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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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References

1 A'Harrah, R. 1994. An alternate control scheme for alleviating aircraft-pilot coupling. AIAA Paper No. 94-3673. Pp. 1194–1201 in Proceedings of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Scottsdale, Arizona , August 1–3, 1994. Reston, Virginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

2 Ad Hoc Advisory Subcommittee on Avionics, Controls, and Human Factors. 1979. Proposed Study of Simulation Validation/Fidelity for NASA Simulators. November 1979. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

3 Ashkenas, I., H. Jex, and D. McRuer. 1964. Pilot Induced Oscillations: Their Causes and Analysis. Northrop-Norair Report NOR 64-143. Prepared by Systems Technology, Inc. Report STI TR-239-2. June 20, 1964.


4 Bailey, R., and T. Bidlack. 1995. Unified Pilot-Induced Oscillation Theory. Vol. 4: Time-Domain Neal-Smith Criterion. Report No. WL-TR-96-3031. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Wright Laboratory.

5 Bjorkman, E. 1986. Flight Test Evaluation of Techniques to Predict Longitudinal Pilot Induced Oscillations. Thesis AFIT/GAE/AA/86J-1. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Institute of Technology.

6 Bode, W.H. 1945. Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Design. Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand.

7 Bouwer, G., A. Taghizad, and H. Moedden. 1996. Smart Helicopter Concept—Handling Qualities Data Base for Hover and Low Speed Flight. Paper presented at Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Symposium on Advances in Rotorcraft Technology. Ottawa, Canada, May 1996. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
×

8 Buchacker, E., H. Galleithner, R. Koehler, and M. Marchand. 1990. Development of MIL-8785C into a Handling Qualities Specification for a New European Fighter Aircraft. Pp. 10–16 in Flying Qualities. Report No. AGARD-CP-508. Proceedings of Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, October 15–18, 1990. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

9 Chalk, C. 1995. Calspan Experience of PIO and the Effects of Rate Limiting. Pp. 12-1–12-12 in Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Workshop on Pilot Induced Oscillations. Report No. AGARD-AR-335. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)


10 Deppe, P.R. 1993. Flight Evaluation of a Software Rate Limiter Concept. Calspan Final Report No. 8091-1. Buffalo, New York: Calspan Advanced Technology Center.

11 Dornheim, M. 1992. Report pinpoints factors leading to YF-22 crash. Aviation Week and Space Technology 137(19):53–54.

12 Dornheim, M. 1995. Boeing corrects several 777 PIOs. Aviation Week and Space Technology 142(19):32–33.

13 Dornheim, M. 1995. Dramatic incidents highlight mode problems in cockpits. Aviation Week and Space Technology 142(5):57–59.

14 Duda, H. 1994. Berücksichtigung von Stellratenbegrenzern in Flugregelsystemen bei der Systembewertung im Frequenzbereich (Frequency Domain Analysis of Rate Limiting Elements in Flight Control Systems). Report No. DLR-FB 94-16. Braunschweig, Germany: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Institut für Flugmechanik.

15 Duda, H. 1995. Effects of Rate Limiting Elements in Flight Control Systems—A New PIO Criterion. AIAA Paper No. 95-3204. Pp. 288-298 in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, August 7–10, 1995. Reston, Virginia: AIAA.

16 Duda, H. 1996. Open Loop Onset Point: A New Flying Qualities Parameter to Predict A-PC Problems due to Rate Saturation in FCS. Report No. DLR IB 111-96/1. Braunschweig, Germany: DLR Institut für Flugmechanik.

17 Duda, H. 1996. Prediction of Adverse Aircraft-Pilot Coupling in the Roll Axis due to Rate Limiting in Flight Control Systems. Report No. DLR IB 111-96/13. Braunschweig, Germany: DLR Institut für Flugmechanik.


18 Efremov, A. 1995. Analysis of Reasons for Pilot Induced Oscillation Tendency and Development of Criteria for Its Prediction. Contract SPC-94-4028. Moscow, Russia: Pilot-Vehicle Laboratory, Moscow Aviation Institute.

19 Enhagen, J. 1996. The Klonk Method. Presentation to a delegation of the Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety, at Linköping, Sweden, May 6, 1996.


20 Fink, D. 1977. Orbiter experiences control problems. Aviation Week and Space Technology 107(2):16.


21 Gibson, J. 1982. Piloted Handling Qualities Design Criteria for High Order Flight Control Systems in Criteria for Handling Qualities of Military Aircraft. Report No. AGARD-CP-333. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
×

22 Gibson, J. 1995. Definition, Understanding, and Design of Aircraft Handling Qualities. Report No. LR-756. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

23 Gibson, J. 1995. Looking for the Simple PIO Model. Pp. 5-1–5-11 in Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Workshop on Pilot Induced Oscillations. Report No. AGARD-AR-335. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

24 Gibson, J. 1995. Prevention of PIO by Design. Pp. 2-1–2-12 in Active Control Technology: Applications and Lessons Learned. Report No. AGARD-CP-560. Proceedings of Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium, Turin, Italy, May 9–13, 1994. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

25 Gibson, J. 1996. Personal communication to Duane McRuer, Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety.

26 Givens, M. 1994. Evaluation of B-2 Susceptibility to Pilot-Induced Oscillations. White Paper 120-4. Pico Rivera, California: Northrop Grumman, B-2 Division.

27 Graham, D. 1967. Research on the Effect of Nonlinearities on Tracking Performance. Report No. AMRL-TR-67-9. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories

28 Graham, D., and D. McRuer. 1961. Analysis of Nonlinear Control Systems. New York: Reprinted by Dover, 1971.

29 Hamel, P. 1996. Recent and Future Aircraft-Pilot Coupling Research at DLR. Report No. IB 111-96/15. Braunschweig, Germany: DLR Institut für Flugmechanik.

30 Hamel, P. 1996. Rotorcraft-Pilot Coupling: A Critical Issue for Highly Augmented Helicopters? AGARD-CP-592. AGARD Symposium on Advances in Rotorcraft Technology, Ottawa, Canada, May 1996. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

31 Hanke, D. 1995. Handling qualities analysis on rate limiting elements in flight control systems. Pp. 11-1–11-18 in Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Workshop on Pilot Induced Oscillations. Report No. AGARD-AR-335. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

32 Harris, J. 1996. Personal communication from J. Harris, Lockheed Martin, to C. Droste, Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety.

33 Hess, R. 1983. A model-based investigation of manipulator characteristics and pilot/vehicle performance. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 6(5): 348–354.

34 Hess, R. 1996. Feedback control models—manual control and tracking. Chapter 38 in Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics. G. Salvendy (ed). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

35 Hirsch, D., and R. McCormick. 1966. Experimental investigation of pilot dynamics in a pilot-induced oscillation situation. Journal of Aircraft 3(Nov–Dec):567–573.


36 James, H., N. Nichols, and R. Phillips. 1947. Theory of Servomechanisms. New York: McGraw-Hill.

37 Johnston, D., and D. McRuer. 1986. Investigation of Interactions Between Limb-Manipulator Dynamics and Effective Vehicle Roll Control Characteristics. Report

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
×

No. NASA CR-3983. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

38 Kendall, E. 1995. C-17 Flying Qualities and Aircraft-Pilot Coupling (APC) Experience During the Development Process. Report No. MDC 96K7012. Long Beach, California: McDonnell Douglas.

39 Klyde, D., D. McRuer, and T. Myers. 1995. Unified Pilot-Induced Oscillation Theory. Vol. I: PIO Analysis with Linear and Nonlinear Effective Vehicle Characteristics, Including Rate Limiting. Report No. WL-TR 96-3028. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Wright Laboratory.

40 Kullberg, E., and P. Elgcrona. 1995. Saab experience with PIO. Pp. 9-1–9-9 in Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Workshop on Pilot Induced Oscillations. Report No. AGARD-AR-335. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)


41 Martin, J., and J. Buchholz. 1995. SCARLET: DLR rate saturation flight experiment . Pp. 8-1–8-6 in Flight Vehicle Integration Panel Workshop on Pilot Induced Oscillations. Report No. AGARD-AR-335. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Lithicum Heights, Maryland.)

42 McRuer, D. 1995. Pilot-Induced Oscillations and Human Dynamic Behavior. NASA Contractor Report 4683. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

43 McRuer, D., I. Ashkenas, and D. Graham. 1973. Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

44 McRuer, D., and E. Krendel. 1974. Mathematical Models of Human Pilot Behavior. Report No. AGARDograph 188. (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)

45 McRuer, D., W. Clement, P. Thompson, and R. Magdaleno. 1990. Pilot Modeling for Flying Qualities Applications. Vol. 2 of Minimum Flying Qualities. Report No. WRDC-TR-89-3125. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

46 McRuer, D., D. Klyde, and T. Myers. 1996. Development of a comprehensive PIO theory. AIAA Paper No. 96-3433. Pp. 581–597 in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, San Diego, California, July 29–31, 1996. Reston, Virginia: AIAA.

47 McWha, J. 1996. Personal communication from James McWha (Boeing) to the Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety.

48 Mitchell, D., and R. Hoh. 1995. Development of a Unified Method to Predict Tendencies for Pilot-Induced Oscillations. Report No. WL-TR-95-3049. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Wright Laboratory.

49 Mitchell, D., R. Hoh, B. Aponso, and D. Klyde. 1994. Proposed Incorporation of Mission-Oriented Flying Qualities into MIL STD-1797A. Report No. WL-TR-94-3162. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Wright Laboratory.

50 Moorehouse, D. 1995. YF-22 mishap and discussion of other PIOs. Presentation at the Workshop on Aircraft-Pilot Coupling, National Research Council, Irvine, California, November 27–29, 1995.


51 National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). 1995. Flight Data Recorder Factual Report of Investigation. Report No. CHI-95IA-138. Washington, D.C.: National Transportation Safety Board.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
×

52 NTSB. 1995. Safety Recommendation A-95-107 through -109. Washington, D.C. : National Transportation Safety Board.

53 Neal, P., and R. Smith. 1970. An In-Flight Investigation to Develop Control System Design Criteria for Fighter Aircraft. Report No. AFFDL-TR-70-74, Vol. 1. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

54 Nelson, T., and R. Landes. 1996. Boeing 777 development and APC assessment. Presented at Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Control and Guidance Systems Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 6–8, 1996. In press.

55 Niewoehner, R. 1995. Probing APC Susceptibility through HQDT. Paper provided to the Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety on December 22, 1995.

56 Ockier, C. 1996. Pilot-Induced Oscillations in Helicopters—Three Case Studies. Report No. IB 111-96/12. Braunschweig, Germany: DLR Institut für Flugmechanik.


57 Pitz, D. 1984. Report on the Heavy PIO Experienced with P13 during Terrain Following Investigations at E-61 Manching, Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung (BWB), Ausgelagerter Fachbereich (AFB) bei der Erprobungsstelle 61 (E-61), Manching, AZ 11/84, 15 February 1984. Available from German Air Force Flight Test Center, Wehrtechnische Dienststelle f¨r Luftfahrzeuge (WTD 61), Flugplatz, D-85077 Manching, Germany.

58 Powers, B. 1982. An adaptive stick-gain to reduce pilot-induced oscillation tendencies. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 5 (March-April):138–142.

59 Powers, B. 1984. Space Shuttle Pilot-Induced-Oscillation Research Testing. Report No. AGARDograph No. 262. In AGARD Ground and Flight Testing for Aircraft Guidance and Control (N85-22350 13-01). (Available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information [CASI], 800 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum Heights, Maryland.)


60 Rundqwist, L., and R. Hillgren. 1996. Phase compensation of rate limiters in JAS 39 Grippen. AIAA Paper No. 96-3368. Pp. 69–77 in Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, San Diego, California, July 29–31, 1996. Reston, Virginia: AIAA.


61 Sekigawa, E., and M. Mecham, 1996. Pilots, A 300 systems cited in Nagoya crash. Aviation Week and Space Technology 145(5):36–37.

62 Smith, J., and D. Berry. 1975. Analysis of Longitudinal Pilot-Induced Oscillation Tendencies of YF-12 Aircraft. Report No. NASA TN D-7900. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

63 Smith, R. 1978. Effects of Control System Dynamics on Fighter Approach and Landing Longitudinal Flying Qualities (Vol. 1). Report No. AFFDL-TR-122. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

64 Smith, R. 1993. The Smith-Geddes Criteria. Presented at the SAE Aerospace, Control and Guidance Systems Symposium, Reno, Nevada, March 11, 1993. Mojave, California: High Plains Engineering.

65 Smith, R. 1994. Predicting and Validating Fully-Developed PIO. AIAA Paper No. 94-3669. Pp. 1162-1166 in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Scottsdale, Arizona, August 1–3, 1994. Reston, Virginia: AIAA.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
×

66 Smith, R., and N. Geddes. 1979. Handling Quality Requirements for Advanced Aircraft Design: Longitudinal Mode. Report No. AFFDL-TR-78-154. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

67 Tischler, M.B., J.W. Fletcher, P.M. Morris, and G.E. Tucker. 1991. Flying quality analysis and flight evaluation of a highly augmented combat rotorcraft. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 14(5):954–964.


68 U.S. Army. 1994. Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft. ADS-33D. St. Louis, Missouri: U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command.

69 U.S. Department of Defense. 1980. Military Specification, Flying Qualities of Piloted Airplanes. MIL-F-8785C. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Department of Defense Military Specifications and Standards.

70 U.S. Department of Defense. 1990. Department of Defense Interface Standard, Flying Qualities of Piloted Aircraft. MIL STD-1797A. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Department of Defense Military Specifications and Standards.

71 U.S. Department of Defense. 1995. Department of Defense Interface Standard, Flying Qualities of Piloted Aircraft. MIL STD-1797A Update. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Systems Engineering Division, Aeronautical Systems Center.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5469.
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Aviation Safety and Pilot Control: Understanding and Preventing Unfavorable Pilot-Vehicle Interactions Get This Book
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Adverse aircraft-pilot coupling (APC) events include a broad set of undesirable and sometimes hazardous phenomena that originate in anomalous interactions between pilots and aircraft. As civil and military aircraft technologies advance, interactions between pilots and aircraft are becoming more complex. Recent accidents and other incidents have been attributed to adverse APC in military aircraft. In addition, APC has been implicated in some civilian incidents.

This book evaluates the current state of knowledge about adverse APC and processes that may be used to eliminate it from military and commercial aircraft. It was written for technical, government, and administrative decisionmakers and their technical and administrative support staffs; key technical managers in the aircraft manufacturing and operational industries; stability and control engineers; aircraft flight control system designers; research specialists in flight control, flying qualities, human factors; and technically knowledgeable lay readers.

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