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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27536.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2024 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1092 Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation GUIDELINES Neven Matasovic Alan Witthoe Amin Borghei Geo-Logic Associates, Inc. Costa Mesa, CA Ahmed Elgamal University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA Subscriber Categories Highways • Bridges and Other Structures • Geotechnology Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1092 Project 12-114 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-70941-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2024930741 © 2024 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major program divisions of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to mobilize expertise, experience, and knowledge to anticipate and solve complex transportation-related challenges. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,500 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-114, which was awarded to Geo-Logic Associates, Inc. (GLA), of Costa Mesa, California. GLA was the contractor for this study, and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), was a subcontractor to GLA. Dr. Neven Matasovic, PE, GE, D.GE, Director of Geotechnical Engineering, and Principal of the firm, was both the Project Director and Principal Investigator (PI). Other authors of this report are Mr. Alan Witthoeft, PE, GE, and Dr. Amin Borghei, PE, of GLA. Professor Ahmed Elgamal, PhD, from UCSD, provided counsel to the GLA team and internal peer review. The project support team included an internal technical advisory panel (TAP). The TAP members included Professor Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., PhD, PE, GE, from Arizona State University, and Professor Jonathan Stewart from the University of California, Los Angeles. The TAP provided technical input to the project at various points during its duration. These individuals also provided review of select interim deliverables and of the final report and provided countless valuable suggestions. A number of individuals from subcontracted facilities and institutions provided important input to the project. These included Professor Majid Ghayoomi, PhD, of the University of New Hampshire, who directed the centrifuge experiment, and Ms. Maria (Mavi) Sanin from Golder Associates, Inc. (now WSP), who helped with planning and execution of the advanced geotechnical laboratory testing program. Other individuals who provided valuable input and practical feedback include Professor Jamison Steidel, PhD, of the University of California, Santa Barbara, who assisted with in-situ investigation at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA); Tarik Hadj-Hamou, PhD, PE, from SRK Consulting, who provided supple- mental internal review and practical feedback; and Mr. Mark Vincent, PG, CEG, CHg, of GLA, who provided hands-on geological and hydrogeological support for the project, including for the field work at the WLA site. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1092 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Ahmad Abu-Hawash, Senior Program Officer Sheila A. Moore, Program Associate Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-114 PANEL Field of Design—Area of Bridges Elmer E. Marx III, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK (Chair) Sharid Khan Amiri, California Department of Transportation, Santa Ana, CA Donald G. Anderson, Jacobs, Bellevue, WA Ashly Cabas, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Nicholas E. Harman, South Carolina Department of Transportation, Columbia, SC Tim E. Huff, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN Heather Z. Shoup, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL Justice Maswoswe, FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, TRB Liaison Nancy M. Whiting, TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1092 presents guidelines for the selection and use of methods for one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear seismic site response analysis (SRA) with excess pore water pressure generation and dissipation. The research involved developing SRA models and per- forming extensive analysis on a suite of case histories with relevant attributes. Several numerical modeling software packages and constitutive models were used in the analysis. This report will be of interest to state departments of transportation (DOTs) seeking to perform SRA with excess pore water pressure generation. NCHRP Synthesis 428: Practices and Procedures for Site-Specific Evaluations of Earthquake Ground Motions (Matasovic and Hashash, 2011) revealed that 1D equivalent-linear analysis is the de facto standard for state DOT highway facilities at those locations where site-specific ground response analyses are conducted in accordance with provisions in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2014) and the AASHTO Design Guidelines for Seismic Bridge Design (2011). However, users have concerns about the applicability of equivalent-linear analyses for the cases for which site-specific response analyses are most useful (i.e., soft soil sites, liquefiable sites, and sites subjected to very strong shaking). While nonlinear 1D site response analyses are beginning to be used in practice to address these concerns, there is considerable uncertainty on how to employ and interpret the results of such analyses. To assist bridge and foundation designers, guidelines on the use and selection of 1D nonlinear software with pore water pres- sure generation and dissipation are needed for the effective and economical seismic design of all types of highway facilities. Research was performed under NCHRP Project 12-114, “Guidance on Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation,” by Geo-Logic Associates, Inc. This research included developing guidelines for the selection and use of analytical methods for 1D nonlinear seismic site response analysis with pore water pressure generation to quantify the effects of site-specific conditions on earthquake ground response. The guidelines considered the following: (1) input parameters required for the analyses (e.g., site characterizations, seismic loading); (2) limitation, selection, and validation of analytical methods; (3) the process of model setup; and (4) how to review the models and use the results of the analytical methods. In addition to NCHRP Research Report 1092, two deliverables are available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by searching for NCHRP Research Report 1092: Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines. The deliverables are as follows: • NCHRP Web-Only Document 383: Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Resources for Evaluation, which contains the appendices to this report: – Appendix A: Literature Search – Appendix B: Field Exploration and Site Characterization F O R E W O R D By Ahmad Abu-Hawash Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

– Appendix C: Experiments and Advanced Laboratory Testing – Appendix D: Numerical Modeling – Element Tests – Appendix E: Numerical Modeling – Case Histories • A plan that identifies mechanisms and channels for implementing this research.

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Project Background 2 1.2 Intended Audience and Suggested Background References 2 1.3 Limitations of This Study 3 1.4 Study Objectives and Focus 3 1.5 Research Approach 4 1.6 Data Presentation and Presentation of Results 5 Chapter 2 Site Response Analysis – Overview 5 2.1 General 5 2.2 Approaches for Evaluation of Site Effects 7 2.3 Applications of Site Response Analysis 7 2.4 Classification of Methods for Site Response Analysis 8 Chapter 3 Site Response Analysis – Theoretical Background 8 3.1 General 8 3.2 Equivalent-Linear Analysis 10 3.3 Nonlinear Analysis – Dynamic Response Model 13 3.4 Nonlinear Analysis – Constitutive Models 17 3.5 Nonlinear Analysis – Other Models 18 3.6 Development of Model Parameters 19 Chapter 4 Basis for Development of Guidelines 19 4.1 General 19 4.2 Computer Programs 22 4.3 Constitutive Models 25 4.4 Case Histories 37 Chapter 5 Research Approach 37 5.1 General 37 5.2 Required Input and Required Attributes 39 5.3 Calibration of Constitutive and Site Response Models 42 5.4 Measure of Success 44 Chapter 6 Field and Experimental Programs 44 6.1 General 44 6.2 WLA Site – Supplemental Characterization and Data Interpretation 51 6.3 Centrifuge Experiment 59 6.4 WLA Site – Comparison of Field and Physical Modeling Data 61 Chapter 7 Numerical Modeling Program 61 7.1 General 61 7.2 Preparation 70 7.3 Summary and Interpretation of the Results C O N T E N T S

85 Chapter 8 Guidelines 85 8.1 Overview 85 8.2 Guidelines for Effective-Stress SRA 90 8.3 Additional Observations 91 8.4 Additional Conclusions 93 Chapter 9 Suggested Research 93 9.1 Suggested Extensions of This Study 93 9.2 Suggested Follow-Up Activities 93 9.3 Suggested Follow-Up Studies 95 References 99 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols 102 Appendices 103 Endnotes

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One-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear total-stress site response analysis (SRA) is the de facto standard for state department of transportation (DOT) highway facilities at locations where site-specific ground response analyses are conducted. However, many users and various DOTs have concerns about the applicability of equivalent-linear analyses for the cases where site-specific SRA is most relevant.

NCHRP Research Report 1092: Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Guidelines, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, presents guidelines for the selection and use of methods for 1D nonlinear seismic SRA with excess pore water pressure generation and dissipation.

Supplemental to the report is NCHRP Web-Only Document 383: Seismic Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Generation: Resources for Evaluation.

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