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Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology (1995)

Chapter: Appendix C: Acknowledgments

« Previous: Appendix B: Committtee and Staff Biographical Information
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5040.
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acknowledgments." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5040.
Page 94

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Appendix C Acknowledgments The Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development is very grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the comple- tion of this study. The committee met four times for 10 days, and extends its grati- tude to the following individuals who appeared before the full committee to provide background information and discuss pertinent issues: Marvin Cassman, acting director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health; Ruth Kirschstein, deputy director, National Institutes of Health; Judy Vaitukaitis, director, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health; Harold Varmus, director, National Institutes of Health; France Cordova, chief scientist, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Daniel Goldin, administra- tor, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; James Decker, deputy director, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy; Martha Krebs, director, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy; Essex Finney, associate administrator, Agricultural Research Program, Department of Agriculture; David Goldston, former project director, Council on Competitiveness; Mary Good, undersecretary for tech- nology, Department of Commerce; Senator Tom Harkin, (D-IO); Robert Hermann, senior vice president for science and technology, United Technologies Corporation; Robert Huggett, assistant administrator for research and development, Environmen- tal Protection Agency; Anita Jones, director, Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense; Neal Lane, director, National Science Foundation; Anne Petersen, deputy director, National Science Foundation; Kathleen Peroff, deputy associate director, Energy and Science Division, Office of Management and Budget. The committee also extends its thanks to the following members of Congress and congressional staff who provided background and additional information to the chair and staff: Senator Christopher Bond (R-MO), chair, Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Development, Veterans Affairs, and Indepen- dent Agencies; Congressman Robert Walker (R-WI), chair, House Science Committee, and vice-chair, House Budget Committee; and the staff of the House Science Com- mittee, including Anne Marcantognini, deputy chief of staff; Michael Rodemeyer, chief democratic counsel; Deirdre Stach, budget analyst; Ed McGaffigan, senior political adviser for budget, defense, foreign relations, and veterans for Senator Jeff Bingaman; Craig Higgins, majority clerk for the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education; and Ed Long, former majority clerk for the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. The committee is grateful for the efforts of the following members of the Office of Science and Technology Policy: John H. Gibbons, assistant to the President for science and technology; MRC Greenwood, former associate director for science; Lionel Johns, associate director for technology; Jane Wales, associate director for national security and international affairs; Robert Watson, associate director for environment; Catherine Woteki, acting associate director for science; and Angela Phillips Diaz, executive secretary. 93

94 / APPENDIX C For their assistance in data gathering, preparation, and consultation the com- mittee extends its thanks to the following individuals: Harriet Dustan, member, Institute of Medicine; Ed Roccella, coordinator, National High Blood Pressure Educa- tion Program; Rebecca Henderson, associate professor of management, Massachu- setts Institute of Technology; Russell Herndon and Robert Tuohy, Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense; Harvey Brooks, professor of technology and public policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Bruce Fonoroff, Army Research Laboratory; Howard Garrison, Federation of Ameri- can Societies for Experimental Biology; Robert Levy, president, Wyeth-Ayerst Re- search; Stanley Trice, analyst, Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense; Jane Bortnick Griffiths, acting chief, Science and Technology Division, Congressional Research Service; Genevieve Knezo, Congressional Research Service; Richard Rowberg, Congressional Research Service; Kei Koizumi, Kathie Gramp, and Al Teich, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Robert Smith, Smithsonian Institution; David Guston, Rutgers University; Philip Smith; Marvin Ebel, Council on Governmental Relations; John Jankowski, Ronald Meeks, and Linda Parker, National Science Foundation; David Kingsbury, director, Genome Database, John Hopkins University; Michael Crow, Columbia University; Ann Markusen, Rutgers University; Donald Stokes, Center for Advanced Study; Richard Nelson, Columbia University; Kitty Gilman, National Science and Technology Council; Donna Fossum and Tim Webb, Critical Technologies Institute, RAND; J. Michael Bishop, University of California, San Francisco; Marjory Blumenthal, director, Com- puter Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council; A. Michael Spence, chair, Committee on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Academy of Sciences; Bob Bayer, Department of Defense; Bob Meisner. To gather views from a broad range of interests, the committee organized outreach sessions to help frame its observations and recommendations. The first session was held at Stanford University on February 21, 1995. Another was held at the University of Texas at Austin on April 7. To continue the dialogue the committee also took advantage of previously scheduled meetings such as the American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science annual meeting, the Sigma Xi Forum, and the annual meetings of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. The com- mittee is grateful to all those who attended its outreach sessions and to the follow- ing individuals for their assistance with its outreach efforts: Gerhard Casper, presi- dent, Stanford University; Charles Kruger, vice provost for research and policy, Stanford University; Kathy Eslinger, executive assistant to the vice provost for re- search and policy, Stanford University; and Nancy Mallory and Susie Pruett, assistants to the vice president of research and development, University of Texas at Austin. Finally, the committee would like to recognize the special contributions of both the National Research Council staff and the independent consultants who served on the study: Norman Metzger, executive director of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, who served as the study director; Robert Cook-Deegan of the Institute of Medicine, who served as the senior program officer; Michael McGeary, Christopher T. Hill, and Patrick Young, who served as con- sultants; Julie Esanu, for the program and research assistance provided to the com- mittee; Danielle Dehmler, for the staff support for the committee and for her work in preparing the final manuscript; and Susan Maurizi, who edited the final manuscript. 94

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The United States faces a new challenge—maintaining the vitality of its system for supporting science and technology despite fiscal stringency during the next several years. To address this change, the Senate Appropriations Committee requested a report from the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine to address "the criteria that should be used in judging the appropriate allocation of funds to research and development activities; to examine the appropriate balance among different types of institutions that conduct such research; and to look at the means of assuring continued objectivity in the allocation process."

In this eagerly-awaited book, a committee of experts selected by the National Academies and the Institute responds with 13 recommendations that propose a new budgeting process and formulates a series of questions to address during that process. The committee also makes corollary recommendations about merit review, government oversight, linking research and development to government missions, the synergy between research and education, and other topics. The recommendations are aimed at rooting out obsolete and inadequate activities to free resources from good programs for even better ones, in the belief that "science and technology will be at least as important in the future as they have been in the past in dealing with problems that confront the nation."

The authoring committee of this book was chaired by Frank Press, former President of the National Academy of Sciences (1981-1993) and Presidential Science and Technology Advisor (1977-1981).


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