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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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REFERENCES 203 REFERENCES AAU (Association of American Universities) 1990 Institutional Policies to Improve Doctoral Education. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Universities/Association of Graduate Schools. ACS (American Chemical Society) 1993 Starting Salaries of Chemists and Chemical Engineers: 1993. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. AMS (American Mathematical Society) 1994a 1993 Annual AMS-IMS-MAA Survey (Second Report). Notices of the American Mathematical Society 41 (July/August):598–601. 1994b 1994 Annual AMS-IMS-MAA Survey (First Report). Notices of the American Mathematical Society 41 (November/December): 1121– 1128. APS (American Physical Society) 1995 Graduate Student Packet. College Park, Md.: American Physical Society and American Institute of Physics. ASEE (American Society for Engineering Education) 1987 A National Action Agenda for Engineering Education. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Engineering Education. Atkinson, Richard C. 1990 “Supply and demand for scientists and engineers: A crisis in the making.” Science 248(April 27):425–432.

REFERENCES 204 Bowen, William G., and Neil L.Rudenstine. 1992 In Pursuit of the PhD. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Bowen, William G., and Julie Ann Sosa 1989 Prospects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1991 “Measuring time to the doctorate: A reinterpretation of the evidence.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 88:713–717. CGS (Council of Graduate Schools) 1990 The Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Policy Statement. Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools. COSEPUP (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy) 1993 Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. CRS (Congressional Research Service) 1992 Foreign-Born Science and Engineering Doctorate Students in U.S. Institutions. CRS Report for Congress 92–469. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Fechter, Alan 1990 “Engineering shortages and shortfalls: Myths and realities.” The Bridge (Fall): 16–20. Good, Mary, and Neal Lane 1994 “Producing the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century.” Science 266:742. Goodstein, David 1993 “Scientific Ph.D. problems.” American Scholar 62(Spring):215–220. Kirby, Kate, and Roman Czujko 1993 “The physics job market: Bleak for young physicists.” Physics Today (December):22–27. Leslie, Larry L., and Ronald L.Oaxaca 1990 “Scientist and Engineer Supply and Demand.” Final Report to the Division of Science Resources, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Mitchell, Susan, and Daniel Pasquini 1991 Nonresponse Bias in the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients: An Exploratory Study. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

REFERENCES 205 NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) 1991 Projections of Education Statistics to 2002. NCES 91–490. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. 1993 Condition of Education 1993. NCES 93–290. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. 1994 Faculty and Instructional Staff: Who Are They and What Do They Do? NCES 94– 346. 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. NRC (National Research Council) 1964 Federal Support of Basic Research in Institutions of Higher Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1969 The Invisible University: Postdoctoral Education in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1975 Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research: The 1975 Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1978 A Century of Doctorates: Data Analyses of Growth and Change. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1981 Postdoctoral Appointments and Disappointments. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1983 Departing the Ivy Halls: Changing Employment Situations for Recent PhDs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1993 Summary Report 1992: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1994a The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1994b Meeting the Nation's Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1995 Summary Report 1993: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Forthcoming Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSB (National Science Board) 1985 Science Indicators: The 1985 Report. NSB 85–1. Washington, D.C.: National Science Board. 1993 Science and Engineering Indicators: 1993. NSB 93–1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

REFERENCES 206 NSF (National Science Foundation) 1984 Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1982. NSF 84–318. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1986 Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1984. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1987 Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1986. NSF 87–321. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1989 Future Scarcities of Scientists and Engineers: Problems and Solutions. Division of Policy Research and Analysis, Washington, D.C., November 13, Working Draft. 1990a Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates: 1986. NSF 90–305. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1990b The State of Academic Science and Engineering. NSF 90–35. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1991 Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1989. NSF 91–317. Division of Science Resources Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1992a Academic Science and Engineering: Graduate Enrollment and Support, Fall 1990. NSF 92–323. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1992b Characteristics of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates: 1990. NSF 92–316. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1992c Using the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to Measure the Number of Academic Research Personnel. NSF 92–315. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1993a Academic Science and Engineering: Graduate Enrollment and Support, Fall 1991. NSF 93–309. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1993b Science and Engineering Doctorates: 1960–91. NSF 93–301. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1993c Human Resources for Science & Technology: The Asian Region. NSF 93–303. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1993d Foreign Participation in U.S. Academic Science and Engineering: 1991. NSF 93– 302. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1993e Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 1992. NSF 93–95. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1994a Selected Data on Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 1992. NSF 94–301. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. 1994b Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966–1991. NSF 94–305. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. 1994c Selected Data on Federal Support of Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1992: Selected Data Tables. NSF 94–312. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. 1994d Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1991. NSF 94–307. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. 1994e Guidelines for the NSF Graduate Research Traineeship Program. NSF 94–140. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.

REFERENCES 207 1994f Selected Data on Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 1993. NSF 94–318. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. 1994g Science and Engineering Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients: 1966–1991. NSF-94–306. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. Unpublished Detailed tables in the Fall 1992 NSF/NIH Survey of Graduate Science and Engineering Students and Postdoctorates. PCAST (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology) 1992 Renewing the Promise: Research Intensive Universities and the Nation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Rawls, Rebecca L. 1994 “Demand.” Chemical & Engineering News (October 24):43–48. Sapolsky, Harvey M. 1994 “Financing science after the Cold War.” Pp. 159–176 in David H.Guston and Kenneth Keniston, eds., The Fragile Contract: University Science and the Federal Government. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Spisak, Andrew, and Betty D.Maxfield 1979 The Effects of Nonresponse Bias on the Results of the 1975 Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Stricker, Lawrence J. 1994 “Institutional factors in time to the doctorate.” Research in Higher Education 35:569–587. Tuckman, Howard, Susan Coyle, and Yupin Bae 1990 On Time to the Doctorate: A Study of the Increased Time to Complete Doctorates in Science and Engineering. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. U.S. Bureau of the Census 1994 Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994. 114th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Vetter, Betty M. 1993 “Setting the Record Straight: Shortages in Perspective.” Occasional Paper 92–4, Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, Washington, D.C.

ADDITIONAL READING 208 ADDITIONAL READING Aylesworth, Kevin, Daryl E.Chubin, and Sheila Tobias 1995 Rethinking Science as a Career: Perceptions and Realities in the Physical Sciences. Tucson, Arizona: Research Corporation. Babco, Eleanor L., Alan E.Fechter, and Catherine D.Gaddy 1995 Assessing Imbalance Between Young Researchers and Employment Opportunities. Final Report prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation by the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (May 24). Washington, D.C.: CPST. Bloom, Floyd E. 1995 “Degrees of Uncertainty.” Science, Volume 268 (May 12). Doering, Don S. 1995 “Degrees of Freedom.” Science, Volume 269 (August 18). Fechter, Alan E. 1994 “Future supply and demand: Cloudy crystal balls.” In W.Pearson, Jr. and Alan Fechter, eds., Who will do science?. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Goldman, Charles A. and William F.Massy 1995 The Production and Utilization of Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States. Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation with assistance from the RAND Institute for Education and Training and the U.S. Department of Education Office of Education Research and Improvement. (July). Griffiths, Phillip A. 1995a “Reshaping Graduate Education.” Issues in Science and Technology, (Summer). 1995b “Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers.” Academic Medicine, Volume 70, Number 9 (September). Kennedy, Jr., Thomas J. 1994 “Graduate Education in the Biomedical Sciences: Critical Observations on Training for Research Careers.” Academic Medicine, Volume 69, No. 10 (October): Pp. 779–799. OSEP (Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel) 1995 Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Committee for the Study of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ziman, John 1994 Prometheus Bound: Science in a Dynamic Steady State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Are we producing too many PhDs? Does the current graduate education system adequately prepare science and engineering students for today's marketplace? How do foreign students enter the picture? What should be the PhD of the future? These and other questions are addressed in this book by a blue-ribbon panel of scientists and engineers. Recommendations are aimed at creating a new PhD that would retain the existing strengths of the current system while substantially increasing the information available, the potential versatility of students, and the career options afforded to them by their PhD education.

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