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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Toward a Common
Research Agenda in
Infection-Associated
Chronic Illnesses

_____

Claire Biffl, Elizabeth Ashby, Julie
Liao, and Megan Snair, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

Forum on Neuroscience and
Nervous System Disorders

Board on Health Sciences Policy

Health and Medicine Division

Proceedings of a Workshop

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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National Academy of Sciences and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Contract No. 1022390); EcoHealth Alliance; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Johnson & Johnson (Contract No. C2022024120); Merck and Co. (Grant No. MEM-22-160471); National Center of Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Contract No. 75D30121D11240, Order No. 75D30122F00011); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (Contract No. HHSN263201800029I, Task Order No. HHSN26300011); New Venture Fund (Grant No. NVF-NGDF-NAT10-Subgrant-022263-2023-08-01); Rockefeller Foundation; Sanofi Pasteur; the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists; Steven & Alexandra Cohen Foundation (Award No. Lyme 76); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences (Award No. HU00012210001); U.S. Agency for International Development (Grant No. 7200AA18GR00003); U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (Contract No. 36C25022Q1147); and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Award No. 5R13FD006897-03). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-71524-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-71524-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/27462

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a common research agenda in infection-associated chronic illnesses: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/27462.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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TOWARD A COMMON RESEARCH AGENDA IN INFECTION-ASSOCIATED CHRONIC ILLNESSES: A WORKSHOP TO EXAMINE COMMON, OVERLAPPING CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS WORKSHOP PLANNING COMMITTEE1

TIMOTHY COETZEE (Cochair), Chief Advocacy, Services and Science Officer, National Multiple Sclerosis Society

TIMOTHY ENDY (Cochair), Program Leader, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

BRIAN FALLON, Director, Lyme and Tick-Borne Diseases Research Center, Clinical Trials Network for Lyme and Tick-Borne Diseases, Center for Neuroinflammatory and Somatic Disorders, Columbia University Irving Medical Center; Professor, New York State Psychiatric Institute

LORRAINE JOHNSON, Chief Executive Officer and Director, LymeDisease.org; Principal Investigator, MyLymeData

AVINDRA NATH, Senior Investigator and Clinical Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

MELISSA NOLAN, Assistant Professor, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina; Research Fellow, Prisma Health; Research Fellow, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control

RAFAEL OBREGÓN, Country Representative, UNICEF Paraguay

AMY PROAL, President, PolyBio Research Foundation

PETER ROWE, Professor of Pediatrics, Sunshine Natural Wellbeing Professor of Chronic Fatigue and Related Disorders, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

National Academies Staff

ELIZABETH ASHBY, Program Officer

CLAIRE BIFFL, Research Associate

NICKY KUANG, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2023)

JULIE LIAO, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Board Director, Board on Global Health

SHEENA M. POSEY NORRIS, Director, Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders

EVA CHILDERS, Associate Program Officer

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

MAYA THIRKILL, Associate Program Officer

EDEN NELEMAN, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2023)

KIMBERLY OGUN, Senior Program Assistant

CLARE STROUD, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS

PETER DASZAK (Chair), President, EcoHealth Alliance

CRISTINA CASSETTI (Vice Chair), Deputy Director, Division of Microbial and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

KENT E. KESTER (Vice Chair), Vice President of Translational Medicine, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

EMILY ABRAHAM, Director, External Affairs and Policy, Global Public Health at Johnson & Johnson

KEVIN ANDERSON, retired, formerly U.S. Department of Homeland Security

DAN BAROUCH, Director, Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; William Bosworth Castle Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

DANIEL BAUSCH, President, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Senior Director, Emerging Threats & Global Health Security, FIND

NAHID BHADELIA, Founding Director, Boston University Center for Emerging Infectious Disease Policy and Research

CHRISTOPHER BRADEN, Deputy Director, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic & Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

RICK A. BRIGHT, Founder, Bright Global Health

AMBIKA BUMB, Deputy Executive Director, Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense

ANDREW CLEMENTS, Senior Scientific Advisor, Emerging Threats Division, U.S. Agency for International Development

MALICK DIARA, Public Health Manager, Corporate Medicine and Occupational Health Department, ExxonMobil

SCOTT F. DOWELL, Deputy Director for Surveillance and Epidemiology, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

GREG FRANK, Director of Global Public Policy, Merck & Co., Inc.

WONDWOSSEN GEBREYES, Executive Director of Global One Health Initiative, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University

BRUCE GELLIN, Senior Vice President and Chief of Global Public Health Strategy, Rockefeller Foundation

GIGI KWIK GRONVALL, Senior Scholar, Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security

JON H. HEINRICHS, Associate Vice President and R&D New Targets, Franchise Head in Portfolio Strategy and Execution, Sanofi Vaccines

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

ELIZABETH D. HERMSEN, Lead, Global Antimicrobial Resistance & Antimicrobial Stewardship Medical Affairs, Pfizer

ALBERT I. KO, Raj and Indra Nooyi Professor of Public Health, Yale School of Public Health; Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, Yale School of Medicine

MARK G. KORTEPETER, Vice President for Research, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

LINDA S. LLOYD, Independent Consultant; Adjunct Faculty, San Diego State University School of Public Health

SYRA MADAD, System-wide Special Pathogens Program at NYC Health + Hospitals

JONNA A. K. MAZET, Vice Provost—Grand Challenges, Chancellor’s Leadership Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology and Disease Ecology, University of California, Davis

VICTORIA McGOVERN, Senior Program Officer, Burroughs Wellcome Fund

SUMIKO MEKARU, Vice President, Research & Innovation, The Public Health Company

TIMOTHY D. MURRAY, Professor, Rosalie and Harold Rea Brown Distinguished Endowed Chair, Washington State University

MELISSA NOLAN, Assistant Professor, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina

RAFAEL OBREGÓN, Country Representative, UNICEF Paraguay

BENJAMIN PINSKY, Professor of Pathology and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine

AMEET J. PINTO, Associate Professor and Carlton S. Wilder Junior Faculty Chair, Georgia Institute of Technology

P. DAVID ROGERS, Chair, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital

GARY A. ROSELLE, Executive Director, National Infectious Disease Services Program, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

UMAIR SHAH, Secretary of Health, Washington State

JONATHAN SLEEMAN, Center Director, U.S. Geological Survey Wildlife Health Center

MATTHEW ZAHN, Deputy Health Officer, Orange County Health Care Agency

Forum on Microbial Threats Staff

ELIZABETH ASHBY, Program Officer

CLAIRE BIFFL, Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

NICKY KUANG, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2023)

JULIE LIAO, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Board Director, Board on Global Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

FORUM ON NEUROSCIENCE AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS

FRANCES JENSEN (Co-Chair), Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania

JOHN KRYSTAL (Co-Chair), Chief of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Yale University

RITA BALICE-GORDON, Chief Executive Officer, Muna Therapeutics

DEANNA BARCH, Professor and Vice Dean of Research in Arts & Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis

DIANE BOVENKAMP, Vice President, Scientific Affairs, BrightFocus Foundation

KATJA BROSE, Science Program Officer, The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

TERESA BURACCHIO, Director, Division of Neurology, Acting Director, Office of Neuroscience, Food and Drug Administration

SARAH CADDICK, Senior Advisor, The Gatsby Charitable Foundation

ROSA CANET-AVILÉS, Vice President, Scientific Programs, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine

MARIA CARRILO, Chief Science Officer, Medical Scientific Relations, Alzheimer’s Association

MICHAEL CHIANG, Director, National Eye Institute

TIMOTHY COETZEE, Chief Advocacy, Services, and Research Officer, National Multiple Sclerosis Society

BEVERLY DAVIDSON, Director, Raymond G. Perelman Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics; Arthur V. Meigs Chair in Pediatrics, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

NITA FARAHANY, Professor of Law, Professor of Philosophy, Duke University

EVA FELDMAN, Russell N. DeJong Professor of Neurology; Director, NeuroNetwork for Emerging Therapies and ALS Center of Excellence, University of Michigan

BRIAN FISKE, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research

JOSHUA GORDON, Director, National Institute of Mental Health

MORTEN GRUNNET, Director, Research & Development, Lundbeck

MAGALI HAAS, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Cohen Veterans Bioscience

RICHARD HODES, Director, National Institute on Aging

STUART HOFFMAN, Senior Health Science Officer for Traumatic Brain Injury, Department of Veterans Affairs

YASMIN HURD, Director, Addiction Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

STEVEN HYMAN, Director, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Distinguished Service Professor, Professor of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Biology, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

MICHAEL IRIZARRY, Vice-President, Clinical Research, Eisai Inc.

GEORGE KOOB, Director, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

WALTER KOROSHETZ, Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

ROBERT MALENKA, Pritzker Professor of Psychiatry, Stanford University

HUSSEINI MANJI, Professor, Oxford University; Visiting Professor, Duke University; Co-Chair, UK Government Mental Health Mission

HUGH MARSTON, Senior Vice President and Head of Global CNS Discovery, Boehringer Ingelheim

BILL MARTIN, Global Therapeutic Area Head, Neuroscience, The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson

JOHN NGAI, Director, BRAIN Initiative

GENTRY PATRICK, Professor of Neurobiology, University of California, San Diego

STEVE MARC PAUL, CEO and Chairman, Karuna Therapeutics, Inc.

KATHRYN RICHMOND, Executive Vice President, Director, Frontiers Group and Office of Science and Innovation, Allen Institute

M. ELIZABETH ROSS, Nathan Cummings Professor, American Neurological Association

MARSIE ROSS, Director, Head of Alliance Development and Public Policy, Harmony Biosciences

KATIE SALE, Executive Director, American Brain Coalition

RAYMOND SANCHEZ, Chief Medical Officer, Cerevel Therapeutics

TERRENCE SEJNOWSKI, Francis Crick Professor, Salk Institute for Biological Studies

SARAH SHEIKH, Senior Vice President, Neuroscience, Takeda Pharmaceutical

SARAH SHNIDER, Scientific Director, One Mind

DAVID SHURTLEFF, Deputy Director, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

JOHN SPIRO, Senior Vice President & Senior Scientist, Simons Foundation

ALESSIO TRAVAGLIA, Director, Neuroscience, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health

NORA VOLKOW, Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse

DOUG WILLIAMSON, Executive Vice President, Acadia Pharmaceuticals

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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RICHARD WOYCHIK, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

STEVIN ZORN, President and CEO, MindImmune Therapeutics, Inc.

Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders Staff

SHEENA M. POSEY NORRIS, Director, Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders

EVA CHILDERS, Associate Program Officer

MAYA THIRKILL, Associate Program Officer

EDEN NELEMAN, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2023)

KIMBERLY OGUN, Senior Program Assistant

CLARE STROUD, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

HAYLA K. SLUSS, University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School

ALEXANDRA B. YONTS, Children’s National Hospital

ILENE S. RUHOY, Mt. Sinai South Nassau, Chiari Center

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by DIANE E. GRIFFIN, Johns Hopkins University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AFM acute flaccid myelitis
AI artificial intelligence
CMV cytomegalovirus
COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019
CSF cerebral spinal fluid
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
EHR electronic health record
FDA Food and Drug Administration
GI gastrointestinal
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IFN-α interferon alpha
IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin
LIINC Long-term Impact of Infection with Novel Coronavirus study
ME/CFS myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
MIS-C multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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MS multiple sclerosis
NIH National Institutes of Health
PASC postacute sequelae of COVID-19
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PK pharmacokinetics
POTS postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
PTLDS posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome
RCT randomized controlled trial
RNA ribonucleic acid
RSV respiratory syncytial virus
SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
SCFA short-chain fatty acids
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Toward a Common Research Agenda in Infection-Associated Chronic Illnesses: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27462.
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The National Academies Forum on Microbial Threats and Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a hybrid public workshop in June 2023 to explore opportunities to advance research and treatment of infection-associated chronic illnesses. The illnesses discussed in this workshop, including COVID-19, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), persistent or posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), and multiple sclerosis (MS), share overlapping mechanisms and symptoms and have been inadequately researched. Recognizing these commonalities, speakers identified the need to advance research more comprehensively, translating to improved diagnostic and treatment options for patients across multiple conditions.

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