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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27748.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2024 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1080 Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies Meenakshy Vasudevan James O’Hara Matthew Samach Claire Silverstein Sampson Asare Haley Townsend Ian McManus Noblis Washington, DC Kaan Ozbay Jingqin Gao Chuan Xu Yu Tang Di Sha Fan Zuo C2SMART University Transportation Center, Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, Tandon School of Engineering, New York University Brooklyn, NY Subscriber Categories Highways • Operations and Trafc Management Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1080 Project 08-145 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-70949-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2024931976 © 2024 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, APTA, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, or NHTSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or spec- ifications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major program divisions of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to mobilize expertise, experience, and knowledge to anticipate and solve complex transportation-related challenges. e Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,500 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS is research was performed under NCHRP Project 08-145 by Noblis and C2SMART University Transportation Center at New York University (NYU). Noblis was the contractor for this study, and Dr. Meenakshy Vasudevan, senior principal at Noblis, was the principal investigator. e authors would like to thank the volunteer expert stakeholders who gave their time to participate in discussions and provided insights on using CAT data for freeway performance measurement and operational strategies. e authors would also like to thank Professor Alexandre M. Bayen, Dr. Anthony Patire, Professor Francois Dion, and Dr. Zema Katsnelson, from the Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology (PATH) at the University of California, for sharing their experiences, insights, and lessons learned from developing an AIMSUN model for the I-210 network as a part of a pilot deployment of an Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) system. Finally, the authors would like to thank Dr. Karl Wunderlich (Noblis’s director of surface transportation), Justin Anderson (Noblis), Carl Kain (Noblis), John Petinos (NYU C2SMART), Molly Seeley (NYU C2SMART), and Eugene Vinitsky (NYU) for their review and feedback. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 1080 Waseem Dekelbab, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs, and Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Zuxuan Deng, Senior Program Ocer Anthony Avery, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Claire Aelion-Moss, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-145 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Planning Methods & Processes Brad Freeze, Nashville Department of Transportation, Goodlettsville, TN (Chair) Daniela Bremmer, Washington State Department of Transportation, Lacey, WA Christopher M. Poe, Mixon-Hill, Inc., Dallas, TX Panos D. Prevedouros, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI Gil Anthony Ramirez, Lassiter Transportation Group, Inc., Melbourne, FL Ketan Savla, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Lin Zhang, Elite Transportation Group, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA Jon T. Obenberger, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 1080: Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Free- way Operational Strategies is an assessment of transportation operational scenarios and use cases where freeway operation strategies could be improved through the transmission of data between a transportation management system (TMS) and the larger cooperative automated transportation (CAT) system (either directly or through a third party). e material in this report will be relevant to TMS managers and engineers interested in developing enhanced and new operational strategies, and could help infrastructure owner/operators (IOOs) justify gaining access to additional CAT data. Since the introduction of digital computers more than 50 years ago, continuous devel- opments in computer technology, emerging data sources, and communications have created opportunities for operational strategies and performance measures to improve freeway network safety and mobility. TMSs continue to evolve and are incorporating the collection and use of real-time information from xed sources (loop detectors, radar, cameras), mobile sources (probes, smartphones), other systems (weather, pavement monitoring), and other sources (e.g., third-party providers). e emergence of CAT, particularly connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), gives IOOs the opportunity to collect, use, and share data across vehicles, infrastructure, and other devices, and could transform how agencies actively manage and operate trac, improving safety and mobility. IOOs will be able to issue advisory, warning, and regulatory messages based on current and projected conditions unique to a specic location (e.g., section of road- way, corridor, geofenced area), direction of travel, and possibly specic vehicles. In addition to allowing new operational approaches, these data may reduce the need for xed sensors that are costly to deploy and maintain. Under NCHRP Project 08-145, Noblis was asked to assess use cases where freeway opera- tional strategies could be improved through the transmission of data between a TMS and the larger CAT system (either directly or through a third party). e study included a literature review on the use of CAT data in freeway performance measure estimation and operational strategies to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for enhancement. Key con- siderations for agencies regarding enhancing and deploying freeway operational strategies that use CAT data were registered. Use cases of 10 operational strategies selected by the NCHRP project panel as having the highest potential for improvement with CAT data were described. Finally, a simulation-based case study for enhancing ramp-metering strategy using CAT data and recommendations for future work were presented. e report is accompanied by presentation materials and an implementation plan that identies opportunities for dissemination and moving research into practice. ese materials F O R E W O R D By Zuxuan Deng Staff Ofcer Transportation Research Board

are available on the National Academies Press website (nap.nationalacademies.org) by search- ing for NCHRP Research Report 1080: Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies. e source code and corresponding documentation are available for download at https://github.com/NationalAcademies/NCHRP-08-145-CAT-Data -For-Freeway-Operations.

1 Summary 7 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Background 8 1.2 Organization of Report 9 Chapter 2 Summary of Literature Review 9 2.1 Summary of CAT Data and Characteristics 11 2.2 Summary of Traditional Approaches for Freeway Operational Strategies 12 2.3 Summary of Enhanced Approaches for Freeway Operational Strategies Using CAT Data 12 2.4 Summary of Volunteer Expert Stakeholder Feedback 14 2.5 Key Gaps and Challenges 18 Chapter 3 Field Deployment Considerations 18 3.1 Predeployment Feasibility Assessment 19 3.2 Concept of Operations 21 3.3 System Requirements Specication 22 3.4 System Architecture and Design 22 3.5 Data Management 23 3.6 Hardware and Soware Development, Acquisition, and Installation 23 3.7 Unit, Subsystem, and System Integration and Testing 24 3.8 Operations and Maintenance 24 3.9 Performance Measurement and Monitoring 26 Chapter 4 Use Cases 26 4.1 Common Constraints and Assumptions 28 4.2 Use Cases 59 Chapter 5 Ramp-Metering Case Study 59 5.1 Approach 60 5.2 CAT Data Sources Suitability Assessment 67 5.3 Experimental Design 70 5.4 Simulation Model Development and Calibration 78 5.5 Ramp-Metering Strategy Development 96 5.6 Ramp-Metering Strategy Evaluation 120 5.7 Compute Processing Times for Proposed Ramp-Metering Strategies 120 5.8 Technology Requirements for Proposed Ramp-Metering Strategies 121 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 121 6.1 Key Findings and Contributions 124 6.2 Recommendations for Future Work 125 References C O N T E N T S

135 Appendix A Literature Review 225 Appendix B I-210 Eastbound SUMO Model Calibration 239 Appendix C Machine Learning Models Evaluation 245 Appendix D Accessing Code Developed Note: Photographs, gures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. e electronic version of the report (posted on the web at nap.nationalacademies.org) retains the color versions.

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Since the introduction of digital computers more than 50 years ago, continuous developments in computer technology, emerging data sources, and communications have created opportunities for operational strategies and performance measures to improve freeway network safety and mobility.

NCHRP Research Report 1080: Using Cooperative Automated Transportation Data for Freeway Operational Strategies, from TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program, is an assessment of transportation operational scenarios and use cases where freeway operational strategies could be improved through the transmission of data between a transportation management system and the larger cooperative automated transportation system.

Supplemental to the report is a source code archive, a PowerPoint presentation, and an Implementation Plan.

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