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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
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Index

A

AAG. See Association of American Geographers (AAG)

AAG Directory, 188

Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 209

Agricultural policy, global, 130

AIDS, 21, 24, 96

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 167

American Geographical Society, 12, 169, 218

Analysis of geographic data. See Display and analysis, technique of

Animated maps. See Spatial representation, dynamic

ArcInfo, 63

Association of American Geographers (AAG), 6, 12, 138n, 148, 169-171, 187, 204, 218

sponsors, corporate, 215-216

Autocovariance, 68

Automated mapping systems, 58

B

Baby boomers, 89

Bayesian weighting, 55, 68

BGGS. See Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS)

Biodiversity, loss of, 80-83

Biogeography, 34-35

Biophysical environments, 32

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)

Boom-and-bust cycle, 91

Bosnia, partition of, 21-22

Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS), 156

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 213-214

Bureau of the Budget Task Force on Federal Flood Control, 125

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 126

Business strategies, developing effective, 4, 111.

See also Retail marketing

C

Campesino federations, 130

Canadian Association of Geographers, 219

Cartographic Requirements, Coordinating and Standards Program, 125

Cartography, technique of, 3, 39, 57-58

Center for Nuclear Waste and Regulatory Analysis (CNWRA), 123

Central Tendency and Variation, 76

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

Chaotic dynamics. See Complexity

Charlottesville, Virginia, Summit, 1, 8

Cities, studies of, 37-38, 132.

See also Urban climatology;

Urban policy;

Urban poverty

Civil rights, 117-119

Civil unrest in Los Angeles, 78-79

Climate change and geography, 24-26, 55-57.

See also Climatology;

Urban climatology

Climatology, 34-35

CNWRA, See Center for Nuclear Waste and Regulatory Analysis (NWRA)

COHMAP, See Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP)

Cold War, demise of, 95, 129

College Boards, 27

Colorado River system, 114-115

Commission on College Geography, 189

Commuting intensity, 96

Comparative longitudinal studies. See Longitudinal studies, need for

Complexity, 4-5, 31, 71, 75-76, 92-93

defined, 14n

disequilibrium within, 140-141

Computational techniques, 40, 59-60

Computer software, 58, 146.

See also Geographic information systems (GISs)

Computers, Environments, and Urban Systems, 89

Computing power, 99

Conflict. See Ethnic conflict and geography; Political conflict and geography

Convention Placement Service (CoPS), 204-206

Cooperation. See Ethnic conflict and geography; Political conflict and geography

Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 24-25, 59

CoPS, See Convention Placement Service (CoPS)

Critical issues and geography, 16-27

Cultural geography, 45

D

Decision making, geography's contributions to, 109-137

history of, 136-137

international, 127-135

national, 117-127

regional and local, 111-117

Democratization, global. See Cold War, demise of

Digest of Education Statistics, 189

Digital geographic databases, 43

Display and analysis, technique of, 3, 57-69

need for improvement in, 3, 57-69, 162

Dispute Resolution, 117

Disturbance regimes, 81-82

Dual Independent Map Encoding system, 43

Dynamic equilibrium hypothesis, 59

E

Economic health and geography, 4, 10, 17-18, 77-79, 93, 98, 101-102, 129-132

restructuring for competitiveness, 119-120

Ecosystem processes. See Environmental change

Educate America Act. See Goals 2000: The Educate America Act

Education and geography. See Geographic education

Electoral reapportionment, 118-119

EMAP. See Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)

Emergency response planning. See Hazard management; Nuclear power plant accidents

Employment forecast, 187-217

Energy crisis, 117-118

Environment and Planning D:

Society and Space, 36

Environmental change, 4, 77-85, 99-101

degradation, 11, 18-19, 33, 91-92

and democratization, 131-132

human attitudes about, 33

human impact on, 32-33, 71, 97-99

impact on humankind, 32-33

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

Environmental dynamics, 34-36

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 126

Environmental Spatial Analysis Tool (ESAT) project, 126

Environmental-societal dynamics, 32-34, 71-73

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Epidemiology, 72.

See also Spatial diffusion and epidemics

Epistemologies. See Geography, epistemologies of

Erosion, 84-85

ESAT, See Environmental Spatial Analysis Tool (ESAT) project

ESDA. See Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA)

Ethnic conflict and geography, 19-21, 37-38, 61, 75, 86, 117

Evapotranspiration, 48, 80

Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), 64

F

Famine. See Food crises

Federal Geographic Data Committee, 125

Fieldwork, technique of, 3, 49, 51-52, 159, 168

Fire, effect on ecosystems. See Disturbance regimes

Floods, 62, 106-107, 122, 124-125.

See also Climate change and geography

Food crises, 63, 100, 106, 133-136

Form and Function, 93

Fortune magazine, 131

Fractal dimensions, 76

Fundac para el Desarrollo Agropecuario (FUNDAGRO), 130

Future Geographies. See Geography, future needs for

G

GAM. See Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM)

Geographers, 6, 15

diversity among, 4-5, 139, 154-155, 167, 208

influence of, 109-111, 167-168

numbers of, 4, 12, 138-139

recognition of, 166-167, 170

Geographic and Spatial Systems Program, 126

Geographic brushing, 66-67

Geographic education, 1, 25, 27, 146-150

demand for, 11-12, 27, 148

graduate level, 1-2, 4, 8-9, 151, 154, 189-195

need for improved, 5, 8, 147-160, 163-164

techniques of, 52, 58, 152-153, 155-160

undergraduate level, 149-156, 164, 192-195

Geographic information analysis (GIA) tools, 62

Geographic information system listserve (GIS-L), 160

Geographic information systems (GISs), 3, 43-44, 47-48, 52, 58-63, 111, 126, 133, 145-146

need for experts in, 188, 202-204, 210, 213, 216

Geographic literacy, 1, 6-8, 13, 165, 169

Geographic variability, 30

Geographic visualization (GVis), 3, 63-65

Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM), 62-63

Geographical Systems, 89

Geographical understanding, improving, 147-150, 161-168

Geography, 3-4, 15

employment trends in, 187-217

epistemologies of, 13, 44-46

future needs for, 5, 106-107, 137

perspective of, 28-46

professional organizations, 218-219

relevance of, 16, 46, 75-86, 92-103

research activity in, 2, 9, 48-49

research challenges facing, 140-147, 162-163, 165-166, 168-169

strengthening foundations of, 138-160

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

subject matter of, 2-3, 15, 71-75, 86-92

techniques of, 3-4, 47-69, 146

Geography Alliance, 195-196, 210-213

Geography Education National Implementation Project, 12

Geography Education Standards Project, 27, 148

Geography National Standards. See National Geography Standards

Geomorphology, 34, 36, 92

GeoSim, 157

GIA. See Geographic information analysis (GIA) tools

GIS-L. See Geographic information system listserve (GIS-L)

GISs. See Geographic information systems (GISs)

Global change, 4, 17, 99, 129-132

broadening concept of, 141-142

climatic (See Climate change and geography)

Global Demography Project, 43

Global positioning systems (GPSs), 52-54, 160

need for experts in, 216

Global warming. See Greenhouse effect

Goals 2000:

The Educate America Act, 1, 8, 11, 14, 27, 146

GPSs. See Global positioning systems (GPSs)

Great Flood of 1993, 122, 124-125

Greenhouse effect, 24, 33, 127-128

Guide to Programs of Geography in the United States and Canada, 192 , 200

GVis. See Geographic visualization

H

Hazard management, 4, 19, 60-61, 120-122

Health care and geography, 21-24, 69, 134-135.

See also Low-birth-weight babies;

Spatial diffusion and epidemics

Heat waves. See Climate change and geography

High School Geography Project, 189

Hispanic Opportunity District, 118-119

HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Homelessness, 112-113

Horizontal connections, 3, 30

Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme, 72

Human geography, 62

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 24, 96

Human migration. See Migration, studies of

Human-societal dynamics, 36-39

Hunger. See Food crises

Hurricanes. See Climate change and geography

Hypermedia applications, 41, 65

I

ICSU. See International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU)

IGBP. See International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)

IGU. See International Geographical Union (IGU)

IHDP. See International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (IHDP)

Illiteracy, geographic. See Geographic literacy

Immigration. See Migration, studies of

Institute of British Geographers. See Royal Geographical Society

Integration in place. See Place, integration in

Integrative research, need for, 162-163

Interactive learning strategies, 5-6, 155-156

Inter-America Foundation, 130

Interdependencies. See Place, interdependencies between; Scales, interdependencies among

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 72, 128

International Cartographic Association, 133

International Conference on Nutrition, 134-135

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU), 62, 127

International Geographical Union (IGU), 62, 219

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 25, 54, 72, 128

International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (IHDP), 128

International Standards Organization Technical Committee on Geographic Information/Geomatics (ISO/TC 211), 133

International trade, 8, 10

Internet connections, 43, 160

IPCC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

ISO/TC 211. See International Standards Organization Technical Committee on Geographic Information/Geomatics (ISO/TC 211)

J

Jobs in Geography, 188

K

Kondratiev wave phenomena, 94

L

Law of the River, 115

Local-global continuum, 14n, 142-144

Location Science, 89

Location theory, 36, 38

Locational coding, 61

Location-allocation models, 116, 133, 146

Longitudinal studies, need for, 145

Long-wave rhythms. See Kondratiev wave phenomena

Low-birth-weight babies, 22-23

M

Macroscale phenomena and processes, 4, 14n, 31, 51, 97, 142-143

Malnutrition. See Food crises

Maps. See Spatial representation

Marketing. See Retail marketing

Maternal health services. See Low-birth-weight babies

Mathematical geography, 141.

See also Spatial representations, mathematical

Mesoscale phenomena and processes, 14n, 49, 97

Meta-data, 51

Metaphors for map animation, 104

Microscale phenomena and processes, 4, 14n, 49, 97, 142-143

Migration, studies of, 38-39, 89-92, 132

transnational, 94

Milankovitch orbital/radiative forcing, 123

Military spending, 17-18

Missouri and Mississippi River systems. See Great Flood of 1993

Mitigation strategies, 33-34

Monte Carlo simulation, 55, 68

Multidimensional visualization, dynamic, 94

Multimedia tools, 57, 64-65

Multinational institutions, 120

Multivariate statistical analysis. See Spatial statistics

N

Nation states, role of, 102-103

National Academy of Sciences, 12

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 56

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 189, 194, 201

National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), 105, 126, 162

National Center for Health Statistics, 126

National Council for Geographic Education, 12, 169, 218

National Digital Cartographic Database, 126

National Geographic Society (NGS), 6, 12, 27, 169-171, 219

National Geographic Society Alliance Network, 147n

National Geography Bee, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

National Geography Standards, 197, 199, 212, 216

National Information Infrastructure, 104.

See also National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 54

National Research Council (NRC), 2, 6, 9-10, 54, 101, 128, 170-171

National Science Foundation (NSF), 6, 13, 105, 131, 148, 169-171, 191

National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI), 125-127

Native Americans, decline of. See Pre-Hispanic populations of Americas

Natural resources, monitoring, 61

Nature. See Society and nature, interactions between

NCES. See National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

NCGIA. See National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA)

NGS. See National Geographic Society (NGS)

Nonlinear systems. See Complexity

NRC. See National Research Council (NRC)

NSDI. See National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI)

NSF. See National Science Foundation (NSF)

Nuclear power plant accidents, 121-123

O

Object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts, 63

Observation, technique of, 3, 49-57

OOP approach. See Object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts

P

Parallel processing methods, 68

Perspective of geography. See Geography

Physical geography, 34-35

Pike and Thelin map of United States, 42

Place, 2-3, 9, 28, 30

distinctiveness of, 73-75

integration in, 30, 71-86

interdependencies between, 30-31, 86-95

Place names, 2-3, 16

Planning. See Policy making

Plutonium transfer and storage, 19-20

Policy making, 61-63, 65, 109.

See also Decision making, geography's contributions to

legal defenses, 117

Political changes, 10, 129-132

Political conflict and geography, 75, 86, 94-95

Political cultures, local, 74

Political institutions, studies of, 39

Pollution. See Environmental change, degradation

Population-resource dynamics, 71

Pre-Hispanic populations of Americas, 72

President's National Science and Technology Council, 13-14

President's Water Resources Policy Commission, 125

Price fluctuations, 93

Professional Geographer, 187-217

Public health. See Low-birth-weight babies

Public policy. See Policy making

Q

Quality of data. See Reliability of data

R

Range of choice, 34

Raster data structures, 44

Rediscovering Geography Committee, 2, 5, 9-10, 138

biographical sketches, 220-225

objectives of assessment, 10

recommendations, 6, 168-171

Regional specialization, 98, 156-159

Regionalization problem, 31

Relationships. See Synthesis, domains of

Reliability of data, 105

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

Remote sensing, 3, 52-54.

See also Geographic information systems (GISs)

Representation. See Spatial representation

Retail marketing, 114-116

Rio Grande River system, 19-20

Risk assessment. See Hazard management; Nuclear power plant accidents

Robotic vehicles, guidance of, 108

Royal Geographical Society, 219

S

Sampling, technique of, 54-57

Satellite imagery, 54

Scales, 2, 9, 28, 30, 54, 68

interdependencies among, 5, 31, 95-108, 142-145

nested hierarchies of, 100-101

Scatterplot brush, 66-67

Science of complexity. See Complexity

Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team (SAST), 124

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), 128

Scientific understanding, geography's contributions to, 70-108

Silicon Valley, 74

Social Science Research Council (SSRC), 157-158, 170

Social theory, 9-10, 13, 36-37

synthesis in place, 37-38

Society and nature, interactions between, 5

Soviet bloc, splintering of. See Cold War, demise of

Space, 2, 28

annihilation by time, 131

Space-time-attribute analysis machine (STAM), 63

Spatial Data Transfer Standards, 104, 125

Spatial decision making, 6, 43, 93

Spatial demographics. See Migration, studies of

Spatial diffusion and epidemics, 49-50, 95-96

Spatial dynamics, 34n, 93

Spatial interactions, 4, 87-89

modeling of, 89

Spatial representations, 29, 31, 39-44, 103-108.

See also Temporal representations, need for

animated (See dynamic)

cognitive, 43, 108

digital, 3-4, 43-44

dynamic, 57-59, 64, 104, 156

interactive, 57

mathematical, 41, 43

research into, 104-105, 108

spatiotemporal, 103

verbal, 41

visual, 40-41

Spatial statistics, 3, 65-69

SSRC. See Social Science Research Council (SSRC)

STAM. See Space-time-attribute analysis machine (STAM)

States, role of. See Nation states, role of

Statistical analysis. See Spatial statistics

Sustainable development, 106

Synthesis, domains of, 29, 32-39

T

Technological hazards. See Hazard management

Temporal brush, 66-67

Temporal representations, need for, 145

Territoriality, 73, 95

Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, 121-122

Topologically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing system (TIGER), 43, 61, 126

Trade, 87-88, 132

falling barriers to, 129

"Truth" of representations, 65

U

UCGIS. See University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS)

Understanding geography. See Geographical understanding, improving

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×

University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), 44

Urban climatology, 80

Urban policy, 111-113

Urban poverty, 102

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 63, 129

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 115

U.S. Bureau of the Census, 43, 61, 126

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 117

U.S. Department of Education, 148

U.S. Department of Energy, 117, 126

U.S. Department of State, 158

U.S. Department of Transportation, 126

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 92, 126

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 42-43, 54, 58, 108, 124-126, 191

V

Vance-Owen plan. See Bosnia, partition of

Vertical integration, 3, 30

Visualization, 141.

See also Geographic visualization (GVis); Multidimensional visualization, dynamic

W

Warsaw Pact, splintering of. See Cold War, demise of

Water-budget algorithms, 131.

See also Evapotranspiration

Watershed dynamics, 89-92.

See also Floods

managing, 101, 112, 114

Water Resources, 112

White House Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force, 122

World Bank Conference on Overcoming Global Hunger, 135

World Wide Web, 43, 160

Y

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, 123

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
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Page 229
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
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Page 230
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
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Page 231
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
×
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4913.
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