National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×

Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis

Perspectives from International Organizations

John H. Bryant and

Polly F. Harrison

for the Board on International Health

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×

National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This document is a synthesis of the content of selected reports published in the international health literature during the last 5 years. It consists of summaries of those reports, accompanied by a synthesis of the major themes they express, and contains only the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in those reports. It was developed by its authors, Institute of Medicine Staff Officer Polly F. Harrison, and John H. Bryant, Board on International Health member, as a foundation document for the work of that Board. Though approved for distribution by the previous and incumbent Boards on International Health, it should not be construed as reflecting the views of the National Academy of Sciences or the Institute of Medicine.

The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

Support for this project was provided by The Rockefeller Foundation.

Additional copies of this report are available in limited quantities from:

Institute of Medicine

Board on International Health

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Cover: Woodcuts from the Book of Trades (Ständebuch) by Jost Amman and Hans Sachs (New York: Dover Publications, 1973, with an Introduction by Benjamin A. Rifkin) are reprinted in this report with the permission of the publisher. The woodcuts were originally published in Frankfurt am Main in 1568.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×

BOARD ON INTERNATIONAL HEALTH

1992–1994

William H. Foege, M.D., M.P.H. (Chair), * Executive Director,

Task Force on Child Survival, Carter Center, Emory University

Dean T. Jamison, Ph.D. * (Cochair), Staff Director,

The World Development Report 1993, The World Bank

David E. Bell, Professor of Population Sciences and International Health,

Emeritus, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies

Jan E. G. Blanpain, M.D., * Professor and Chair,

European Health Policy Forum, School of Public Health, Leuven University

John H. Bryant, M.D., *

Moscow, Vermont

Margaret Catley-Carlson, President,

The Population Council

Richard G. A. Feachem, Ph.D., D.Sc., Dean,

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Bernard N. Fields, M.D., *, ** Adele Lehman Professor and Chair,

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School

Julio Frenk, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., * Senior Researcher,

Mexican Health Foundation

Adetokunbo O. Lucas, M.D., D.P.H., * Professor of International Health,

Harvard School of Public Health

W. Henry Mosley, M.D., M.P.H., Director,

Institute for International Programs, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health

Adeline Wynante Patterson, M.D., M.P.H., Director,

Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute

David P. Rall, M.D., Ph.D., * Director (retired),

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Frederick C. Robbins, M.D., *, **

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University

Timothy Rothermel, J.D., Director,

Division for Global and Interregional Programmes, United Nations Development Programme

Noel S. Weiss, M.D., D.P.H., * Professor and Chairman,

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington

Barbara L. Wolfe, Ph.D., Professor,

Departments of Economics and Preventive Medicine, University of Wisconsin

IOM Staff

Polly F. Harrison, Ph.D., Director,

Division of International Health (April 1988–June 1994)

*Member, Institute of Medicine.

**Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×

BOARD ON INTERNATIONAL HEALTH

1995–PRESENT

Barry R. Bloom, Ph.D. (Cochair), * Investigator,

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D. (Cochair), * Dean,

Harvard School of Public Health

John H. Bryant, M.D., *

Moscow, Vermont

Jacquelyne Campbell, Ph.D., R.N., Anna D. Wolf Endowed Professor,

Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

Richard G. A. Feachem, Ph.D., D.Sc., Senior Adviser,

Population, Health and Nutritrion Department, The World Bank

Julio Frenk, M.D., Ph.D., * Executive Vice President,

Mexican Health Foundation

Dean T. Jamison, Ph.D., * Professor,

Center for Pacific Rim Studies, University of California at Los Angeles

Eileen T. Kennedy, D.Sc., Executive Director,

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Arthur Kleinman, M.D., *

Maude and Lillian Presley

Professor of Medical Anthropology, Professor of Psychiatry, and Chairman,

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School

William E. Paul, M.D., * Chief,

Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and

Director,

Office of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health

Patricia Rosenfield, Ph.D., Program Chair,

Strengthening Human Resources in Developing Countries, The Carnegie Corporation of New York

Thomas J. Ryan, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Senior Consultant in Cardiology,

Boston University School of Medicine

Susan C. M. Scrimshaw, Ph.D., * Dean,

University of Illinois at Chicago

Ex-Officio

William H. Foege, M.D., M.P.H., * Executive Director,

Task Force on Child Survival, Carter Center, Emory University

IOM Staff

Christopher P. Howson, Ph.D., Director,

Board on International Health

*Member, Institute of Medicine.

**Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
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DEDICATED TO

Bernard N. Fields, M.D.

So fine in every way,

so committed to the dream of global health,

so missed.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
×

Synthesis:

syn = with, together

the= to put, place

sis = process, condition

The combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity (opposed to analysis, the separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements).

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
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Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1996. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5513.
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For many reasons, this decade is a time of rethinking many things. There is the impending turn of the millenium, an event packed with meaning. There is recent political history, which has changed the global structure of power in ways few could foresee, and there is an economic fluidity worldwide that makes every day unpredictable and the future uncertain. There are movements of people and surges of violence that seem unparalleled, and well may be. We are awash in change, and people everywhere are trying to understand that and read its implications. It is a time that provokes soul-searching: backward, into the lessons and achievements of the past, and forward, into ways for the future to be better.

The fields of health and social development are no exception. More specifically, events and conditions in the health sector point to the need to rethink some large issues. Nations everywhere are grappling with the economic and ethical dilemmas of achieving and maintaining healthy populations, since these are both cause and consequence of true development. Increasingly, the thinking is global, because there are comparisons to be learned from, connections that have implications, obligations to fulfill, and costs that are somehow shared.

As part of this dynamic, there has been an explosion of analytic documents, published since the start of this decade, that deal mainly, though not exclusively, with health in developing countries. The purpose of Global Health in Transition is to distill the essential elements from those efforts, discuss the major ideas they share and the thoughts they prompt, ask what those might mean for a next agenda in global health, and comment on the shifting context in which our current concepts of the ideal will proveor not provetheir adequacy for the future.

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