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EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER November 29, ~ 906-April 5, ~ 983 BY JAMES E. OFFICER THE ROBERT BARCLAY SPICER FAMILY of CheTtenham, PennsyI- vania, had a double cause for celebration on Novem- ber 29, 1906. Not only was it Thanksgiving Day, but it was also the day Margaret Jones Spicer gave birth to her young- est son, Edward HolIanc3. Her first-born chiTc3 hacl cried sev- eral years earlier, but a second son, Bill, was on hand to greet his new sibling. The elder Spicer was of Quaker per- suasion, and in 1908 he took his family to Arclen, Delaware, a single-tax community based on the principles of Henry George. The Spicers fitted nicely into the liberal intellectual at- mosphere of Arden, which lay in a setting of fields and woods along Naaman's Creek just north of Wilmington. Here, Nec3 ant! Bill were exposed to stimulating discussions of politics ant! economics. They also took part in the annual Shakespearean plays that provicle(1 entertainment for both local residents and summer visitors. At the time the family mover! to Arclen, the elcler Spicer was editor of a Quaker journal called The Friends Intelligencer. His ultraliberal views soon cost him his job, anct he turner! to truck farming, a vocational choice that introduced his sons to the world of work. Both Nec! ant! Bill spent portions 325
326 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of each clay hoeing and weeding the garclens, filling the woocibox, carrying water from the town pump, and looking after animals such as goats en c! rabbits. Until he was thirteen, Ned obtained all his education in Arden. The children went to school in each other's homes, the mothers taking them for a month in turn. Later in life, Ned stated that he could not remember when he learned to read, but it was uncloubtedly at the knee of his mother, who instiller! in him a love of books en c! writing. From his father he gained a knowle(lge of philology en cl by the age of twelve was copying words en cl texts of the Algonquin Inclian language. On his own he sought en c! absorbed knowI- ecige about the natural environment. Memorizing the sci- entific names of plants and animals was a favorite pastime. Necl's formal education began in 1919 when his parents enrolled him in the Friends School in nearby Wilmington. Traveling by train from his home in Arden, he studied there for three years. In 1922 the family moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where Necl's father began working with the Soci- ety for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. Ned graduated from Louisville Male High School in February 1924. During the two years he livecl in Louisville, Ned indulgent a long-helc] interest in sailing. He constructed a canoe, which he outfitted with a sail, and cruiser! the waters of the Ohio River. After graduating from high school, he left home and enrolled at Commonwealth College, a new progressive school at NewIlano, Louisiana, where he remained less than two months. In April 1924 he en c! a friend! went to New OrIeans to seek employment as merchant sailors. Ned found a job as an ordinary seaman on a ship called the Aquarius, which carried him to Germany. After short stops at the ports of Bremerhaven, Stettin, ant! Hamburg, the Aquarius returned to New OrIeans and Nec! went home to visit his parents.
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 327 There he learned that his father was crying of cancer at the age of fifty-f~ve. Following his father's cleath, Ned returnee! to the Wilmington area where he worked briefly, alongside his mother, at the Greenwood Bookshop. Fascinated though he was with books, Ned fount! he could not settle down; so he heacled again to sea. Early in 1925 he sailed on a banana boat to Puerto Barrios, Guatemala; then, after returning from Central America, he joined the crew of a vessel haul- ing ore on the Great Lakes. A seamen's strike enclecl his career as a merchant sailor, and in the fall of 1925 Ned enrollecl at the University of Delaware, planning to major in chemistry. A FIRST TRY AT COLLEGE Quickly (lisappointecI with a required introductory course in chemistry at Delaware, Spicer turned to literature and drama. He became a member of the Footlights Club and actecl in several plays. He also joined the staff of The Dela- ware Review and became its assistant editor. During his sopho- more year, he took his first course in economics and de- cicled to transfer to Johns Hopkins University, where he conic] obtain additional instruction in that subject. At the time of Spicer's enrollment, Johns Hopkins was experimenting with what its administrators called the "New Plan" uncler which a student couJid take graduate courses without first earning a baccalaureate degree. Ned chose some of the more acivance(1 classes, including one for which he wrote a paper titled "Theory of Hours and Production," which he react at a graduate seminar. He also helped to fount] and server] as president of a student club callect "The Radicals" whose members felt that socialism provider! a bet- ter response than capitalism to the worict's economic prob- lems.
328 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS In 1928 Spicer learned that he had the symptoms of pul- monary tuberculosis and entered a sanitarium where he remained for most of the following year. Free from pre- scribed assignments, he spent his time reading, assisting with work in the laboratory, and pursuing a strong avocational interest in astronomy. Ned returned to Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929 but soon dropped out. Economics no longer held his interest; he felt he had to get away from Baltimore and see more of the world. With financial help from his mother, he pur- chased a bus ticket to Phoenix. The decision to go to Ari- ~ ~ ~ . . ~ Hi. zone would turn out to be one of the most important of his life. Greatly stimulated by his new surroundings, Ned resolved to maintain himself and sought employment wherever he could find it. He washed windows at a resort hotel in Phoe- nix, picked oranges, and worked at an agricultural inspec- tion station. He also spent many weekends exploring south- western Arizona, where he found prehistoric ruins and traces of precious minerals. Even a bout with smallpox could not diminish his enthusiasm for the desert and mountains. Spicer saved his money so that he could enroll at the University of Arizona and take whatever classes he might need to qualify him for a bachelor's degree. He hoped then to pursue graduate work in either geology or archeology. He was delayed a year in carrying through on these plans because the advent of the Great Depression led to failure of the bank in which he had deposited his funds. Fortu- nately, he still had his job with the inspection service and was able to replace the money he had lost. ARCHEOLOGY TAKES OVER In the fall of 1931 Spicer went to Tucson, where he shared accommodations with several other students in similar eco-
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 329 nomic circumstances and began attending the University of Arizona. One course in a(lvanced economic theory proved enough to earn him a B.A. in economics, as well as senior honors. While completing his degree, he enrollee! in a class about southwestern l[n(lians taught by Clara Lee Frapps (Tan- ner). He also came to know Dean Byron Cummings, who fount] him an eager volunteer for field! trips to nearby In- dian ruins. Nec! would later comment that at this time he developed an interest in archeology that was "unflagging." in 1933 he completed work for his master's degree in that subject with a thesis on Prescott black-on-gray pottery and the American Inclian society that procluced it. During the summer of 1932, when Spicer was working at the Kinishba Indian Ruin with Cummings, he came to know John H. Provinse, recently arrived in Arizona from the Uni- versity of Chicago, where he was studying with A. R. Ra(lcliffe- Browne and Robert Redfield. It was Provinse who first sparker! Necl's interest in social anthropology. After receiving his master's degree in the spring of 1933, Ned headed for northern Arizona to take part in an arche- ology project that resulted in the partial excavation of Tuzigoot Ruin, now a national monument. Associated with Spicer at Tuzigoot were Louis R. Caywood ant! Harry T. Getty. Funding came from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration- forerunner of the Civil Works Aciministra- tion and the Works Progress Administration. One aim of the project was to provide jobs for unemployed copper miners ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ , and smelter workers In the area; en c] more than 100 men with picks and shovels greeted the archeologists on their first day at the site. After choosing several crews, they set to work, and early in 1934 ten months after starting they finished both the digging anct a report on what they hacl accomplishe(l. During the late spring and early summer of 1934 , Spicer
330 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS did additional archeology work for the Museum of North- ern Arizona. He had not to this point considered seeking a higher degree. At the urging of John Provinse, however, he agreed to visit the University of Chicago campus at the be- ginning of the fall term to speak with the renowned anthro- pologists whom Provinse had recommended so highly. Im- pressed with Redfield and Radcliffe-Browne, Ned decided to continue graduate studies leading to a doctorate in so- cial anthropology. Fay-Cooper Cole, department head at Chicago, suggested that Spicer apply for a full scholarship, which he did and which had positive results. STUDYING SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY AT CHICAGO In return for his scholarship Spicer assumed responsibil- ity for cataloging and taking care of the extensive office library maintained by Redfield. Even with the scholarship, he did not have all the money he needed to pay for his room and food. Aware of this problem, one of his fellow students, Rosamond P. Brown, proposed that she and her roommate, along with Ned and another student, share sup- per each evening at the apartment rented by the women. This arrangement, plus many study hours spent together, brought Ned and Rosamond into a relationship they would share for the rest of Ned's life. The long study hours and the cold Lake Michigan winter took their toll on Ned, who, early in the spring, suffered a hemorrhage that required hospitalization. Cole and other members of the department, aware of Ned's precarious fi- nancial situation, arranged for payment of his medical bills. They also suggested to Rosamond that she share her class notes with him so that he might obtain credit for certain of the third-quarter courses that he needed for his degree program. While in the hospital, Ned not only studied the notes Roz provided him but also read extensively, being
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 331 particularly attracted to the writings of French sociologist Emile Durkheim. When he was finally able to leave the hospital, Spicer returned to Arizona, where, thanks to further help from his professors at Chicago, he obtained a temporary job at the Arizona State Museum. In tune 1936 he marries! Rosamond in a ceremony conducted by her father, a Swedenborgian minister. They spent their honeymoon at the Yaqui village of Pascua in northwest Tucson, which would be their resi- dence for the next year and where they would concluct a community study. They then returned to Chicago, en c! Ned worked on his dissertation while Roz finisher] her master's thesis, both based on the Pascua research. Ned gained his first teaching experience while a faculty member at Dillarc! University in New OrIeans, where the Spicers lived from 1937 to 1939. During the summers, when school was not in session, they participated in an archeol- ogy project at Kincaid, TIlinois, sponsored by the University of Chicago. Nec] was field! director in 1939. Their affiliation with DilIar(1 University provicled the Spicers an unusual opportunity to meet and clevelop friendships with African-Americans. From these associations they ac- quirect much knowledge about race relations, which Nect later shared with his students at the University of Arizona en c! which would be important to both Nect and Roz cluring the many years they worked with the Tucson and Arizona Councils for Civic Unity. ARIZONA, WASHINGTON, AND ARIZONA AGAIN The fall of 1939 founcl the Spicers back in Tucson, where Ned hacl a two-year appointment as an instructor in the University of Arizona Department of Anthropology. He was replacing Harry T. Getty, who had gone to the University of Chicago to complete work for his doctoral degree. While in
332 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Tucson cluring the remainder of 1939 and 1940, Ned con- cluctecl acIditional research among the Tucson Yaquis and finished a manuscript called "People of Pascua" to go along with the book baser! on his dissertation. Roz was pregnant cluring part of this perioc! and in 1940 gave birth to their first child whom they named Robert Barclay but who soon became "Barry" to one en c! all. A Guggenheim Fellowship ma(le it possible for the Spicers to spend the final months of 1941 and the early part of 1942 in southern Sonora, Mexico, studying Yaqui Tnclian culture on its home grounds. Following America's entry into the war, the Mexican authorities forced the Spicers to leave, and they came back to Arizona earlier than they hac! planned. Ned began work as a community analyst at the Poston Relocation Center for iapanese-Americans, while Roz dicl fieldwork on the Tohono O'Odham Inclian Reserva- tion. In 1943 Nec] became head of the Community Analysis Section of the War Relocation Authority (WRA), and the Spicers moved to Washington, D.C., where they remained until the WRA discontinuecl operations. Their second child. Margaret Pencileton (Penny), was born in Washington in 1945. Shortly after going to the east coast, Ned wrote in his diary that he hac3 come to the conclusion that he wan ted to spenct the remainder of his life in Arizona, which he cle- scribed as "my lancI." In the fall of 1945 Emil W. Haury, head of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, invited him to rejoin the faculty there, and he en cl Roz were clelighted to accept the offer. Necl's responsibilities with the WRA enclecl on June 30, 1946, and the Spicers went back to Tucson. Sensing they would be in Arizona for many years, they started building a home near the ruins of alit Fort Lowell on the outskirts of
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 333 town and, except for brief intervals of research and travel, remained in Tucson thereafter. By the time the Spicers returned to Arizona in 1946, Ned was already well known in anthropology circles. The Uni- versity of Chicago had published his revised dissertation in 1940 under the title Pascua: A Yaqui Village in Arizona, and the book received favorable notice from colleagues through- out the country. He also contributed along with Fay-Coo- per Cole, Fred Eggan, and Henry Hoijer to the preface for Grenville Goodwin's classic work Social Organization of the Western Apache, which became available in 1942. Addi- tionally, he wrote or collaborated in the writing of several articles on the relocation of Japanese-Americans that ap- peared in social science journals, and he contributed to The Governing of Men, a book written by Alexander H. Leighton and published by the Princeton University Press in 1945. From his base in Tucson, Spicer continued to reflect on his experience with the WRA and to publish articles deal- 1 . ~ . . ~ .1 . ~ TO _ _1~~ __,__ ng with various aspects or that experience. me also -mu ll~U to his research on Yaqui history and culture and wrote many additional articles, books, and chapters of books concerned with these Mexican Indians. Serving with the WRA convinced Ned that anthropolo- gists had much to contribute to decision making within governmental agencies. It was this conviction that led him to accept office in the Society for Applied Anthropology, which he had helped to found. He became vice-president of the organization in 1947, not long after he contributed his first article to the society's journal. Thirty years later the organization accorded him its highest honor the Bronislaw Malinowski Award. THE FRUITFUL FIFTIES For Ned Spicer the 1950s proved to be one of the busiest
334 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and most satisfying decacles of his life. Not only ctict he carry forward his involvement with applied anthropology, he also pursuer] an interest in culture change that in the early 1960s yielclec! significant contributions to accultura- tion theory. Aciclitionally, he completecI research for a ma- jor book concerned with the impact of European civiliza- tion on the Indian population of northwest Mexico and the southwestern part of the United States. He also expanded his professional relationships through service from 1951 through 1953 on the Board of Directors of the American Anthropological Association. At the beginning of the clecacle, Spicer accepted an invi- tation from Alexancler Leighton to work with John I. Aciair of Cornell University in organizing and conducting sum- mer seminars for administrators of overseas agricultural and social science programs, as well as Cornell graduate stu- clents in anthropology. The seminars exposer! students to the cultures of Indian and Hispanic communities in north- ern Arizona and New Mexico. Funcling for the program came from the Carnegie Corporation. At Leighton's suggestion, Spicer ectitec3 a casebook for use by faculty members and students of the seminar. The Russell Sage Foundation sponsored publication of the casebook under the title Human Problems in Technological Change. It came out in 1952, the same year the last Spicer child, Lawson Alan, was born. By the mid-1960s Human Pro h lems would become a standarc! text for Peace Corps and Vista volunteers, as well as others working in domestic and international community development programs. Although Spicer hacI been interested in culture history and the processes of social anc! cultural change while doing research in archeology, Human Problems was the first publi- cation after his conversion to social anthropology wherein he gave significant attention to such subjects. In 1941 in a
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 335 complimentary review of Pascua: A Yaqui Village in Arizona prepared for the Amera can Anthropologist, Ralph L. Beals chided Necl for not cloing more historical en c] comparative research that might have strengthened the study and sparest the au- thor certain errors. Whether Beals's criticism hac3 anything to c30 with a shift in Spicer's orientation will never be known, but after Nec3's return to academic life in 1946 his research always included an important historical dimension. Well before the beginning of World War TI, anthropolo- gists hacl become interested in learning more about social and cultural change. Ralph Linton's 1940 work titled Accul- turation in Seven American Indian Tribes gave adcled stimulus to this research trenct. Following a 1953 summer seminar on acculturation, Spicer and several colleagues decided to v organize an acetone conference on this theme with the aim of designing a research project to explore in greater depth the theoretical en cl practical aspects of culture change. The second acculturation seminar, sponsored] by the So- cial Science Research Council, took place on the campus of the University of New Mexico in the summer of 1956. Spicer and five colleagues agreed on a format for a joint stucly that wouIc! describe culture change in six Indian tribes, irir~ntiEv nerinH.~ when particular change factors prevailed, ^~ J rim rim and characterize the strategies employecl by the agents of change as well as those used by tribes in responding to change. From this collaboration came the book Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change, published in 1961. Spicer provided the introduction to Perspectives as well as a section on Yaqui culture and a final chapter titled "Types of Contact and Processes of Change." Harvard anthropolo- gist Evon Z. Vogtone of Spicer's associates in preparing the bookcommented! later that Necl made two important contributions to acculturation theory in Perspectives and his later writings. One was to sharpen the concepts of directed
336 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and nonclirectecl culture change, ant! the other was to fo- cus attention on the social structure of the "contact com- munity" as a major acculturation determinant. While engages! in research for Perspectives, Spicer contin- ucc3 to collect material for a book he hac! started on the comparative effects of Spanish, Mexican, ant! American rule on the Indian cultures of Arizona, New Mexico, and the Mexican states of Sonora ant! Chihuahua, a region he re- ferrec! to as the Southwest. His icleas for this volume, as well as the theoretical aspects of Perspectives, proviclec! excit- ing material for discussion among the graduate students who attencled Necl's seminars on culture change, some of which he held in his home. EDITING AND OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS Despite the heavy loacI of teaching, research, and service to the profession that kept him busy during the 1950s, Ned, at the end of the clecacle, yielder! to the entreaties of his colleagues en c! accepted responsibility for editing the American Anthropologist. During the three years he was engages] at this work, he somehow managed to finish his writing for Perspectives and also to complete the manuscript for a gigan- tic tome that the University of Arizona Press publisher! in 1962 as Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960. This volume, running to nearly 600 pages, was highly laudecl by both anthropologists ant! historians and has since attained the status of an ethnohistorical masterpiece. With support from his second Guggenheim award, Ned began work on Cycles in 1955 while living in Oaxaca, Mexico. Following his service as editor of the American Anthropolo- gast, Ned took sabbatical leave in the fall of 1963. A Na- tional Science Foundation senior fellowship enablecl him to clo a comparative stucly of programs for Inclian better-
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER _ _ ~ ~ ~ , 337 ment in Mexico, Peru, and Ecuador. He returned from Latin America in 1964 and shortly thereafter turned down the opportunity to become a nominee for the presidency of the American Anthropological Association. Spicer continued to do research and to write after con- cl,~din~ his sabbatical. but in the late 1960s he gave extra attention to teaching, which he always consiclered one of his most important and beloved responsibilities. He and a colleague from the sociology department expanded a semi- nar in community development they had organized, en cl both designecl ant! implemented short training programs for Vista workers en c] others engaged in similar work. In 1968 Spicer accepted! an invitation from William S. King, an official of the Bureau of Indian Affairs en cl former stu- dent of his, to help plan, and take part in, a series of re- gional community development seminars for BTA person- nel. During his extensive studies of culture contact and change, Spicer became fascinated with the abilities of particular ethnic groups, such as the Yaqui, to retain separate identities within the nation-states of which they former] a part. In 1969 he obtained a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to visit Europe, where he might investigate f~rst- hanc! such groups as the Basques, Catalans, Irish, and Welsh, who he felt shared with the Yaquis this quality of enclur- ance. In the summer of 1970 he and Roz began their trav- els and remained] away from Tucson for a full year. Not long after they returned, Nec3 published a short article in Science titles! "Persistent Cultural Systems." Despite its brev- ity, the article attracted international attention and helped stimulate a new research interest in the social sciences. Ned was already past normal retirement age when he returned from Europe, but he had two major writing projects he hoped to finish cluring the years that remained to him.
338 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS One, already begun, was a lengthy manuscript on Yaqui culture that incorporated many of the icleas and research techniques he felt most important. The 'other was a book on "encluring peoples" th ro1 1 ah al 1 t th `> whirl r1 1 . . ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ He lived to complete tne nrst or these objectives but not the second. In 1972 NecI returnee! to the board of the American An- thropological Association as presiclent-elect. Shortly after- war(l, he learned that he was suffering from cancer of the lower jaw, a condition similar to that which hac! cost the life of his father. Doctors began radiotherapy treatments and for the next several years woulc! continue their attempts to control the disease in this fashion. Spicer went on working as before and in the fall of 1973 took office as president of the American Anthropological Association. He spent much of the next year assisting the program chairman with ar- rangements for the group's annual meeting in Mexico City; ancI he invites! his old friend, historian Miguel Leon-Portilla, to give a major aciciress at that event. Shortly before Nec! stepped clown from the presidency of the American Anthropological Association in the fall of 1974, he was honoree! with membership in the American Philo- sophical Society ant! receiver! similar acclaim from the Na- tional Academy of Sciences the following year. Despite his cancer, he continued to teach and to advise students, as well as to work on his Yaqui manuscript. He also was deeply committed to several community projects involving the Tucson Yaquis and his belovec! Fort Lowell neighborhood. The Society for Applier! Anthropology voter! Spicer its cove tee! Bronislaw Malinowsky Award in 1976. Over' the years he seized many opportunities to apply his anthropological Know~ec~ge to cles~gn~ng, aclministering, and assessing gov- ernment programs for improving the lives of people. In acIdition to his work with the War Relocation Authority, the Cornell and Indian Affairs seminars, and his evaluations of , 1 ~ 1 1 1 ~ ~ , ~ ·
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 339 Indian programs in Central and South America, Spicer as- sistec! the Stanford Research Institute with preparing an inventory of resources on the San CarIos Apache Reserva- tion, took part in a national stucly of Indian education, and advisecl the Yaquis on public housing. He often reminded his students that anthropologists had much to contribute to administration and encouraged them to seek employ- ment outside the academic setting. In 197S, after completing his Yaqui manuscript, Spicer retired from the University of Arizona, where he enjoyed a joint appointment in anthropology and sociology en cl at one time also directed the Bureau of Ethnic Research. Dur- ing his final year on campus, the Arizona chapter of Phi Beta Kappa electecI him to membership. He had belonged to Sigma Xi, the national science fraternity, since his Chi- cago (lays. Radiotherapy treatments sIowec] the development of Ned's cancer but dicl not cure it, and a year after his retirement surgeons operated on his jaw. During his recuperation, he returned to work on the "enduring people" manuscript, and in the fall of 1979 the American Anthropological Asso- ciation presented him its Distinguished Service Award. Shortly afterward, the Southwestern Anthropological Association honoree! Ned with its Outstanding Scholarship Award for his book The Yaquis: A Cultural History, which the University of Arizona Press publisher] early in 1980. Evon Z. Vogt, who worked closely with Ned on the Per- spectives project, predicted The Yaquis would be Ne(l's most enduring contribution to anthropology. "Here," Vogt re- markec3, "Spicer used what T woul(1 describe as EClifforcI] Geertz's method of 'thick description' applied to the analy- sis of Yaqui cultural history ant! their processes of change en cl persistence. The story is masterfully placed in full ma- teriaTist, structural, and ideological context and provides
340 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS an unusually perceptive understanding of this distinctive case. It deserves to become one of the 'great classics' of anthropology." Ned's cancer reasserted itself in 1982, and he found it too stressful to continue work on the manuscript he so much wanted to finish. He laid it aside and began spending a few minutes each day on the preparation of an autobiography. A second operation proved unsuccessful, and on April 5, 1983, he died at his Fort Lowell home. The memorial ser- vice held at the Arizona State Museum a few days later attracted a large audience of people who had known, ad- mired, and loved Ned, among them many Yaqui, O'Odham, and other Indian friends. Two months after Ned's death the International Astro- nomical Union approved the naming of one of the minor planets "~2065) Spicer." Recommending this action was Pro- fessor Frank K. Edmondson, director of the asteroid project at Indiana University and a member of the original board of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Twenty-eight years earlier, in 1955, Ned had aided astronomers in their efforts to obtain a site for a national observatory atop Kitt Peak on the Tohono O'Odham In- dian Reservation. In the fall of 1985 Spicer's colleagues and students orga- nized an all-day tribute to him at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Washington, D.C. Speaker after speaker extolled the depth and breadth of Ned's interests, his contributions to anthropology and to humankind, his inspirational teaching, and, above all, his remarkable qualities of love and understanding.
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER FURTHER READINGS 341 1941 R. L. Beals. Review of Pascua: A Yaqui Village in Arizona. Am. Anthropol. 43~3) 1949 R. B. Spicer, A. Joseph, and J. Chesky. The Desert People: A Study of the Papago Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1958 T. E. Sheridan. Telling the Story of a Persistent People: Edward H. Spicer's Ethnohistory of the Yaqui Indians. Paper delivered at the 84th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Asso- ciation, Washington, D.C. 1981 G. P. Castile and G. Kushner (editors). Persistent Peoples: Cultural Enclaves in Perspective. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1984 A. Gallaher, fir. Edward Holland Spicer (1906-1983~. Am. Anthropol. 86~2). 1985 N. I. Parezo and R. H. Thompson. Edward H. Spicer and the Uni- versity of Arizona. Paper delivered at the 84th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. E. Z. Vogt. Change and Persistence: A Critique of E. H. Spicer's Views on the Processes of Acculturation. Paper delivered at the 84th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Associa- tion, Washington, D.C. N. F. S. Woodbury and R. B. Woodbury. Edward H. Spicer in the American Anthropological Association. Paper delivered at the 84th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Associa- tion, Washington, D.C.
342 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1987 G. Kushner. Edward H. Spicer: teacher, scholar, gentle man. Hum. Organiz. 46~2~. H. Padfield. The problem of cultural dominance: Spicer and an- thropology for the people without history. Hum. Organiz. 46~2~. 1988 R. B. Spicer. Preface. In People of Pascua, by Edward H. Spicer. Tuc- son: University of Arizona Press. K. M. Sands. Epilogue. In People of Pascua, by Edward H. Spicer. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1990 W. Y. Adams. Edward Spicer, historian. [. Southwest. 32~1~. i. E. Officer. Edward H. Spicer and the application of anthropol- ogy. J. Southwest. 32~1~. R. B. Spicer. A full life well lived: a brief account of the life of Edward H. Spicer. [. Southwest. 32~1~.
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER SELECTED BIBI:IOGRAPHY (not including reviews) 1934 343 Some Pueblo I structures of the San Francisco Mountains, Arizona. Museum Notes (Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff) 7~5~:17- 20. With L. R. Caywood. Tuzigoot, a prehistoric Pueblo of the Upper Verde. Museum Notes (Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff) 6 (9) :43-46. 1935 With L. R. Caywood. Tuzigoot: The Excavation and Repair of a Ruin on the Verde River Near ClarLdale, Arizona. Berkeley, Calif.: National Park Service. 1936 With L. R. Caywood. Two Pueblo ruins in west central Arizona. Soc. Sci.Bull. 10. 1940 Pascua, A Yaqui Village in Arizona. University of Chicago Publica- tions in Anthropology, Ethnological Series. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Yaqui Indians of Arizona. The Diva 5 (6) :21-24. 1941 Foreword. In The Passion at Pascua, by Emily Brown. Tucson: Tuc- son Chamber of Commerce. The Papago Indians. The Kiva 6 (6) :21-24. 1942 With F.-C. Cole, F. Eggan, and H. Hoijer. Preface. In Social Organi- zation of the Western Apache, by.G. Goodwin. University of Chicago Publications in Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1943 Linguistic aspects of Yaqui acculturation. Am. Anthropol. 45~3~:410- 26.
344 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With the Bureau of Sociological Research, Colorado River War Re- location Center. The Japanese family in America, the American family in World War II. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 29(Sept.) :150- 56. With A. H. Leighton. Assessing public opinion in a dislocated com- munity. Publ. Opin. Q. 1~1~:652-68. 1945 Current problems of Japanese American adjustment. J. Soc. Issues 1 (2) :28-29. E1 problema Yaqui. America Indagena 5~4~:273-86. With A. H. Leighton. Applied anthropology in a dislocated commu- nity. In The Governing of Men, by A. H. Leighton. Princeton, Nail.: Princeton University Press. 1946 The use of social scientists by the War Relocation Authority. Appl. Anthropol. 5 (2) :16-36. 1947 Yaqui villages past and present. The Kiva 13~1~:2-12. Yaqui militarism. Araz. Q. 3 ( 1 ) :40-48. With W. Kurath. A brief introduction to Yaqui: a native language of Sonora. Soc. Sci. Bull. No. 15. With K. Luomala, A. T. Hansen, and M. K. Opler. Impounded People: Japanese Americans in the Relocation Centers. Final report of the Community Analysis Section of the War Relocation Authority. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. 1948 Southwestern chronicle: ethnology of the Navajo, Apaches, and others. Ariz. Q.4(1):78-89. Southwestern chronicle: Pueblo ethnology. Ariz. Q. 4(2):162-71. 1949 Participation of Indians in national political life: the Papagos. Indi- ans of the United States. Paper read at Cuz co, Peru, 2nd International American Indian Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior.
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 1950 345 The military orientation in Yaqui culture. In For the Dean: Essays in Anthropology in Honor of Byron Cummings on his 89th Birthday: Sep- tember 20, 1950. Santa Fe: Southwestern Monuments Association and Hohokam Museums Association. Foreword. In The Yaqui Easter Ceremony at Pascua, by Muriel Thayer Painter. Tucson: Tucson Chamber of Commerce. 1952 Human Problems in Technological Change: A Casebook (editor and au- thor of three case studies) New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1953 Parentescas Uto-Aztecas de la lengua Seri. Yan 1~1~. Southwestern chronicle: ethnology. Ar-iz. Q. 9~2~:163-72. 1954 Potam, A Yaqui Village in Sonora. American Anthropological Associa- tion, Memoir No. 77. Spanish-Indian acculturation in the Southwest. Am. Anthropol. 56~4~:663- 78. 1955 With E. Robison. The San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation: A Re- sources Development Study. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford Research In- stitute. 1957 Worlds apart: cultural differences in the modern Southwest. Ariz. Q. 13~3~:197-230. 1958 Social structure and cultural process in Yaqui religious accultura- tion. Am. Anthro/?ol. 60~3~:663-78. 1959 European expansion and the enclavement of Southwestern Indians. Ariz. West 1 (2~: 1 32-46.
346 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change (editor and author of three chapters). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. A dedication to the memory of Grenville Goodwin, 1907-1940. Araz. West 3(3) :201-204. 1962 Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960. Tucson: University of Ari- zona Press. The sources of Indian art. [. Am. Ind. Educ. 1 (2) :9-12. 1964 Apuntes sobre el tipo de religion de los Yuto-Aztecas Centrales. Actas y Memorials 2, vol. l, pp.27-28. XXXV Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Mexico City, 1962. E1 mestizaje cultural en el suroeste de Estados Unidos y noroeste de Mexico. Revista de Indias 24 (95-96~: 1-26. Indigenismo in the United States, 1870-1960. America Indagena 24~4) :349- 63. With others. Some Foundations for publication Policy. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association. William R. Holland (1928-1964~. Obituaries in Estudios de cultura Maya. 4:371-73; Am. Anthropol. 67 ~ 1 ~ :80-82. 1965 La danza Yaqui del venado en la culture Mexicana. America Indagena 4:371-73. The issues in Indian affairs. Araz. Q.21~41:293-307. Comments on Acculturation and Ecosis by Miguel Leon Portilla. Curr. Anthropol. 6~41:480. 1966 Indigenismo el los Estados Unidos. In Actas y Memoraas, vol.3. XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Seville, Spain, 1964. Obituary: John H. Provinse, 1897-1965. Am. Anthropol. 68~41:990-94. Tipos de contacto y procesos de cambio. Chapter 8 from Perspectives an American Indaan Culture Change. Translated and reprinted in
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 347 Cursos de Adiestramiento en el Desarrollo de la Comunidad. Mexico City: Instituto Indigenista Interamericano. Ways of life. In Six Faces of Mexico, ed. R. Ewing. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. The process of cultural enclavement in Middle America. In Proceed- ings, vol. 3. XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Seville, Spain, 1964. 1967 Foreword. In The Ghost Dance of 1889 Among the Pai Indians of North- western Arizona, by H. F. Dobyns and R. C. Euler. Prescott College Press, Arizona. 1968 Acculturation. In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: MacMillan/Free Press. Developmental change and cultural integration. In Perspectives in Developmental Change, ed. A. Gallaher, Jr. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. 1969 A Short History of the Indians of the United States. Princeton, N.~.: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Political incorporation and cultural change in New Spain: a study in Spanish-Indian relations. In Attitudes of Colonial Powers Toward the American Indian, ed. H. Peckham and C. Gibson. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. The history of federal Indian policy in relation to the development of Indian communities. In Report and Recommendations, Community Development Seminar, Chinle Agency. U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Window Rock, Ariz. Northwest Mexico. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 8, ed. E. Z. Vogt. Austin: University of Texas Press. Pol~tica gubernamental e integration indigenista en Mexico. Anuario Indigenista 39:49-64. 1970 Patrons of the poor. Hum. Organiz. 29~1~:12-19. Contrasting forms of nativism among the Mayos and Yaquis of Sonora,
348 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Mexico. In The Social Anthropology of Latin America: Essays in Honor of Ralph Leon Beals, ed. W. Goldschmidt and H. Hoijer. Berkeley: Latin American Center, University of California. 1971 Persistent cultural systems. Science 174 (4011 ~ :795-800. La reaccion de indios americanos al contacto euroamericano. America Indagena 31:335-51. 1972 Edited with R. H. Thompson. Plural Society in the Southwest. New York: Weatherhead Foundation. 1973 Foreword. In Immigrants from India in Israel: Planned Change in an Administered Community, by G. Kushner. Tucson: University of Ari- zona Press. E1 Mexicano: unidad en la diversidad. In Mexico, Nuestra Gran Herencia. Selecciones del Reader's Digest, Mexico City. 1974 With T. E. Downing. Training for non-academic employment: ma- jor issues. In Training Programs for New Opportunities in Applied Anthropology. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Asso- . . clatlon. Culture contact and change in northwestern Mexico. In Homenaje a Gonzalo Aquirre Beltran, vol. 2. Mexico City: Instituto Indigenista Interamericano. Context of the Yaqui Easter ceremony. In CORD Research Annual, vol. 6, pp. 309-46. New York: Committee on Research in Dance, Inc. Highlights of Yaqui history. Indian Historian 7(2):~-9. 1975 Indian identity versus assimilation. In Occasional papers of the Weatherhead Foundation. New York: The Weatherhead Foundation. 1976 Eventos fundamentales de la historia Yaqui. Areas problematical en
EDWARD HOLLAND SPICER 349 la historia de la culture Yaqui. In Sonora: Antropologaa del Desierto. Coleccion Cient~fica 27, Instituto Nacional de Antropolog~a e Historia, Mexico City. Capturing the feeling. In The Seris, ed. D. L. Burckhalter. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Anthropology and the policy process. In Do Applied Anthropologists Apply Anthropology?, ed. M. N1. Angrosino. Southern Anthropologi- cal Society Proceedings, No. 10. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Beyond analysis and explanation? Notes on the life and times of the Society for Applied Anthropology. Hum. Organiz. 35~4~:335-43. The military history of the Yaquis from 1867-1910: three points of view. In Military History of the Spanish-American Southwest: A Semi- nar. Published at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 1977 Foreword. In The Other Southwest: Indian Arts and Crafts of Northwest- ern Mexico, by B. L. Fontana et al. Phoenix: Heard Museum. The policy background of the Indian Self-Determination Act. In The Fourth Annual Indian Town Hall, White Mountain Apache Reser- vation. Arizona Commission on Indian Affairs. Ethnic Medicine in the Southwest (editor). Tucson: University of Ari- zona Press. Foreword. In The Mayo Indians of Sonora, Mexico, ed. N. R. Crumrine. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1978 Early applications of anthropology in North America. In American Anthropological Association Bicentennial Volume, ed. A. F. C. Wallace. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association. Introduction. In The Autobiography of a Yaqui Poet, ed. K. Sands. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Anthropologists and the War Relocation Authority. In The Uses of Anthropology, ed. W. F. Goldschmidt. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association. 1980 The Fort Lowell Historac Distr~ct. Tucson: Tucson-Pima County Histori- cal Commission. American Indians, federal policy toward. In Harvard Encyclopedia of
350 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Ethnic Groups, ed. Thernstrom et al. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. The Yaquis: A Cultural History. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Introduction: Refugio Savala, cross-cultural interpreter. In The Au- tobiography of a Yaqui Poet, ed. K. Sands. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1982 Foreword. In A House of My Own, by S. Lobo. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1983 Why have a neighborhood association? Participating Neighborhoods 3 (9) :4-7. Tales of frailty and devotion: return. Manuel's sickness. Anthropol. Human. Q. 8~4~:1-12. Yaqui. In Handbook of North American Indians, vol 10, Southwest, ed. A. Ortiz. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 1986 Introduction. In With Good Heart, Introduction to Arizona Yaqui Cer- emony, by M. T. Painter and edited by E. H. Spicer, and W. Kaemlein. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 1988 Yaquis. Mexican Indian policy. In Handbook of North American Indi- ans, vol 4, History of Indian-White Relations, ed. W. E. Washburn. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. People of Pascua, ed. K. M. Sands and R. B. Spicer. Tucson; Univer- sity of Arizona Press.