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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

Index

A

Abuse of immigrants, 181

Adaptation of immigrants, 15-16, 18.

See also Assimilation of immigrants

Admission preferences.

See Preference system

Admissions

age structure of, 54-55

asylees, 38, 42, 44, 64

attitudes about level of, 391-392

average annual, 51

employment-based, 41, 64

family-sponsored, 28 n.7, 41, 43, 64

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 52

nonimmigrants, 49

occupational earnings by, 193

race/ethnicity, 64

refugees, 38, 41, 42, 44, 64

Africa

gross national product, 176

population shifts, 20, 79

African Americans.

See also Black immigrants;

Blacks;

specific country

attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 394

employment impacts on, 6, 220, 222-224

social and spatial mobility, 366

African immigrants. See also specific country

citizenship, 382

educational attainment, 188, 190

fiscal impact, 277, 280-282, 290-291

gender profiles, 190

household characteristics, 272-273, 290-291

lotteries, 46

volume, 177

wages, 176-178, 188, 190

Age profiles. See also Elderly population;

Generational perspectives;

Time of arrival

at arrival in U.S., 302, 303-304, 326-332, 334-336, 358-361

and attitudes toward immigration, 390, 403

childbearing, 58, 85

construction of, 323-325

and crime, 386-387, 388

and dependency ratios, 107-110

and economic impacts, 77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

educational attainment, 241-248, 312, 355-358

employment, 206-208

and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235

and federal benefits, 311-312, 315

and fertility rates, 58, 85, 96, 102, 103, 110

and fiscal impacts, 10, 11, 54, 55, 106, 108, 110, 290-291, 293, 303-304, 323-325, 353

gender composition, 100, 198-204, 205-208, 241-250

heads of households, 272-273

households, 272-273

labor impacts, 54, 77

longitudinal, 323-325

and marital status, 57

median, 101-103

mortality rates, 96

net present value and, 327-336, 342-343

patterns, 54-55

projected, 3-4, 101-110, 122-123

and public assistance, 305 n.5, 309-314, 315

race/ethnicity and, 113-114

school-age, 77, 94, 103-104

social impacts, 77, 306 n.5

and taxes, 305 n.5, 308, 314-316, 349-352

time since arrival, 302

and wages, 198-204, 241-250

working age, 77, 105, 110

young adults, 94, 104-105, 291

Agriculture, work force, 27, 29, 52, 149

Ahmed, Bashir, 40

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 10, 30, 272-273, 278, 306 n.5, 307, 308 n.9, 309, 311, 313, 339, 352

Aleuts, 80 n.3

Alien and Sedition Act of 1798, 14

Aliens of exceptional ability, 42-43

Amerasians, 41, 42, 44, 46

American Indians, 80 n.3, 114, 366

Amnesty. See Illegal immigrants/ immigration

Anaheim, 61

Ancestry, 85, 90-92, 118-122, 123

Anti-Terrorism Act of 1996, 29-30

Arizona, 254

Arts, contributions of immigrants to, 385

Asia, 79.

See also specific country

Asian immigrants. See also specific country

attitudes about, 392

citizenship, 26 n.6, 30, 382

educational attainment, 12, 186, 187, 189, 366

emigration from U.S., 40

English proficiency, 376

exclusion, 23-25, 26

fiscal burden of, 275, 280, 282, 288, 322

gender profiles, 186-187, 189, 191

household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277, 278, 283, 290-291, 293

integration, 367-368

intermarriage, 370-371

occupational attainment, 366

quotas, 27

segregation indices, 367

skills, 28

volume, 28, 32, 36, 37, 38

wages, 186, 187, 189, 191, 202, 236

waiting lists, 46

Asian population, U.S.

ancestry, 85, 90-92, 119, 120-122

attitudes toward immigration, 392 n.23, 396

defined, 80

exogamy, 90-92, 115-116, 117, 122, 132

fertility, 85-87, 115

intermarriage rates, 91, 113, 132

mortality, 88, 131

population growth and size, 4, 114-115, 117, 121, 122

racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 115-116, 117, 118, 123, 133

size, 114-115

Assimilation of immigrants. See also Exogamy;

Generational perspectives;

Intermarriage

citizenship and, 382

economic, 164, 181-182, 196-205

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

and education, 372-376

fiscal impacts and, 302

generational perspectives, 12-13, 365-366, 396

historical context, 364

into labor market, 18, 39, 158-160

and policy on immigration, 15-16

racial/ethnic, 374-375, 395-396

residential integration, 366-367

social and spatial mobility, 365-369

Asylum and asylees. See also Refugees

admission trends, 38, 42, 44, 64

defined, 22

earnings, 194, 195

excluded groups, 30

international comparisons, 64-65

policy on admissions, 28-29, 38, 40, 41, 42

Atlanta, 223

Atlantic Monthly, 393

Attitudes about immigrants

admissions level, 391-392

crime and violence, 364, 386, 389

economic conditions and, 13, 24-25, 26, 396

illegal immigration, 390-391, 393

intermarriage, 369-372

labor-related, 23, 24-25, 26, 27, 144-145, 364, 390-392

population composition, 119, 383

racial/ethnic, 13, 364, 369-371, 374, 375, 382-383, 392

survey results, 402-405

trends, 46-47, 390

unemployment and, 390, 404

welfare-related, 26

Attribution

Asians, 85, 93, 115-116, 117-118, 120-121, 123, 133, 375

blacks, 84-85, 93, 114, 118-119, 120, 133, 375

defined, 77

and educational success, 374-376

Hispanics, 85, 92 n.17, 93, 115, 116-118, 120-122, 123, 133, 375

and intermarriage rates, 91

Irish, 119, 370, 372

and population analysis, 4, 84-85, 89-90, 92-93, 114, 116-123, 133

racial issues, 370, 374

rates, 114, 115, 116-118, 120-122, 123, 133

social dimensions, 363, 369-370, 374-375

whites, 84, 93, 118, 120, 121-122, 133, 370-371, 396

Aussiedler, 63, 64

Australia, 20, 52, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 379

Australian immigrants, 186, 188, 190

Austria, 63, 64, 66, 186, 187, 189

Austria-Hungary immigrants, 24

B

Baby-boom generation, 76, 94, 102, 106, 107-108, 110, 324, 347, 353 , 389

Baby-bust generation, 76

Benefits. See Public assistance, benefits, and services;

individual programs

Births

fiscal impacts, 302

to later generations, 83, 130

multiple-ancestry, 84, 90, 92

rates, 34, 85-87, 96-97

underreporting, 85

Black immigrants.

See also Africa;

African Americans;

specific country

ancestry, 84-85, 90-92, 119, 120

attitudes about, 392, 394, 396, 404, 405

attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 395

distribution, 224

education, 375

employment impacts, 6, 220, 222-224

exogamy, 90-92, 118-119 n.46, 132

fertility rates, 85-87, 114

integration, 366, 367, 369

intermarriage, 113, 132

male, 222

mortality, 88, 131

population size and growth, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123

racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 114, 118, 133, 375

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

segregation indices, 366, 367

unemployment, 222

wages, 222-224

Blacks. See African Americans;

Black immigrants

Border enforcement, 25, 51

Border Patrol, 26, 29, 51-52, 387

Bracero Program, 27, 30

British immigrants, 23, 28, 36, 46, 186, 187, 189

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 231

Bureau of the Census

emigration estimates, 40

fertility estimates, 85, 86, 87

immigration data, 22, 31, 84, 89, 227, 362, 382 n.12

mortality estimates, 87-88

population estimates, 86, 94 n.20

Public Use Samples, 182 n.8, 224 n.37, 271, 273 n.27, 306, 308, 309 n.12, 362

wage data, 182 n.8

C

California

attitudes of residents toward immigration, 391, 402-405

budget, 277-280, 286

labor market, 226

legislation, 254

net annual fiscal impact, 282-294, 321

population, 228-230

Proposition187, 254

public services, 278, 283

revenues, 278-282, 283, 315 n.14

spending, 280-282, 283

California immigrants

educational attainment, 141-142

employment, 211-217, 221 n.35, 225

federal budget for, 280-282

fiscal impact of, 8, 9-10, 254, 257, 277-289, 290-291, 321-323

household characteristics, 9, 273, 277, 278, 280, 282

illegal, 51, 254

intermarriage, 371

population composition, 228-230, 277, 287

studies, 8, 321-322

taxes, 278-279, 280, 281, 286-287

trends, 59, 61

wages, 179-180

Canadian immigrants in U.S.;

See also European/Canadian immigrants

athletes, 386

citizenship, 382

educational attainment, 186, 187, 189

English proficiency, 376

fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 280, 282, 288

gender profiles, 176-178, 186-187, 189, 191

household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277

illegal, 26

numerical limits, 46

volume of, 28, 31 n.11, 36, 37

wages, 176-178, 186, 187, 189, 191

Canadian immigration system

admissions, 62, 63, 67

asylees and refugees, 20, 67, 72

citizenship, 379

classes, 67, 71-72

composition of immigrants by type of admission, 64

and economic growth, 154-155

illegal immigrants, 50

national origin of immigrants, 65, 66

percentage of foreign-born, 62-63

planning, 65, 67

point-based preference system, 65, 67, 72-75

Capital

complementarity to immigrant labor, 137

flows, 18, 148, 153 n.19

Capital/labor ratios, 148, 161

Caribbean.

See Latin America and the Caribbean

Castro, Fidel, 223

Census, 141.

See also Bureau of the Census

Central America, 174

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

Central Europe, 365-366, 395

Characteristics of immigrants

age, 54-55

family structure, 55-58

and fiscal impacts, 303-305, 306-308

gender, 52-54

Chicago, 61, 372, 394

Child care.

See Household services

Childbearing rates, 4, 57, 58, 77.

See also Fertility rates

Children of immigrants, 9, 41, 42, 43-44, 45, 54, 55, 57, 58, 298, 309, 316-323, 327, 377, 395

China, 62, 175, 176

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 14, 23, 24, 50 n.23

Chinese immigrants, 16, 23, 24, 26 n.6, 28, 42, 46, 50 n.23, 374

Chinese Student Protection Act, 42, 46

Citizens, relatives of, 41-42

Citizenship and naturalization

advantages, 378-379

annual growth of, 379-382

Asian immigrants, 24, 26, 30, 382

eligibility, 22 n.3, 379

historical perspective, 379 n.8, 380, 382

incentives/propensity, 30, 378-379, 382

international comparisons, 379-380, 381

temporal trends, 382

Civil War, U.S., 47-48

Coale-Demeny model life tables, 125

Colbert, Claudette, 385

College enrollments, 104-105, 122

Colorado, 386

Commodity labor shares, 232-235, 251-253

Comparative advantage, 147-148

Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 323-324, 339 n.27, 346

Consumer Expenditure Survey, 232

Consumer price impacts

of immigrant labor, 231-233, 251-253

household composition and, 232-235

occupational distribution of immigrants and, 144, 230-231

Consumer price index, 274

Consumer spending by immigrants

changes, 264-266

measurement of, 264

Consumption of goods

expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 232-235

specialization in, 145

Crime and violence, 364, 386-389

Criminals, exclusion of, 23

Croatia, 386

Cuba, 386

Cuban Americans, 393

Cuban immigrants, 44, 181, 223, 365, 367 n.3, 375

Cultural impacts

on arts and sciences, 383-386

concerns, 14, 383

family structure and, 55

generational, 82, 383

Current Population Surveys (CPS), 40, 85, 86, 130, 227, 271 n.25, 278, 306, 312, 315, 340, 362, 389

Czech Republic, 386

D

Deaths, 83, 96-98.

See also Mortality rates

Demographics.

See also Age profiles;

Gender profiles;

Race/ethnicity

emigration and, 39-40

foreign residents, 52-55, 80

models,

See Fiscal accounting model;

Population projection model

population effects, 94

unit of account, 255-256, 305;

See also Households, immigrant

Denmark, 62, 63, 64, 66

Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Immigration, 24, 26

Dependency ratios, 107-110

Deportation, 24, 30

Dillingham Commission, 24-25

Distribution.

See Geographic distribution of immigrants

Diversity admissions, 25, 29, 42, 44, 46

Dollar flow discount, 301

Dominican Republic, 386

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

Dominican Republic immigrants, 28, 194, 196

Dynamic fiscal accounting, 255-256

Dynamic incidence calculation

approach, 298-299

discounting dollar flows, 301

revenue and spending projections, 299-301

time of arrival, 301-302

E

Earnings.

See also Income;

Wages

annual, 176-178

disparities, by nativity, 176-178

domestic, 16, 17, 221-225, 219-228

and educational attainment, 302, 307

and fiscal impacts, 302, 307

gender profiles, 193-196

national origin and, 194, 196

occupational, 192-196

and public assistance, 306-307

temporal trends, 192-196, 307

by visa class, 195

Eastern Europe, 20, 175, 176

Eastern European immigrants, 25-26, 27, 31, 36, 68, 364, 395.

See also specific country

Eastern Hemisphere immigrants, 24, 26, 27

Economic growth

agglomeration effects and, 150

assimilation of immigrants and, 9, 181-182, 196-204

conceptual framework, 155-156

crowding effects and, 150, 303

emigration and, 155

endogenous, 162

entrepreneurs and, 162-163

exogenous, 162

fertility rates and, 158, 160

fiscal impact of immigration, 8-12, 98, 271, 274, 275-276, 278-279, 284, 291-294

gains to immigrants, 174-181

generational assimilation and, 5, 10, 158-160, 164-165

historical context, 154-155

labor markets and, 4, 6, 16-17, 151-164, 220

migration and, 154-155, 157, 162

persistence of effects, 158-160

single-good model, 155-158

technological changes and, 155, 160-163

two-good model, 166-169

Economic impacts. See also specific aspects of the economy

dollar-exchange rate, 148

gains to immigrants, 174-181

labor-market changes, 137-142

of nonimmigrants, 49-50

of population change, 77, 98

prices of goods and services, 135-136, 137, 230-235

recession, 308

unemployment, 104

Ecuador, 175, 176

Education, public

assimilation and, 372-376

bilingual, 311, 321, 326, 356

generational perspective, 311, 312, 355-358, 374-376

policies, 103-104

public spending on, 273 n.27, 276, 281

Educational attainment

age profiles, 241-248

and attitudes toward immigration, 13, 390-392, 396, 403

and earnings, 302, 307

and emigration, 39

and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 233-235

and fiscal impact, 10-11, 307, 327-332, 353, 358-361

gender profiles, 183-190, 241-248

generational perspective, 355-358

labor-market impacts, 77, 141-142, 151, 220

national origin and, 7, 186-190

by nativity, 141-142, 182-185

and net present value, 327-336

requirements, 46

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

and self-employment, 163

and social impact, 306 n.5

and taxes, 349-352

temporal trends, 183-185

and wages, 7, 17, 151, 179, 181, 182-191, 227-228, 235, 241-248

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 27

El Salvador, 186, 187, 189

Elasticity of demand, 219-220, 222

Elderly population

benefits, 297, 309-311, 320

changes in, 54, 55, 297

dependency ratio, 107, 108-110

fiscal impacts, 10, 76, 77, 106, 290, 293, 307 n.7, 320

growth, 3-4, 106, 122

health benefits, 76, 77, 106, 110, 304, 309-310, 347

OASDHI, 307 n.7, 309, 320, 326;

see also Social Security

oldest-old, 85, 106-107, 110, 320

pensions, 76, 77, 106, 110

taxes, 320

Emigration

defined, 21

demographic information, 39-40

and earnings, 182 n.17

estimates, 40

fiscal effects, 40 n.17, 304, 326

illegal immigrants, 38, 39

generational perspective, 83, 89 n.14

modeling, 82, 84, 88, 89, 326

national origin and, 40, 65, 66

policymaking, 38-40

and population changes, 34, 35, 38-39, 78

and wages and earnings, 182 n.7, 204-205

Employer sanctions, 2, 25, 29, 52

Employment. See also Labor entries;

Occupations, immigrant;

Workforce,

immigrant

age profiles, 206-209

educational attainment and, 209, 236

gender profiles, 162-163, 205-209

by nativity, 206-209, 236

skills and, 236

telephone verification system, 2, 25, 29, 51

temporal trends, 8, 206-209

Employment-based admission preferences

admission trends, 41, 64

Canadian system, 65, 67, 71-75

and earnings, 194-195

international comparisons, 64, 65

legislation, 24, 25, 28, 29, 182

national-origin trends, 46

numerical limits on, 41, 42

and occupational skills of immigrants, 218

waiting lists, 45-46

English language

education, 11, 55, 278 n.32, 304, 311, 311 n.13

generational distribution of immigrants and, 82

primacy, 14, 376-378

proficiency, 13, 181, 197, 302, 311 n.13, 376-378, 395-396

requirements for entry, 25

Entrepreneurs, 162-163, 363 n.1

See also Investors, admissions

Enumeration of immigrants

emigration and, 38-40

illegal entry and, 52

racial/ethnic considerations, 80

Environmental impacts, 77 n.2, 98-99

Eskimos, 80 n.3

Ethnic affiliation.

See Race/ethnicity

Europe, 78, 150, 162, 175

European/Canadian immigrants, 271-273, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 287 n.45, 288, 290-291, 293

European immigrants. See also specific country

attitudes about, 119, 392

citizenship, 382

educational attainment, 186, 187, 189

emigration from U.S. 40

entry routes, 31 n.11

fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 280, 282, 288

gender profiles, 176-178, 186-187, 189, 191

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

geographic distribution, 59 n.28

household characteristics, 271-273, 275, 277

lotteries, 46

volume, 36, 37, 119

wages, 176-178, 186-189, 191, 202, 236

Exchange visitors, 49

Exclusion, 15.

See also Preference system

of criminals, 23

of feeble-minded, 50 n.23

of paupers, 23, 50 n.23

race-based, 23-25, 50 n.23

of terrorists, 29-30

Exogamy. See also Intermarriage

births, 92

data sources, 91

defined, 77, 89

generational perspective, 91-92, 132

modeling, 89-92, 132

and racial/ethnic composition, 114, 115, 117-119, 132

Expenditures.

See Public spending;

State and local government

Export-intensive industries, 148-149

F

Families. See also Households, all defined, 56 n.23

modeling, 305 n.5, 335

public services utilization, 255

reunification policy, 29, 38, 53, 54, 56, 64, 68, 218

structure, 55-59

tax contribution, 255

Family-sponsored admission preferences

admissions, 28 n.7, 41, 43, 64

and earnings, 194, 195

international comparisons, 64

legislation, 27-28

numerical limits, 41, 42

waiting lists, 44-45

Farmworkers, 27, 29, 52

Federal budget

adjustments, 325, 338

benefits, 325, 338

calculating, 303

for California immigrants, 280, 282, 321-323

capital costs, 303

congestion costs, 303, 315, 316

current costs, 303

deficit, 299-300, 318 n.15, 324, 325

net annual fiscal impact of immigration, 257, 270-294

rate of interest, 325-326, 339-340

taxes, 325

Federal expenditures.

See Public spending

Federal policy on immigration.

See also Exclusion;

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986;

Preference system;

Quotas

admissions, 12, 333, 364

competing goals, 15-16, 28, 38

current, 37-52, 103

debate, 1, 16-17, 22, 38, 96, 140, 364

determinants, 15-17, 37-38, 354

diversity, 38

emigration and, 38-40

family reunification, 2, 29, 38, 53, 54, 56, 68

humanitarian, 28, 29, 37

illegal immigrants, 50-52

legal immigrants, 40-46

and net fiscal impact, 333, 354

nonimmigrants, 48-50

population impacts of, 95-96

size of government and, 8, 46-48

and skills of immigrants, 194, 196, 218

state/local impacts, 17

target population, 30-31

Federal revenues.

See Public revenues;

Taxes

Females.

See also Gender profiles labor force participation, 105

Fertility rates

age and, 58, 85, 96, 102, 103, 105, 110

and economic growth, 158, 160

fiscal impacts, 304

generational perspective, 83, 85, 86, 94 n.20, 158-160, 303

immigrants, 2, 77, 83, 95, 97, 304, 365

and labor force, 105

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

modeling, 82, 83, 85-87, 94 n.20, 329 n.23

and population change, 2, 34, 94, 95, 97, 111, 134

racial/ethnic distribution, 85-87, 114, 115, 119, 121, 365

Finland, 62, 63, 64, 66

Fiscal accounting model

implementation, 263-270, 285 n.39

net annual fiscal impact, 257-260, 261, 270

nonresident revenues and spending, 260, 262-263, 269-270

population and population change, 263

privateness parameter, 265-266

public service utilization, 258-259, 262

revenue and revenue changes, 259, 260-263, 266-269

social rate of discount, 256

spending and spending changes, 264-266

unit of analysis, 255-256

Fiscal impacts. See also Net annual fiscal impact;

Net present values;

Public assistance, benefits, and services;

Public revenues;

Public spending;

Social Security;

Taxes

age-related, 11, 54, 55, 106, 108, 110, 272, 290-291, 293, 307 n.5, 308-314, 318-319, 323-332, 334-336, 358-361

aggregate cross-sectional, 316-323

average, 331, 333-337

baseline scenario, 324, 325-331, 337

benefit expenditures, 8, 299-301, 307, 308-314, 338

budget assumptions and, 324, 325, 337-338

calculations, 303;

See also Dynamic incidence calculation

case studies, 18-19, 320-323;

See also California;

New Jersey

characteristics of immigrants and, 303-305, 306-308

competing, 16

data sources, 306, 362

debt/GDP ratio and, 299-300, 325, 337-338

deficit and, 299-300, 302-303

discount rates, 298, 301

on earnings, 307

education costs, 326

educational attainment and, 11-12, 307, 353

of emigration, 40 n.17, 326

estimation, See Fiscal accounting model

exclusion of nonresident children and, 316-318

federal policy and, 254-255

of fertility rates, 304

generational perspectives, 215, 289, 294, 316-323

geographic distribution of immigrants and, 59, 255, 305

household characteristics and, 271-273, 275, 277, 292-293

illegal immigrants, 254, 306

importance, 254-255

incremental immigrants, 331-336

independent of characteristics of immigrants, 302-305

interest rates and, 337, 339-340

internal migration and, 305

labor impacts and, 255, 258 n.5, 305

on native-born population, 8, 318-320

new immigrants, 10, 257-270, 289-292, 293-294, 301-302, 304-305

of population changes, 98, 289-292

by regional origin of immigrant, 271-273, 275-277, 280-283, 287-288, 290-291, 293

revenue/spending adjustments scenario, 338

scope of study, 18

size of government and, 46-48

state and local, 12, 305, 336-337, 341-343;

See also specific states

studies of, 8, 362

taxes, 8, 299-301, 314-316, 326, 338, 340

time of arrival and, 301-302, 303-304, 307-308, 340

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

timing of, 341-344

welfare reform and, 326, 337, 338-339

Florida immigrants, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 254, 311 n.13, 391

Food stamps, 30

Foreign-born residents, permanent population changes, 34-36

Foreign government officials, 49

France, 63, 64, 66, 379

Franklin, Aretha, 385

Fraudulent documents, 52

French immigrants, 36

G

Gallup polls, 402

Garment industry, 147-148, 225

Gender profiles. See also Females;

Males age and, 100, 198-204, 206-209, 241-250

citizenship and, 382

educational attainment, 183-190, 241-250

emigration, 39

employment, 162-163, 205-209

fertility rates, 96

immigration and, 99-101, 402-404

marital status, 57

mortality rates, 96, 131

national origin, 186-191, 196, 249-250

occupations, 210-218

population distribution, 52-54

wages and earnings, 17, 176-178, 181, 183-191, 193-196, 198-204, 223, 241-250

General Social Survey, 307, 355

Generational perspectives

assimilation, 12-13, 365-366, 396

desegregation, 367-369

economic growth, 5, 10, 158-160, 164-165

education, 311, 312, 355-358, 374-376

emigration, 89 n.14

and English proficiency, 377

exogamy, 91-92, 114

female dominance concept, 128-130

fertility rates, 83, 85-87

fiscal impact, 215, 289, 294, 316-323, 353

immigration, 89, 365

intermarriage, 12-13, 369-370

modeling approach, 81, 82-83, 89, 127-130

and net present value, 327-336, 342-343

population growth, 3, 111-113

public assistance and benefits, 297, 309-314

race/ethnicity, 114, 117, 367-369

taxes, 314-316, 319, 349-352

Geneva, Switzerland, 379

Gentleman's Agreement with Japan (1907), 24

Geographic distribution of immigrants

and fiscal impacts, 59, 304, 305

and labor-market impacts, 6, 59, 61, 220-228

metropolitan concentration, 58-62, 104, 228-230, 304

residential concentrations, 365-367

and wages, 179-180

German immigrants, 23, 28, 36, 395

Germany, 50 n.22, 63, 64-65, 66, 155, 379

Goods and services. See Consumer price impacts;

Household services;

Price of goods and services

Grant, Cary, 385

Great Depression, 26, 31, 32, 35, 68

Great Lakes immigrants, 61

Greek immigrants, 24

Greeley, Andrew, 369

Green cards. See Visas, permanent resident

Gross domestic product (GDP), foreign by country and region, per capita, 174-176

debt ratio, 324 n.19, 337-338, 354

Gross domestic product, U.S.

debt ratio, 299-300, 324, 325, 337-338

growth, 308, 334 n.25

labor contribution, 138, 151-153

labor-market impacts of immigration, 6, 136-137, 152-153, 155, 156, 164, 171-172

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

per capita, 176

projecting, 299-301, 325, 344-345

state/local allocations, 47

Gross national product, U.S., 47

H

Haitian Americans, 393

Haitian immigrants, 16, 374, 375

Health care, 76, 105, 110, 324

Hispanic immigrants. See Hispanics, U.S.;

Latin American and Caribbean

immigrants

Hispanics, U.S. See also Latin American and Caribbean immigrants

ancestry, 4, 85, 90-92, 119-122, 181

attitudes toward immigration, 13, 392, 394, 396, 404, 405

defined, 80

educational attainment, 375

English proficiency, 181

exogamy, 90-92, 115-116, 117-118, 132

fertility rates, 85-87, 115, 121, 365

fiscal burden of, 323

geographic distribution, 26

immigration trends, 38, 322

integration, 366, 367 n.3

intermarriage rates, 91, 113, 121, 132, 370-371

male, 222

mortality, 88, 131

native, 222

population size and growth, 4, 38, 80, 114-115, 117-118, 121, 123

racial/ethnic attribution, 92 n.17, 93, 115, 116-118, 122, 123, 133

segregation indices, 367

wages, 181, 222

Hong Kong, 377

Hope, Bob, 385

Hotel industry, 225

Household services, 144, 146, 149, 232, 234, 235

Households, all

consumer price impacts by composition of, 232-235

defined, 56 n.24, 263, 270-271

education expenditures on, 276, 281

fiscal impacts on, 10, 270, 274, 276, 279, 281

income, 290

modeling, 263;

see also Fiscal accounting model

renters, 274

spending on public services to, 274, 276, 278 n.32, 280, 281, 283

taxes, 274, 276, 280, 281, 283, 318

Households, immigrant. See also Families;

Fiscal accounting model

African, 272-273, 277, 280, 290-291

age profiles, 272-273, 290-291, 293, 317

Asian, 271-273, 275, 277, 280, 281, 282, 283, 288, 290-291, 293

California, 9, 10, 273, 277-284, 286, 287-288, 289-292, 293, 320-323

children, 9, 271, 275, 277, 282, 289, 292, 294, 316-318, 319-320

composition, 9, 56, 233-234, 256, 263, 271, 272-273, 275, 277, 280 , 282

current immigrants, 282-289

economic status, 9, 272-273, 277, 280, 282, 287, 293

education services to, 9, 273 n.27, 275-277, 278 n.32, 280, 281, 292-293, 321

European/Canadian, 9-10, 271-273, 275, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 287 n.45, 288, 290, 291, 293

fiscal impacts of, 9-10, 270-294, 316-323

fiscal redistribution from native households to, 275, 279-280

Latin American and Caribbean, 9-10, 271-273, 275, 277, 280, 281, 282, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293

male-headed family, 56

modeling, 319

new immigrants, 264, 265, 268, 289-292, 294

New Jersey, 9, 10, 271-277, 282, 284, 290, 291, 293, 320-323

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

size, 56 n.27, 271, 272-273, 277, 293

spending on public services to, 264-266, 271, 274, 276, 279 n.34, 35, 280, 282, 283, 290, 293

taxes, 266-268, 269-270, 271, 274, 275, 280, 283, 286-287, 290, 322

welfare utilization, 55, 265, 271, 272-273, 275, 277, 282, 283

Households, nonimmigrant

age profiles, 272-273, 280

characteristics, 272, 273

education services to, 273 n.27, 276, 281

fiscal burden of immigrants on, 9-10, 265-266, 270-294

fiscal redistribution to immigrant households, 275, 279-280

income, 271, 272-273, 288

number in U.S., 288

size, 56 n.27, 271, 272, 273

spending on public services to, 271, 274, 280, 281, 283

taxes, 265-266, 271, 274, 275, 279 n.34, 35, 280, 281, 283

Houston, 61, 223

Humanitarian assistance, 28-29, 38

I

Illegal immigrants/immigration, 190

amnesty for, 25, 29, 32 n.12, 41, 42, 44, 46, 51-52, 379

attitudes about, 390-391, 393

border enforcement against, 51-52, 386

and crime, 30, 387

defined, 21

developed countries, 20, 50

emigration, 39

employer sanctions, 2, 25, 29, 52

entry routes, 26, 52

estimates, 51-52, 88

fiscal impact, 14, 254, 306

geographic distribution, 60-62

legislation and, 2, 25, 26, 29, 30, 50 n.23

modeling and research, 88, 89, 306

national origin, 26, 51

net, 60

nonimmigrants as, 50, 51

and policy formation, 16

population changes due to, 2, 32, 37, 50-51

public assistance and, 25, 263 n.13

skills, 190, 192, 196, 236

survey participation, 190, 192

telephone verification system, 2, 25

trends, 27, 32, 37

and wages, 7, 236

Illegal Immigration Act of 1996, 25, 29

Illinois, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 391

Imhoff, Gary, 386

Immigration

defined, 21

modeling, 82, 88-89, 95, 97

Immigration Act of 1891, 23, 24

Immigration Act of 1924, 24, 68

Immigration Act of 1990, 15, 25, 28, 29, 38

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)

admissions data, 22, 31, 32 n.12, 379 n.11, 387 n.18

definition of immigrant, 21 n.1

demographic data, 192

economic data, 192

enforcement by, 387

history, 23

illegal immigration data, 89, 393

Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986, 44

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, 24

1965 amendments, 2, 24, 27-28, 36, 68, 182

1976 amendments, 25

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 2, 25, 29, 32, 41, 42, 44, 46

Import-intensive industries, 148-149

Income. See also Earnings;

Wages

after-tax, 258 n.5

aggregate, 314

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

and attitudes toward immigration, 390, 403-404

averages, 193

and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235

family, 174 n.1

and fiscal impacts, 256, 300-301

free trade and, 147

generational assimilation and, 158-160, 164-165

household, 272-273

labor-market structure and, 137, 142, 147, 151, 156-157, 160, 164-165

measures of, 192

by nativity, 194

rate of immigration and, 137-138, 164

technology transfer and, 161

temporal trends, 268 n.21

India, 62-63, 175, 176, 186, 187, 189, 377

Indian immigrants, 26 n.6, 45, 194, 196

Industrial Revolution, 154-155

Institutional effects of immigration, 382-386

Interethnic relations, 389-390, 394-395

Intermarriage. See also Exogamy

ancestry and, 91, 132

attitudes about, 369-371

data sources, 91

and identity, 369-372

by nativity, 132

race/ethnicity and, 4, 12-13, 91-92, 113, 115-116, 119, 121, 123, 132, 369-372, 396

rates, 370-371

International comparisons

of citizenship requirements, 379-380, 381

of immigration, 62-65

of wages, 174-177

International trade, 5, 143, 146-149

Intracompany transferees, 49, 66

Investors, admissions, 29, 42, 43, 45, 49, 72 n.33

Ireland, 155

Irish immigrants 23, 28, 29, 36, 46, 119, 369, 395

Israel, 62, 63, 65, 66

Italian immigrants, 24, 28, 395

Italy, 63, 66, 386

J

Japan, 62, 63, 65, 66, 175, 176

Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924, 24

Japanese immigrants, 23-24, 186, 187, 189, 367 n.3, 369

Job opportunities, 7, 138, 210, 221

K

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 383, 385

Kennedy, John F., 27

Korean immigrants, 374, 393

Kuwait, 62, 63, 66

L

Labor, highly skilled, 138, 150, 162, 164, 194, 196, 209-210, 211-212

Labor, skilled

admissions, 42, 43

complementarity of immigrants and natives, 137-141, 151, 152, 157, 163-164

gender profiles, 186, 209-210, 212-215, 222

migration profiles, 174

wages, 137-141, 143, 159-160, 201, 223

waiting lists, 45

Labor, unskilled

admissions, 42, 43

gender profiles, 209-210, 212-215, 222

migration profiles, 174

needed, 42, 43

numerical limits, 42

occupations, 209-210, 212-215

substitution of immigrants for natives, 137-141, 142, 145-146, 151 , 157, 163-164, 219, 227

wages, 137, 141, 143, 159-160, 201-202, 223

waiting lists, 45

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

Labor market impacts

age of immigrants and, 54, 77, 104

baseline analysis, 5, 136-142, 150

benefit/cost assessment, 170-172

of complementarity of capital, 137

of complementarity of skilled labor, 5, 137-141, 151, 152, 157, 164 , 219

on consumption, 145-146, 164, 232-233, 251-252

displacement of native workers, 6, 135, 143, 144-145, 220, 221-224, 236-237, 364

distributional, 144, 373

economic growth, 4, 6, 153-164, 220, 234

educational attainment and, 77, 141-142, 151, 220, 227-228, 235-236

elasticity of demand, 219-220, 222, 226

factor proportions analysis, 226-228

fiscal burdens and, 255, 258 n.5, 305

on GDP, 6, 136-137, 152-153, 155, 156, 164, 171-172

geographic distribution of immigrants and, 6, 59, 61, 220, 221-230, 236-237

of highly skilled workers, 15, 138, 150, 164

on income, 137, 142, 147, 156-157, 160, 164-165

on industrial composition, 147-149

internal migration and, 6, 228-230, 236-237

international-trade analogy, 5, 143, 146-149, 164

local, 221-225, 236

magnitude of effects, 151-153

measure of, 225-228

prices of goods and services, 4, 135-136, 137, 142-143, 164, 215, 230-235

prices of inputs, 137

on productivity, 5, 144, 150

returns to scale, 5, 149-151, 155, 156-157, 160

scope of study, 17-18

skilled workers, 5, 137-141, 143, 155-160, 162, 170

specialization in production, 5, 145-146, 164

substitution for domestic labor, 5, 137-141, 142, 145-146, 151, 157 , 163-164, 219, 227

two-good, two-factor model, 143-146, 166-169

unemployment, 18, 104

unskilled workers, 5, 137-141, 143, 155-160, 162, 170, 223

wages, 4, 6, 135, 137-141, 142, 143, 151, 157, 161, 164, 219-220, 230, 235-236

Labor markets

aggregate, 6-7

assimilation into, 18, 39, 158, 164, 181-182

discrimination, 181

elasticity of demand in, 219, 222

supply of workers, 4, 6, 219, 220

wage inequities, 201-202

Lamm, Richard, 386

Land rents, 264

Language.

See English language

Latin America and the Caribbean, 79

Latin American and Caribbean immigrants. See also Hispanics, U.S.

educational attainment, 186-187, 189

English proficiency, 376

fertility, 277, 282, 365

fiscal burden, 9-10, 275, 277, 282, 287, 288, 291, 293

gender profiles, 186, 187, 189, 191

household composition, 271-273, 275, 277

migrant workers, 27

public assistance to, 275, 277, 282

volume of immigrants, 32, 36, 37, 177

wages, 186, 187, 189, 191

Legislation. See also individual statutes

anti-terrorism, 29-30

evolution of, 23-30

exclusion, 14, 23-25

humanitarian admissions, 38

and illegal immigration, 2, 26

migrant workers, 27, 29

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

preference system, 2, 20, 24, 25, 27-29

quotas, 24, 25-26, 27-28

refugees, 25, 28-29

and volume of immigration, 32

welfare reform, 2, 30, 254, 326, 338-339

Life expectancy, 87-88, 94, 131

Literacy requirements, 24-25

Lithuania, 386

Los Angeles, 61, 179-180, 221, 223, 225, 235, 393, 394.

See also California

Los Angeles Times, 394

Lotteries, 46

M

Males. See also Gender profiles

heads of households, 56

Malthus, Thomas, 154

Marital status, 56, 57

Marriage fraud, 44

Maryland, 61

Medicaid, 55, 273, 280, 308 n.9, 309-310, 320, 323-324, 330, 339, 352

Medi-Cal health insurance, 278, 282 n.37

Medicare, 10, 11, 255, 280, 283, 304, 308 n.9, 309-310, 319, 320, 323-324, 330

Men. See Gender profiles;

Males

Mexican immigrants

agricultural workers, 27, 225

deportation, 26

educational attainment, 186, 187, 189, 375

emigration from U.S., 39

gender profiles, 162, 176-179, 186, 187, 189, 191

geographic segregation, 368-369

illegal, 16, 26, 37, 39, 50, 51

integration, 367

naturalization, 382

number of, 28, 31 n.11, 36, 37

occupational earnings, 194, 196

wages, 137-141, 143, 157, 174, 176, 179, 181, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193, 197-198, 201-203, 224-225, 227, 235-236, 249

waiting lists, 45

Mexico, 65, 155, 162, 174, 175, 176, 386

Miami, 61, 223, 373, 393

Migrant workers, 27, 29, 52

Migration

and economic growth, 154-155

internal, 6, 61-62, 228-230, 305, 365

international, 84

native, 228-230

net, 21, 78, 83

rich nations to poor nations, 155 n.20, 162

secondary, 365

Miles, Jack, 393

Ministers and religious workers, 43

Models/modeling. See Population projection model

Mortality rates

age and, 76, 96

fiscal impacts, 304

gender and, 96, 131

immigrant rates, 77, 95

modeling, 82, 83, 87-88, 131

and population change, 34, 35, 77, 95, 96, 134

race/ethnicity and, 88

Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 394

Multinational companies, 20, 45-46, 49

N

National Academy of Engineering, 385

National Academy of Sciences, 385

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 85, 92

National defense, 256, 283, 285, 293, 302

National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, 375

National Football League (NFL), 385-386

National Hockey League (NHL), 386

National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), 308, 315

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 367

National Opinion Research Center, 355

National/regional origin of immigrants

and educational attainment, 186-190

and emigration, 40, 66

employment-preference, 46

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

family-preference, 45

fiscal impacts, 271-273, 275-277, 280-283, 287-288, 290-291, 293

gender profiles, 186-191, 249-250

and geographic distribution in U.S., 59 n.28

illegal immigrants, 26, 51

international comparisons, 65, 66

and occupational earnings, 194, 196

and population changes in U.S. 32, 36-37

quotas, 24, 25-26, 27, 36

racial/ethnic classifications, 80 n.4

and wages, 7, 174, 176-178, 186-191, 202-204, 235-236, 249-250

Native American, 80 n.3

Naturalization.

See Citizenship and naturalization

Nebraska, 61

Net annual fiscal impact (NAFI)

California, 277-282, 320-323

comparability of cross-sectional results with, 320-323

current immigrants, 282-289

defined, 289

federal budgets, 280, 282, 317

modeling, 257-260, 261, 262

on native households, 284, 292

new immigrants, 270, 289-292, 293-294

New Jersey, 271-277, 320-323

per capita, 317

state and local budgets, 271-280, 281, 317

Net immigration

and age structure, 102-110

defined, 77 n.1

emigration and, 39

and geographic distribution, 59 n.28

illegal, 60

international comparisons, 65, 66

modeling, 83, 88-89

population impacts, 3, 4, 33 n.14, 34, 39, 40, 77 n.1, 95, 96, 97-98, 102-106, 108-122

and racial/ethnic composition, 4, 114-122

Net migration, 21, 78, 83, 127, 228 n.40

Net present value (NPV)

age at arrival and, 326-332, 334-336, 358-361

for average citizen, 348-349

educational attainment and, 327-332, 358-361

federal level, 330-331

for immigrants, 358-361

incremental immigrant, 331, 333-336

for natives, 358-361

negative estimates, 347-348

positive estimates, 344-347

single immigrant scenario, 341-343

state and local level, 326-327, 347-348

stream of one immigrant per year, 343-344

time since arrival, 340, 358-361

weighted average, 341, 343-345

welfare reform and, 339

Netherlands, 63, 64, 66, 386

New Deal, 47

New England immigrants, 61

New Jersey

attitudes toward immigration, 391

budget, 271-277, 285-286

education benefits, 321

net annual fiscal impact, 282, 284-292, 321

public services, 271, 272-273, 275-276

revenues, 271, 274, 321

spending, 272-273, 275-277

New Jersey immigrants

employment, 211-217

fiscal impact of, 8, 9-10, 254, 257, 271-277, 282, 284, 287-288, 290, 321-322

household characteristics, 271-272, 275, 277, 284, 290

population composition, 228-230, 271, 275

revenues from, 271

studies, 8, 321-322

trends, 59, 61

wages, 179-180

New York City, 61, 225, 228-230

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

New York State, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 254, 391, 393

New Zealand, 65

Nicaragua, 175, 176

Nigeria, 386

Nobel prizes and laureates, 383, 384-385

Nonimmigrants, 2, 21, 48-50, 51, 66, 190, 192, 196, 306, 382

Nonresident revenues and spending, 262-263, 269-270

North America, 79, 175

North American immigrants. 187, 189.

See also specific country

North Carolina, 61

Northern European immigrants, 26

Norway, 63, 64, 66

Norwegian Nobel Committee, 384

Numerical limits on immigration

annual, 40-41

country-based, 41, 68

employment-based preferences, 41

exempted populations, 41, 46

family-related preferences, 41

legislation, 24, 25-27

O

Occupations, immigrant

earnings by, 193-195

gender profile, 209-218

high-education, 8, 209-210, 211-212, 236

low-education, 8, 209-210, 212-215, 236

medium-education, 216-218

public-sector, 218

temporal trends, 210, 213-217

Oceania, 79, 176, 272-273, 280, 281, 282, 290-291, 382

Office of Immigration, U.S., 23

Oklahoma, 61

Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI), 307 , 308 n.9, 309, 320, 326, 337, 347;

see also Social Security

P

Panama, 64, 386

Panama Canal Company, 64

Panama Canal Treaty, 64

Parents, 41, 44, 195

Park, Robert, 372

Parolees, 42

Patent system, 161 n.33

Peck, Gregory, 385

Pennsylvania immigrants, 59

Pensions, 76, 105, 110, 326 n.20

Permanent residents

children of, 41

visas, See Visas, permanent resident

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) , 2, 10, 30, 254, 264 n.15, 326, 337, 338-339, 351, 354

Personal services (nonhousehold), 149

Philippines, 7, 174, 175, 176, 377

Physicians, 7, 194, 196, 210, 211

Policy. See Federal policy on immigration;

State and local government

Polish immigrants, 24, 28, 46

Political asylum. See Asylum and asylees

Population

dependency analysis, 107, 108-109

world, 20, 78-79

Population projection model

age distribution, 84

base population, 84-85

data requirements, 125

definition of population, 125

emigration and, 82, 84, 88, 89

exogamy assumptions, 89-92, 132

fertility assumption, 3, 82, 83, 85-87, 94 n.20, 130

generational perspective, 3, 81, 83-84, 89, 91-92, 122, 124

immigrant-generation approach, 82-83

immigration assumptions, 82, 88-89, 95

with international migration, 3, 126-127

mortality assumptions, 3, 82, 83, 87-88, 131

net migration, 83, 88-89

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

with no international migration, 125-126

and policy changes, 89 n.13

with population by generations, 127-130

racial/ethnic attribution in, 81-82, 84, 92-93, 133

sensitivity of results, 133

standard cohort-component, 81, 82

Portugal, 186, 187, 189

Poverty, as a basis for exclusion, 23, 50 n.23

Preference system, 28.

See also Employment-based admission preferences;

Family-sponsored admission preferences

diversity admissions, 25, 29, 46

executives, 45

legislation, 2, 24, 25, 27-29, 68

refugees, 25

and skills of immigrants, 2, 194, 196, 218

Price of goods and services. See also Consumer price impacts

labor-market structure and, 4, 135-136, 143, 144, 164, 215, 230-235

Priority workers, 42, 45

Professionals, 42, 43, 45-46

Property rights, 161 n.33

Public assistance, benefits, and services. See also specific program;

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

age profiles of recipients, 308-316

fiscal impacts, 255, 256, 257-259, 262, 309-316

generational perspectives on, 297, 309-314, 319-320

household utilization, 55, 265, 272-273, 275, 276-277, 278, 282, 283

legislation, 2, 30, 326, 338-339

new immigrants, 10, 255, 264

payment for, 264

public opinion, 26

spending on benefits, 272-273, 319

utilization modeling, 258-259, 262, 264 n.17

Public goods and pure public goods, 256-257, 265, 285, 302, 334-335 n.25

Public revenues. See also Taxes

federal aid to states, 262

fees and licenses, 267, 278

modeling, 259, 260-263, 266-269

nonresident sources, 260, 262-263, 269-270

Public spending

age of immigrants and, 304

on debt, 304, 318 n.15

on education, 275-276, 281

historical trends, 47-48

modeling, 264-266, 269-270

for nonresident business services, 269-270

per capita share, 303

projections, 10-11, 299-301

on public assistance and benefits, 10, 272-273, 304-305

on public goods, 293, 302, 303, 304, 318

Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS), 271, 273 n.27, 306, 308, 309 n.12, 362

Q

Quota Act (1921), 25-26

Quotas

Eastern Hemisphere, 24, 26, 27

legislation, 24, 68

national-origin-based, 24, 25-26, 27, 36, 68

numerical, 24, 25-26, 27-28, 68

skills-based, 24, 27

Western Hemisphere, 24, 25, 68

R

Race/ethnicity

admissions based on, 64

attitudes toward immigrants, 364, 374, 375, 392, 393-394

classifications, 80

and education, 355-358

exclusions based on, 23-24

and expenditures attributable to immigrant labor, 234-235

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

and fiscal impacts, 322

geographic segregation by, 367-368

interethnic tensions, 393-394

Racial/ethnic distribution

age structure, 113-114

attribution issue, 4, 77, 84-85, 89-90, 92-93, 114, 115-119, 121-122, 123, 370

exogamy and, 114, 115, 117-119

fertility rates, 85-87, 114

generational perspectives, 114, 117, 355-358, 367-368

intermarriage and, 4, 113, 123, 369-372, 396

international comparisons, 64

labor-force participation, 105

modeling, 81-82, 84-85, 87-88, 92-93, 133

mortality, 88, 131

population composition, 4, 34, 37, 77, 80, 113-122, 123

projected, 114-122, 123

Refugee Act of 1980, 25, 28-29, 38

Refugees

admission trends, 38, 41, 42, 44, 64

Canadian system for, 20, 67, 72

defined, 22

earnings, 194, 195, 196

European, 27

international comparisons, 64

legislation, 25, 28-29, 38

policy on admissions, 41, 42, 196, 365

resettlement, 25, 28-29, 38

Relatives of U.S. citizens, 41, 44

Representatives of international organizations, 49

Research and development, 162, 164

Resettlement of refugees, 25, 28-29, 38

Restaurants, ethnic, 146, 213-215

Retail trade, 149

Revenues. See Public revenues;

Taxes

Robinson, Gregg, 40

Romania, 386

Roosevelt, Theodore, 119

Russia, 62

Russian immigrants, 24, 386

S

San Diego, 226, 373, 375-376

San Francisco, 61

Savings rate, 162-163

Scandinavian countries, 155.

See also specific country

Scandinavian immigrants, 23, 36

School-age population, 77, 94, 103-104

School enrollments, 3, 77, 103-104, 122

Science and arts, contributions to, 383-386

Sciences, contributions of immigrants to, 383-385

Scope of study, 1, 17-19

Seasonal agricultural workers, 27, 29, 52

Self-employment, 162-163, 182 n.8

Service industries

immigrant labor-cost shares, 232

occupations of immigrants, 212-215

workforce, 149

Siblings of immigrants, 42, 43, 45

Silicon Valley, 150

Skills of immigrants. See also Educational attainment;

Labor, highly skilled;

Labor, skilled;

Labor, unskilled

and economic assimilation, 181-182

and fiscal burden, 335-336

national origin and, 7, 185-190, 235-236

policy on immigration and, 2, 194, 196, 218

trends, 181-185

and wage disparities, 7, 137-141, 143, 157, 179, 181, 193, 197-198, 201-202, 224-225, 227, 235-236

Smith, Adam, 154

Social dimensions of immigration. See Assimilation of immigrants;

Attitudes about immigration;

Education, public; Exogamy;

Geographic

distribution of immigrants;

Intermarriage

age distributions and, 55, 77

citizenship and naturalization, 363, 378-382

concerns, 14

crime and criminals, 53, 386-389

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

education, 103-104, 122, 372-376

gender balance and, 53

generational perspectives, 374-377, 395-396

interethnic relations, 389-390, 393-395

literacy, 363, 376-378

of population change, 77

public assistance programs, 30, 55

racial/ethnic identity, 363, 369-372

residential integration, 366-368

segregation indices, 366-369

social and spatial mobility, 363, 365-368

Social Security, 10, 11, 40 n.17, 44, 54, 110, 255, 280, 282, 283, 297-298, 304, 309-311, 325 n.20, 330, 342;

see also Old-Age Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance

Social Security Administration, 347

South African immigrants, 186, 188, 190

South America, 174, 175, 376

South American immigrants, 23, 287, 289.

See also specific country

Southern European immigrants, 25-26, 31, 36, 68, 110, 364, 376, 395.

See also specific country

Soviet Union, 20, 28 n.8, 64.

See also specific country

Special immigrants, 42, 45

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 308 n.9

Sponsors, 30

Sports, contributions of immigrants to, 385-386

Spouses, 41, 42, 43-44, 45, 195, 209

Standards of living. See Gross domestic product

State and local government.

See also California;

New Jersey

budget, 271-277, 285-289, 324 n.20

congestive costs, 303, 316

deficit, 324 n.20

education, 262, 273 n.27, 278 n.32, 311

revenues. See Public revenues;

Taxes

spending. See Public spending

Students, foreign-born, 49-50, 51, 103 n.30

Supplementary Security Income (SSI), 10-11, 30, 44, 55, 273, 278, 282 n.37, 304, 308 n.9, 309, 311, 312, 330, 339, 351

Survey of Income and Program Participation, 306, 362

Sweden, 63, 64, 66, 386

Switzerland, 62, 63, 64, 66, 379

T

Taiwan, 186, 187, 189

Tampa Bay, 386

Taxes, federal, state, and local and age profiles of immigrants, 305 n.5, 314-316, 320, 349-352

aggregate, 314-316

business/corporate, 9, 256, 262, 267-268, 274, 279, 285 n.40, 314

disability insurance, 278-279, 283

and earnings, 306

and educational attainment, 349-352

exclusions, 285 n.38

generational perspective, 314-316, 319-320, 349-352

immigrant contributions, 256, 276, 280, 281, 283, 314-316, 326, 339 , 340

income and payroll, 256, 267, 274, 276, 278, 283, 314

licenses and fees, 267, 278

modeling, 259, 260-263

native burden, 255, 260-263, 265-266, 279 n.35, 281, 283

net annual fiscal impact, 261

net present value, 326-332, 347-348

new immigrant impact, 256, 260, 261, 262, 265, 268, 340, 349

per capita net, 320

projections, 10-11, 256, 297-301

property and utility, 9, 256, 267-268, 274, 276, 278, 279, 281, 314

sales and excise, 256, 267, 276, 278, 281, 314

shifting burden of, 266-267

state and local, 314

time since arrival and, 307

tourists and tourism, 279

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

Technology, 155, 160-163, 264 n.16

Temporary workers and trainees, foreign, 49-50

Terminology, 21-22, 56 n.24

Texas, 59, 61, 179-180, 211-217, 228-230, 254, 391, 405

Textile industry, 145-146, 147-148, 215

Time of arrival

and citizenship and naturalization, 382

and earnings, 192-196, 307

and educational attainment, 183-185

and employment, 206-209

and fiscal impacts, 301-302, 303-304, 307-308

and income, 268 n.21

and occupational attainment, 210, 213-217

and wages, 7, 177-178, 183-185, 198-204, 241-250

Tourists and tourism, 49, 50, 51, 274 n.29, 275 n.29

Trade. See International trade

Transit aliens, 49

Treaty traders, 49

Truman, Harry S, 27

Turkey, 64

U

Undocumented immigrants. See Illegal immigrants/immigration

Unemployment, 18, 104, 105

United Kingdom, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66.

See also British immigrants

United Nations, 79

U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1, 15, 17-19

Unskilled labor. See Labor, unskilled

V

Venezuela, 386

Vietnamese immigrants, 28, 194, 196, 365, 367 n.3, 375, 395

Visa systems

Canadian, 65, 67, 72-75

legislation, 24, 29

Visas, permanent resident. See also Employment-based admission preferences;

Family-sponsored admission preferences

admissions, 42, 43, 209

allocations, 41-43

conditional, 44

and data collection, 192

lotteries, 46

unused, 41

waiting list, 45

Voting, 30, 78, 226, 273, 372-373

W

Wages. See also Earnings;

Income

age profiles, 197-204, 241-250

by country, 187-190, 196, 249-250

cross-sectional data, 197-198

discrimination, 179, 181

disparities, by nativity, 176-179, 182-185, 197-202, 241-248

dispersion, 174

early arrivals, 177-178

educational attainment and, 7, 17, 151, 179, 181, 182-190, 227-228, 235, 241-248

elasticity of, 221-222

emigration and, 204-205

factor price equalization, 174 n.3

flows of immigrants and, 227-230

gender differences, 17, 176-178, 181, 183-191, 198-204, 241-250

generational assimilation and, 158-160

geographic distribution of immigrants and, 179-180, 221-222, 225-228

growth/convergence rate, 197-205, 241-250

hourly, 176-178, 179, 180

illegal immigrants and, 7, 236

international comparisons, 174-177

local markets, 221-225

migrant workers, 27

national origin and, 7, 174, 176-178, 186-191, 202-204, 235-236, 249-250

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
×

productivity differences and, 174 n.3

race/ethnicity and, 181

redistribution of workers and, 7, 137-142, 151-152, 157, 164

skill levels and, 137-141, 143, 157, 179, 181, 193, 197-198, 201-202, 224-225, 227, 235-236

temporal trends, 177-178, 183-185, 198-204, 241-250

Waiting lists, 44-45

Washington, D.C., 61

Washington immigrants, 61

Washington Post, 393

Wealth of Nations, 154

Welfare. See Public assistance, benefits, and services

West Indian immigrants, 375

Western Europe, 174, 175, 176, 182

Western Hemisphere immigration

emigration from U.S., 40

quotas, 24, 25, 68

White immigrants;

see specific area and country

ancestry, 84, 119, 120

attitudes toward immigration, 13, 394, 396

defined, 80

education, 375

exogamy, 90-92, 118 n.46, 132

fertility rates, 85-87

fiscal impact of 322

intermarriage rates, 90, 91, 113, 132, 370

mortality, 88, 131

racial/ethnic attribution, 93, 118, 121-122, 133, 370-371

population size and growth, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123

unemployment, 222

wages, 222, 223

Whites. See White immigrants

Women. See Females

Work experience, requirements, 46

Workers. See Labor

Workforce, immigrant

in agriculture, 149

in service industries, 149

size of, 77, 105, 110, 122

in traded-goods sector, 148-149

Working-age population, 77, 105, 110

World War I, 25, 31, 35

World War II, 26, 27, 29 n.9, 31-32, 35, 68, 76

Wyoming, 61

Y

Young adults, 54, 55, 104-105

Youth dependency ratio, 107-108

Yugoslavia, 386

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5779.
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The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration Get This Book
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This book sheds light on one of the most controversial issues of the decade. It identifies the economic gains and losses from immigration—for the nation, states, and local areas—and provides a foundation for public discussion and policymaking. Three key questions are explored:

  • What is the influence of immigration on the overall economy, especially national and regional labor markets?
  • What are the overall effects of immigration on federal, state, and local government budgets?
  • What effects will immigration have on the future size and makeup of the nation's population over the next 50 years?

The New Americans examines what immigrants gain by coming to the United States and what they contribute to the country, the skills of immigrants and those of native-born Americans, the experiences of immigrant women and other groups, and much more. It offers examples of how to measure the impact of immigration on government revenues and expenditures—estimating one year's fiscal impact in California, New Jersey, and the United States and projecting the long-run fiscal effects on government revenues and expenditures. Also included is background information on immigration policies and practices and data on where immigrants come from, what they do in America, and how they will change the nation's social fabric in the decades to come.

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