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Underutilized Resources as AnimA Feedstuffs Subcommittee on Underutilized Resources as Animal Feecistuffs Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1983
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the. Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were es- tablished in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council (U.S ). Subcommittee on Underutilized Resources as Animal Feedstuffs. Underutilized resources as animal feedstuffs. Bibliography: p. 1. Organic wastes as feed. I. Title. SF99.W34N37 1983 636.08'55 83- 1 33 11 ISBN 0-309-03382-9 Printed in the United States of America
Preface In 1978, the Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) of the National Research Council (NRC) convened a task force of scientists to examine the available literature on the feeding of "exotic" or underutilized feed- stuffs to food-producing animals and to recommend to the CAN whether a report on the subject would be warranted. Subsequently, a CAN Sub- committee on Feeding Underutilized Feedstuffs to Animals was appointed to include expertise in animal nutrition, animal waste recycling, food science and technology, crop residues, feedstuffs from wood, and bio- chemical engineering. The subcommittee met on September 6-7, 1978, in Washington, D.C.; December 3-5, 1979, in Chicago, Illinois; and June 17-19, 1980, at the NAS Summer Studies Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. This report was written by the CAN Subcommittee on Feeding Under- utilized Feedstuffs to Animals, each chapter being prepared by one or two members of the subcommittee; however, the entire document has been approved by all members. During the preparation of its report, the subcommittee received valuable assistance from Robert C. Albin; W. Brady Anthony; Dudley D. Culley, Jr.; Charles C. Dunlap; Marcel Faber; D. M. Graham; James F. Hentges, Jr.; L. D. Kamstra; John H. Litchfield; C. Reed Richardson; Lewis W. Smith; Jack C. Taylor; Peter J. Van Soest; Howard G. Walker; and R. J. Young. . . .
iv Preface Review of this report was accomplished through the advice and sug- gestions of the Committee on Animal Nutrition and the Board on Agri- culture. The subcommittee is indebted to Philip Ross, Executive Director, and Selma P. Baron, Staff Officer, of the Board on Agriculture for their assistance in the preparation of the report. The subcommittee is especially grateful to George K. Davis who served as coordinator for the review of the report. Subcommittee on Underutilized Resources as Animal Feedstuffs JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Chairman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ANDREW J. BAKER, USDA Forest Products Laboratory ROBERT BEAIR, University of Saskatchewan CHARLES L. COONEY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology TERRY KEOPFENSTEIN, University of Nebraska ROBERT C. PEARL, University of California, Davis LARRY D. SATTER, USDA Dairy Forage Research Center
COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION DUANE E. ULLREY, Chairman, Michigan State University JIMMY H. CLARK, University of Illinois RICHARD D. GOODRICH, University of Minnesota NEAL A. JORGENSEN, University of Wisconsin, Madison BERYL E. MARCH, University of British Columbia GEORGE E. MITCHELL JR., University of Kentucky JAMES G. MORRIS, University of California, Davis WILSON G. POND, USDA Meat Animal Research Center ROBERT R. SMITH, Tunison Laboratory Of Fish Nutrition, USDI SEEMA p. BARON, Staff Officer BOARD ON AGRICULTURE WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University NEVIEEE p. CLARKE, Texas A&M University ERIC L. ELLWOOD, North Carolina State University ROBERT G. GAST, Michigan State University EDWARD H. GLASS, Cornell University RALPH w. F. HARDY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & co., Inc. LAURENCE R. JAHN, Wildlife Management Institute ROGER L. MITCHELL, University of Missouri JOHN A. PINO, Inter-American Development Bank VERNON w. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota CHAMP B. TANNER, University of Wisconsin VIRGINIA WAEBOT, Stanford University PHILIP ROSS, Executive Director v
Contents OVERVIEW ................ 1 INDUSTRIAL FOOD PROCESSING WASTES Introduction, 5 Quantity, 5 Physical Properties, 7 Fruit and Nut Processing Wastes, 7 Apple Processing Wastes, 7 Citrus Processing Wastes, 9 Peach Processing Wastes, 10 Pear Processing Wastes, 10 Fruit Canneries' Activated Sludge, 12 Winery Wastes, 13 Cacao Processing Wastes, 15 Fruit Pits, Fruit Pit Kernels, Nut Hulls, and Nut Shells, 15 Vegetable Processing Wastes, 16 Potato Processing Wastes, 16 Sweet Potato Processing Wastes, 21 Tomato Processing Wastes, 23 Other Vegetables, 25 Animal By-Products, 28 Dairy Whey, 28 Seafood Processing Wastes, 30 Poultry Processing Wastes, 31 . . V11
viii Contents Red Meat Processing Wastes, 32 Alternative Uses for Food Processing Wastes, 38 Animal and Human Health Problems and Regulatory Aspects, 38 Pesticide Residues, 38 Heavy Metals, 39 Animal Health, 39 Summary, 40 Literature Cited, 41 2 NONFOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTES Introduction, 46 Organic Chemical Industry, 47 Quantity, 47 Physical Characteristics, 48 Nutritive Value, 52 Processing, 54 Utilization Systems, 58 Animal and Human Health, 59 Fermentation Industry, 59 Quantity, 59 Physical Characteristics, 60 Nutritive Value, 60 Processing Technology, 61 Utilization Systems, 62 Health Considerations, 62 Regulatory Aspects, 62 Municipal Solid Waste, 63 Quantity, 63 Physical Characteristics, 63 Nutritive Value, 63 Processing, 64 Animal and Human Health, 64 Research Needs, 65 Summary, 65 Literature Cited, 65 F O. R. EST R. ESID U. ES ................................................. Introduction, 69 Whole-Tree Residue and Fractions of Whole Trees, 69 Quantity, 69 Collectibility, 71 Physical Characteristics, 73 Nutritive Value, 74 Processing Methods, 84 ....... 46 . 69
Contents ix Utilization Systems, 100 Pulpmill and Papermill Residues, 101 Quantity, 101 Physical Characteristics, 106 Nutritive Value, 107 Processing, 110 Utilization Systems, 110 Sludges, 111 Spent Sulfite Liquor, 113 Wood Residues as Roughage Substitutes in Ruminant Diets, 113 Animal Health, 114 Regulatory Aspects, 115 Research Needs, 115 Summary, 116 Literature Cited, 117 4 A NI M A L W AST ES ............................................. Introduction, 121 Quantity, 122 Physical Characteristics, 122 Nutritive Value, 123 Chemical Composition of Animal Wastes, 123 Nutrient Utilization, 124 Performance of Animals Fed Animal Wastes, 132 Processing, 144 Ensiling, 145 Dehydration, 145 Other Processes, 147 Utilization Systems, 148 Experimental, 148 Industrial, 149 Potential Utilization, 150 Animal and Human Health, 150 Pathogenic Organisms, 151 Harmful Substances, 156 Quality of Products from Animals Fed Waste, 162 Regulatory Aspects: Federal and State, 163 Research Needs, 164 Summary, 165 Literature Cited, 166 5 C R O. P R. ESID U. ES ................................. Introduction, 178 .... 121 ................. 178
x Contents Quantity, 178 Physical Characteristics, 179 Nutritive Value, 180 Corn, 180 Wheat and Other Small Grain and Grass Straws, 182 Soybean, 183 Grain Sorghum, 183 Other Residues, 184 Processing Methods, 187 Corn, 187 Wheat and Other Small Grains, 194 Soybean, 196 Grain Sorghum, 196 Other Residues, 198 Utilization Systems, 199 Potential Utilization, 202 Animal and Human Health Problems and Regulatory Aspects, 203 Research Needs, 203 Summary, 204 Literature Cited, 204 Glossary, 210 6 AQUATIC PLANTS .............. Introduction, 211 Quantity, 212 Physical Characteristics, 212 Nutritive Value, 214 Chemical Composition, 214 Nutrient Utilization, 214 Animal Performance, 216 Processing, 217 Algae, 217 Seaweed, 218 Other Aquatic Plants, 219 Utilization Sytems, 220 Animal and Human Health, 220 Regulatory Aspects, 222 Research Needs, 222 Summary 223 Literature Cited, 224 APPENDIX TABLES .................... ............... 211 ........ 228
Tables and Figures Tables INDUSTRIAL FOOD PROCESSING WASTES 1. Yearly Food Processing Industry Solid Residuals, by Product and Disposal Method, 6 2. Food Processing Industry Solid Residuals per Year, by Region,, 7 NONFOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTES 3. Major Chemicals Produced in Liquid-Phase Reaction Systems, 49 4. Processes Identified as Possibly Having Underutilized NFI Waste, 53 Cell Conversion Yields on Various Substrates, 56 Protein Content of Various Microorganisms, 58 FOREST RESIDUES 7. Estimates of U.S. Aboveground Forest Biomass Potential, 70 8. In Vitro Dry-Matter Digestibility of Various Woods and Barks, 75 9. Water Solubility of Various Hardwood Barks and Extent of Carbohydrate Dissolution, 76 10. Feedlot Performance of Cattle Fed Pelleted Diets Containing Whole Aspen Tree Material, 78 11. Feedlot Performance of Cattle Fed Complete Mixed Rations Containing Alfalfa and/or Whole Aspen Tree Material, 80 X1
. . X11 Tables and Figures 12. Performance of Young and Old Cows Fed Wintering Diets Con- taining Whole Aspen Tree Material, 82 13. Nutrient Composition of Muka Made from Pinus sylvestris, 83 14. Effect of NaOH Treatment on the In Vitro Digestibility of Hard- woods, 89 15. Degree of Delignification Required to Attain 60 Percent In Vitro Digestibility, 94 16. Composition and Cellulase Digestion of Various Woods Before and After SO2 Treatment, 96 17. Lignin and Carbohydrate Content and Digestibility of Sound and Decayed Aspen and Birch Wood, 99 18. Effect of Electron Irradiation on the In Vitro Digestion of Aspen and Spruce, 100 19. Kilograms Primary Sludge per 1000 Kilograms Pulp Produced by Different Pulping Processes, 103 20. Kilograms Primary Sludge per 1000 Kilograms Pulp Produced, by Region, 103 Kilograms Primary Sludge Produced per 1000 Kilograms Paper Pro- duced by Different Types of Mills, 104 Kilograms Primary Sludge Produced per 1000 Kilograms Paper Pro- duction, by Region, 104 Inorganic Content of Primary Sludges, 105 Sulfite Pulp and Spent Liquor Solids Production from North Amer- ican Sulfite Mills, 105 Spent Sulfite Liquor Handling in United States Sulfite Mills, 106 Canadian Sulfite Pulpmills, by Process and Spent Liquor Solids Handling, 106 Composition and In Vitro Rumen Digestibility of Pulpmill Residues, 108 28. Composition and In Vitro Rumen Digestibility of Combined Pulpmill and Papermill Sludges, 112 ANIMAL WASTES 29. Livestock and Poultry Waste Production in the United States, 123 30. Distribution of Nitrogen in Feces and Urine from Livestock, 124 31. Mean Composition and Energy Value of Animal Wastes, 125 32. Mean Mineral Composition of Animal Wastes, 126 33. Mean Additional Mineral Composition of Animal Wastes, 127 34. Mean Amino Acid Composition of Animal Wastes, 128 35. Performance of Cattle Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW)' 134
Tables and Figures xiii 36. Milk Production of Cows Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW), 136 37. Performance of Sheep Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW), 137 38. Performance of Swine Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW), 138 39. Performance of Growing Chickens Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW), 140 40. Performance of Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW), 141 41. Performance of Cattle Fed Diets Containing Poultry Litter, 142 42. Results of Bacteriological Analysis of 44 Samples of Poultry Litter, 152 43. Survival of Salmonellae in Cattle Waste and in an Ensiled Waste- Feed Mixture, 153 44. Effect of Temperature on Survival of Salmonellae in an Ensiled Waste-Feed Mixture, 154 45. Microorganisms Recovered from Samples of Poultry Waste, 156 46. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on Microbial Counts of De- hydrated Poultry Waste, 157 47. Drug Residues in Broiler Litter, 161 CROP RESIDUES 48. Estimated Supply of Crop Residues, 180 49. Dry Cow Daily Weight Gain (kg) on Various Corn Residue Systems, 182 50. Pelleted and Sodium Hydroxide-Treated Cornstalks, 188 51. Performance of Steers Fed Sodium Hydroxide-Treated Corncobs, 190 Treated Husklage Versus Corn Silage, 190 Performance of Growing Calves Fed Different Chemically Treated Cobs, 192 Performance of Lambs Fed Wheat Straw, 195 Effect of Treatment of Wheat Straw and Balancing Minerals for High Sodium Intake on Rate and Efficiency of Gain of Steers, 195 56. Effect of Chemical Treatment of Wheat Straw on Lamb Dry Matter and Neutral Detergent and Acid Detergent Digestibility and Growth, 197 Cow-Calf Production, 200 Beef Production Systems with Heifers Utilizing Crop Residues, 201 57. 58.
xiv Tables and Figures AQUATIC PLANTS 59. Production of Seaweeds and Aquatic Plants, 213 APPENDIX TABLES 1. Proximate Compositon and Energy Value, 228 2. Mineral Composition, 241 3. Additional Mineral Elements, 247 4. Essential Amino Acid Composition, 250 5. Nonessential Amino Acid Composition, 253 6. Vitamin Composition of Algae, 253 F1gures NONFOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTES 1. Simplified flowsheet of production of single-cell protein, 55 FOREST RESIDUES 2. Effect of NaOH pretreatment on the in vitro digestion of straw and poplar wood, 88 3. Relationship between lignin content and in vitro digestion for NaOH pretreated hardwoods, 90 Relationship between level of NaOH pretreatment and in vitro digestion for quaking aspen and northern red oak, 91 In vitro dry-matter digestion of rations containing untreated and NaOH-treated aspen, 92 Relationship between in vitro digestibility and extent of delignifi- cation for kraft pulps made from four wood species, 93 7. Relationship between digestibility and extent of delignification for wood pulps, 95 In vivo dry-matter digestion of rations containing SO2-treated red oak, 97 Relationship between in vitro digestibility and time of vibratory ball milling, 100 Division of the United States into six regions, based on best judg ment of similar tree species, pulping processes, and end products within a region, 102 4. 10. CROP RESIDUES 11. In vitro dry-matter disappearance (IVDMD) of cornstalks harvested overtime, 181
Tables and Figures xv 12. In vitro dry-matter disappearance (IVDMD) for cobs with different combinations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and calcium hydroxide (CaOH), 193 13. Average daily gains of steers fed corncob ration with 0, 50, or 100 percent alfalfa hay addition, 202 AQUATIC PLANTS 14. Flow diagram of kelp dewatering process, 219 15. Harvester for water hyacinth, 220 16. Floating harvester for submerged aquatic plants 17. Hyacinth control station, 222 , 221
Underutilized Resources as Al Feedstuffs \