ lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, other
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
MSM Morehouse School of Medicine
NIA National Institute of Aging
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIMHD National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities
NYU New York University
OCR Office for Civil Rights
OMB Office of Management and Budget
OMH Office of Minority Health
ONC Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology
SDOH social determinants of health
SGM sexual and gender minority
SPD-15 Statistical Policy Directive 15
USCDI United States Core Data for Interoperability
VA Department of Veterans Affairs
VHA Veterans Health Administration
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27448.
×
Page R20
Next: Proceedings of a Workshop »
Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop Get This Book
×
 Unequal Treatment Revisited: The Current State of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Proceedings of a Workshop
Buy Paperback | $15.00 Buy Ebook | $12.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

A National Academies committee hosted a public workshop series in 2023. Speakers invited by the committee discussed the current state of racial and ethnic health care disparities in the U.S., highlighted major drivers of health care disparities, provided insight into successful and unsuccessful interventions, identified gaps in the evidence base and proposed strategies to close those gaps, and considered ways to scale and spread effective interventions to reduce racial and ethnic inequities in health care. This workshop series is part of an ongoing consensus study examining the current state of racial and ethnic health care disparities in the U.S., building on the 2003 Institute of Medicine consensus report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. The consensus study will publish its full conclusions and recommendations in summer 2024.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!