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Page 135
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Development of Clear Recovery Area Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27593.
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Page 135
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Development of Clear Recovery Area Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27593.
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Page 136

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

135   1. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Guide for Selecting, Locating, and Designing Traffic Barriers. Washington, DC, 1977. 2. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Roadside Design Guide. Washington, DC, 1989. 3. Riexinger, L.E., H.C. Gabler, N. Johnson, K. Kusano, S. Kusano, A. Daniello, and R. Thomson. NCHRP Web-Only Document 341: Roadside Database Coding Manual. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2023. 4. Stonex, K.A. “Roadside Design for Safety.” Highway Research Board Proceedings, Volume 39. Highway Research Board, Washington, DC, 1960. 5. Stonex, K.A. “Relation of Cross-Section Design and Highway Safety.” Presented at the 35th Annual Highway Conference, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, February 1962. 6. American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). Highway Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety. Washington, DC, 1967. 7. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Highway Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety, 2nd ed. Washington, DC, 1974. 8. Graham, J.L., and D.W. Hardwood. NCHRP Report 247: Effectiveness of Clear Recovery Zones. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, May 1982. 9. Zegeer, C.V., J. Hummer, D.W. Reinfurt, L. Herf, and W.W. Hunter. Safety Effects of Cross-Section Design for Two-Lane Roads. Report No. FHWA/RD-87-008. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, October 1987. 10. Ross, H.E. Jr., T.L. Kohutek, and J. Pledger. Guide for Selecting, Locating, and Designing Traffic Barriers, Volumes I and II. Final Report, U.S. Department of Transportation, Contract FH-11-8507. Texas Transpor- tation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, February 1976. 11. Segal, D.J. Highway-Vehicle-Object Simulation Model - 1976, Volumes I–IV. Report Numbers FHWA- RD-76-162 to 165. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1976. 12. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Roadside Design Guide. Washington, DC, 2002. 13. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Roadside Design Guide, 4th ed. Washington, DC, 2011. 14. Radja, G.A. National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System, Analytical User’s Manual 2015. No. DOT HS 812 321. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC, 2016. 15. Mak, K.K., and D.L. Sicking. NCHRP Report 492: Roadside Safety Analysis Program (RSAP)—Engineer’s Manual. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2003. 16. Mak, K.K., D.L. Sicking, and B.A. Coon. NCHRP Report 665: Identification of Vehicle Impact Conditions Associated with Serious Ran-Off-Road Crashes. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2009. 17. Ferdous, M.R. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes. Department of Civil Engineering. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 2011. 18. Sheikh, N.M., S.-P. Miaou, R.P. Bligh, and D.L. Bullard, Jr. NCHRP Web-Only Document 296: Guidelines for Cost-Effective Safety Treatments of Roadside Ditches. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2021. 19. Sheikh, N.M., R.P. Bligh, S. Cakalli, and S-.P. Miaou. NCHRP Research Report 911: Guidelines for Travers- ability of Roadside Slopes. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2019. 20. Ross, H.E., Jr., H.S. Perera, D.L. Sicking, and R.P. Bligh. NCHRP Report 318: Roadside Safety Design for Small Vehicles. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1989. References

136 Development of Clear Recovery Area Guidelines 21. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Washington, DC, 2016. 22. 4N6XPRT Systems. Expert AutoStats, 2020 Release. 4N6XPRT Systems Forensic Expert Software. La Mesa, CA, 2020. 23. Highway Loss Data Institute. Technical Appendix. Highway Loss Data Institute, Arlington, VA, 2010. Avail- able: https://www.iihs.org/media/80eed4d2-96e2-43b8-8381-34ca4274346c/dXp2Ww/Ratings/Protocols /current/tech_10.pdf. Retrieved September 2, 2021. 24. Stolle, C.S., K. Ronspies, R.W. Bielenberg, and R.K. Faller. Evaluation and Update of MASH Test Vehicles. Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 2021. 25. Ray, M.H., C.E. Carrigan, C.A. Plaxico, S.-P. Miaou, and T.O. Johnson. NCHRP Web-Only Document 319: Roadside Safety Analysis Program (RSAP) Update. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2012. 26. Ray, M.H., C.E. Carrigan, and C. Plaxico. Estimating Crash Costs in the Updated Roadside Safety Analysis Program. Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2011. 27. NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). MMUCC Guideline: Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria, 5th ed. No. DOT HS 812 433. NHTSA, Washington, DC, 2017. 28. Ray, M.H., C.E. Carrigan, and E.M. Ray. NCHRP Research Report 972: Development of Safety Performance- Based Guidelines for the Roadside Design Guide. Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC, 2022. 29. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. NCHRP Research Report 996: Selection and Placement Guidelines for Test-Level 2 Through Test-Level 5 Median Barriers. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2022. 30. Ray, M.H., and C.E. Carrigan. NCHRP Web-Only Document 307: Guidelines for the Selection of Test-Levels 2 Through 5 Bridge Railings. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2021. 31. Ray, M.H., C.E. Carrigan, and C. Plaxico. NCHRP Research Report 892: Guidelines for Shielding Bridge Piers. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2018.

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The clear zone concept for roadside design emerged in the mid-1960s as a single distance for lateral clearance that reduced the likelihood of an errant vehicle striking a roadside obstacle. Subsequent recovery area guidance that evolved over the next two decades provided a variable distance expressed in terms of traffic volume, design speed, sideslope, and other roadway and roadside factors.

NCHRP Research Report 1097: Development of Clear Recovery Area Guidelines, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, develops updated guidelines for roadside clear zones expressed in terms of key roadway and roadside design parameters. These updated guidelines can aid designers in better understanding the risk associated with roadside encroachments while recognizing and working within the associated design constraints.

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