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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

Index

A

Abortion, spontaneous, 78, 168

ACE. See Alternating-conditional-expectations regression

Adipose tissue samples. See Sampling, personal Adverse outcomes. See Diseases

Aerometric Information Retrieval System. See Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data

Aged populations, susceptibility of, 84

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4, 14-15, 28-29, 99, 102-103, 116-118, 121-122, 155-156, 174-175

Air pollution, 47-49

airborne particulate, 6, 45, 69-73

ambient, 47

factors affecting uptake of, 7

indoor, 9, 39, 147

measuring, 32, 38-41, 43

smog, 7, 46, 48

toxic, 4

Air-quality standards, 70-72

Alcohol use. See Lifestyle factors

Alpha probabilities, 21

Alternating-conditional-expectations regression, 142

Alzheimer's disease, 74

Ambulance calls, tracking, 111

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 74

Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 132

Applied dose. See Dose

Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene,50

Arsenic, 44, 57

Asbestos, 13, 19

Asthma, 18, 48, 71, 140

adult-onset, 2

childhood, 7, 70

ATSDR. See Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

ATSDR Guidance Manual,28

Attention-deficit disorders, in primates, 75

Attributable risk, 23

Autoregressive structures, 135-136

Aversive conditioning, 74

B

Background effects, 14

Bayes rule methodology, 139, 181

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

BDMP. See Birth Defects Monitoring Program

Behavioral changes, subtle, 73-74

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 106

Benzene, 19

Beta probabilities, 21

Biologically effective dose. See Dose

Biologic markers, 17, 20, 33, 51, 56-58, 62, 81-84.

See also Sampling, personal cost of, 81

validating, 56, 58, 82, 86-87

Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology,81

Birth defects. See Congenital anomalies

Birth Defects Monitoring Program, 105, 108-109, 163-165

Blood samples. See Sampling, personal

Bootstrap procedure, 141-142

Breathing zone measurements, 38-39

Breath samples. See Sampling, personal

Bronchitis

acute, in children, 70

chronic, 18, 72

C

Cancer Incidence Reporting System (Canada), 123

Cancers, 15, 23, 46, 68-69, 80

endometrial carcinoma, 14

hepatic angiosarcoma, 23

laryngeal, 147

leukemia, 19

lung, 22-24, 73, 170

mesothelioma, 19

stomach, 14

Carbon monoxide, 39

Cardiac defects, 78

Cardiovascular disease, 6, 15, 18

Case-cohort studies, 19, 148

Case-control studies, 17-19, 115, 148, 176

Case-crossover studies, 148

Case reports, 13

Causality, inferring. See Epidemiology studies

Census data, 15-16

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 126, 163-164, 168

Central nervous system (CNS) complications. See Neurologic symptomatology

CERCLA. See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)

Chemicals

agricultural (See Herbicides; Pesticides)

mixed, 50-51, 54, 61-62, 69

synthetic organic, 7, 100

volatile organic, 41, 74

xenobiotic, 50, 80

Children, susceptibility of, 85

Chlorine gas, 44, 112

Chromium, 46

Classification errors. See Misclassification

Cleaning products, 39

Clean Water Act, 102

Cleft lip and palate, 164-165

CNS. See Neurologic symptomatology

Coefficients of variation, 83

Cohort studies, 17-18, 114, 176.

See also Case-cohort studies

Complex mixtures. See Chemicals, mixed

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, 116

Confidence bounds, 22

Confidentiality issues, 120-123

Confounding factors, 5-6, 15-16, 19, 22, 50, 83, 120, 134, 174

Congenital anomalies, 2, 78-79, 162-163, 167-168

Congenital Malformations Surveillance Report, 168

Consumer products, measuring concentrations of, 38-39

Cox proportional hazard model, 144

Cross-sectional surveys, 19-20, 114

Croup attacks, 71

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

D

Death-certificate diagnoses, 114

Dermal uptake, 30

''Design effect,"; 137

Design of studies, 13-22, 28, 44, 56-57, 147-148, 159-160.

See also Cross-sectional surveys;

Modeling;

Statistical techniques

Developing world, versus developed, 2, 9, 170-171

Developmental health effects, 3, 77-79

Diaries, 45, 48, 133, 147

Dioxin, 14, 41

Disease-incidence data systems. See Surveillance systems

Diseases

acute, 70-72

chronic, 3, 8, 51, 72-73, 114

infectious, 2-3, 8, 118

multifactorial, 6, 18, 20, 114, 149

rare, 12, 21, 124

shifting patterns of, 86

of unknown etiology, 1-3, 10, 24, 68

Dose

applied, 29

biologically effective, 29, 56-59

cumulative, 61

defined, 29, 51

internal, 29, 32-33, 40-41, 56, 59, 101-104, 106-107

patterns, 24, 30, 80

potential, 29, 32-33

tissue, 59

Dose-response relations, 2-3, 15, 19, 31, 34, 44, 49, 61.

See also Epidemiology studies, inferring causality in;

Statistical techniques

consistency of, 23

correlated data, 133-142

covariant correlations, 139-142

longitudinal correlations, 134-135

random-effect correlations, 136-139

serial correlations, 135-136

discrete data, 132-133

nonlinearity in, 54, 142-144

specificity of, 23

strength of, 22-23

unknown relations, 142-144

Dosimetric modeling. See Modeling

Drinking habits. See Lifestyle factors

Drinking water sampling, 36-37

Drugs. See Lifestyle factors

E

"Ecologic fallacy,";15

Ecologic studies, 14-16

Elderly, 84

Emergency room visits, tracking, 111, 115

Environmental epidemiology

assessment in, 5-6, 26-27

(See also Health status data;

Monitoring)

analytic studies, 16-19, 35, 42

descriptive studies, 13-16, 34-35

defined, 2, 12-13

origins of, 12

Environmental Epidemiology, Volume1, 3-4, 6, 22, 27, 31, 35, 48-49, 51, 54, 61, 78, 81, 131, 154

Environmental protection, 2, 94-97.

See also Developing world, versus developed

Environmental Protection Agency, 4, 27-30, 44, 98, 124

Environmental tobacco smoke. See Tobacco smoke

EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency

Epidemiologists, 7

Epidemiology,78

Epidemiology studies, 20, 50-51, 59

adequacy of, defining, 2, 5-6

evaluating, 2, 62, 157-162

(See also Peer-review of studies)

inferring causality in, 15, 22-24, 26, 31

limitations of, 10, 12, 42

(See also Confounding factors)

Estrogen use, postmenopausal, 14

Exposed populations, 99-101, 104-105, 131

defined, 20, 29, 117

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

geographic location, 15-16, 125, 138, 178

size of (See Sample size)

Exposure analysts, 7, 51, 60, 62

Exposure-dose relations. See Dose-response relations

Exposure-response relations. See Dose-response relations

Exposures, 3.

See also Dose;

Pollutant discharges

assessing, 26-62, 160-161

(See also Monitoring;

Sampling, personal)

costs of, 42, 45, 61

data needed, 31-42

measurements needed (See Measurements)

need for improvement in, 44-47, 56

possible approaches, 34, 96-97

databases of, 15, 94-126, 179

analyzing, 130-150

linking, 113, 121-123, 177-178

defined, 29-30

developing relevant gradients, 7, 15, 24

indexes of, 51-54

low levels of, 21, 54

past, 49-50, 86

F

False negatives, 21, 140, 174

False positives, 21, 140

Fecundity health effects, 76-77

Fish tissue contaminants, 38-39

Fixed-location monitoring. See Monitoring

FOIA. See Freedom of Information Act

Followup studies. See Trends

Food contaminants, 33, 36-37, 40-41, 102-103.

See also Fish tissue contaminants

Freedom of Information Act, 121

G

GAO. See U.S. General Accounting Office

Gene-environment interactions, 58, 85, 142

Geographic coding. See Exposed populations

Gray literature, 4, 154-171

defined, 1, 154-155

need for databases of, 9

Groundwater contaminants. See Water contaminants

Group exposure, 15.

See also Sample size

Guidance Manual. See ATSDR Guidance Manual

H

Hair samples. See Sampling, personal

Hazardous-waste sites, 4, 7-8, 39, 49-50, 54-55, 61, 78-79, 107, 167-168.

See also Superfund sites

Health Care Financing Administration, 115-116, 177

Health Effects Institute Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project, 131

Health Interview Survey (HIS), 48

Health outcomes. See Diseases

Health status data, 104-112, 115

Heavy metal poisoning, 41, 85

Hepatic health effects, 80, 114.

See also Cancers

Herbicides, 46, 100

Heteroscedastic distributions, 133

HIS. See Health Interview Survey

Hormone levels, 76

Hospital admissions, tracking, 111, 115

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants,28, 48

I

Immunologic health effects, 80-84

Immunotoxicology, future of, 82

Internal dose. See Dose

International Classification of Diseases,164

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

International Society of Exposure Analysis, 27

IQ, downward shifts in, 74-75

J

Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology,28

K

Kidney diseases, 80

Korn-Whittemore approach, 140

Kriging, 145-147

L

Latency period, 18, 23-24

Lead poisoning, 2, 6-7, 18, 20, 23, 41, 69, 74-75, 79, 112, 124

Learning disorders, in primates, 75

Least-squares regression, 133

Legal issues, 56, 85, 155

Lestimates, 145

Lifestyle factors

drinking habits, 3, 170

drugs, 3

smoking, 3-4, 44, 73, 170

Linear regression, 132, 143.

See also Kriging

Linking data. See Exposures, databases of

Liver diseases. See Hepatic health effects

LOELs. See Lowest-observed-effects levels

Logistic regression, 133, 136, 140, 143, 179

Logs. See Diaries

Longitudinal correlations. See Dose-response relations, correlated data

Low birthweights, 77-78

Lowest-observed-effects levels, 142

M

Markers. See Biologic markers

Markov-type structures, 135

Mathematical modeling. See Modeling

Mathematical transformations, 143

Measurements

errors in, 21, 43, 148-149

of exposure, 28-31, 61

of human health effects, 8

types needed to characterize exposure, 36-41

Medline, 1

MEDPAR, 104

Mercury, 77, 124

Mestimates, 145

Meta-analysis, 23, 71, 179

Methyl mercury, 13, 69

Microenvironmental studies, 38-39, 47

Miscarriages, 77, 165-167

Misclassification, 23, 42-44, 47, 50, 59, 61

Modeling, 7, 18, 145-149.

See also Statistical techniques

covariance (See Dose-response relations, correlated data)

dosimetric, 58-60

multiple-regression, 141

random-effect (See Dose-response relations, correlated data)

toxicokinetic, 50-51, 59

validating, 7

Molecular-epidemiology studies, 20

Monitoring, 112-120

biologic, 31, 45

(See also Sampling, personal)

difficulties with, 112-113, 120

fixed-location, 36-37, 97-98

indirect, 31, 47

need to increase, 6

short-term, 36-37

sources (See Pollutant discharges, sources of)

Monotonicity, departures from, 31, 34.

See also Epidemiology studies,

inferring causality in

Monte Carlo pseudosamples, 141

Moving-average structures, 135

Multiple comparisons problem, 22

Myelin, damage to, 73

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

N

Nail samples. See Sampling, personal

National Air Monitoring Stations, 99

National Cancer Institute, 46, 105, 170

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 106

National Center for Environmental Health, 105, 126

National Center for Health Statistics, 14, 103-104

National Center for Injury Control and Prevention, 126

National Death Index, 124, 126, 179

National Exposure Registry, 104-105, 111, 116, 118, 121, 126

National Governors' Association, 155-157

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 103-110, 112, 126, 178

National Health Interview Survey, 104-105, 108-109, 111, 124, 126, 178

National Human Adipose Tissue Survey, 106

National Human Exposure Assessment Survey, 27-28, 44, 124

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 60, 99, 126

National Institutes of Health, 126

National Library of Medicine, 175

National Mortality Data Base (Canada), 123

National Occupational Exposure Survey, 104

National Occupational Hazards Survey, 111

National Priority List (of sites), 100, 102, 117-118

National Research Council, 1, 3-4, 28-29, 31, 68, 162

National Stream Quality Accounting Network, 99

National Toxicology Program, 76-77

National Vital Statistics Program, 108-109, 178

Negatives, false, 21, 140, 174

Nested case-control studies, 18-19, 148

Neurologic symptomatology, 2, 20, 23, 69, 73-76, 164-165, 168

NGA. See National Governors' Association

NHANES. See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHEXAS. See National Human Exposure Assessment Survey

NHIS. See National Health Interview Survey

NIOSH. See National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Nitrogen dioxide, 47-48, 71

NOELs. See No-observed-effects levels

Nonlinearity. See Dose-response relations

Nonparametric regression, 143-144

No-observed-effects levels, 142

O

Occupational epidemiology, 50-51, 59

Odds ratio, 22, 43, 52-53

1-beta. See Beta probabilities

OR. See Odds ratio

Oral uptake, 30

Organic chemicals. See Chemicals

Outbreak investigations, 115

Outcomes, adverse. See Diseases

Ozone, 6, 48-49, 69-72, 96, 139-140

P

Pan American Health Organization, 4, 170

Parkinsonism, 74

Patterns of health, 12

PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls

Peer-review of studies, 4, 157, 159, 174

standards for, 1, 4

Periodic regression, 142-143

Personal identifiers, 120-123

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

Personal monitoring. See Monitoring

Pesticides, 4, 41, 46-47, 100

Poison center data, 115

Poisson distributions, 132-133, 136, 138, 140, 143-144, 179

Policy issues, 27, 95-96, 125

Political issues, 8, 155, 162, 169, 173

Pollutant discharges

concentrations of, 99, 102-103

sources of, 36-37, 98, 100-101

Polychlorinated biphenyls, 41, 79, 85

Populations, exposed. See Exposed populations

Positives, false, 21, 140

Potential dose. See Dose

Power considerations, 18, 20-22, 28, 42, 158, 160, 169

Pregnancy outcome effects, 76-77

Privacy Act of 1974, 121

Privacy issues, 120-123

Probit regression, 133

Prospective cohort studies, 17-18

Proxy variables, 59

Psychogenic factors, 54, 74

"Publication bias," 155

Public health, 161.

See also Policy issues

developing programs to promote, 5, 86

impacts on, 6

Public-health departments, 7-9.

See also State health-department reports

Pulmonary disease, 51, 59

P values, 22

R

Racial groups, varying susceptibilities of, 85

Radiation, 4

Radon, 13, 39

Random-effect correlations. See Dose-response relations, correlated data

Recall bias, 17, 49, 54-56

Recommendations, 85-87, 123-126, 173-179

Reconstructed dose. See Dose, internal

Regression, 132-133

Regulatory considerations, 102, 155

Relative risk, 20, 22-23, 69, 176

Renal health effects, 80

Reproductive health effects, 2-3, 76-77, 86, 162-169

Resampling, 141

Reserve capacity, of immune system, 83

Respiratory ailments, 2, 9, 30, 43, 48, 69-73.

See also Pulmonary disease

Retrospective cohort studies, 17

Risk factors. See Attributable risk;

Dose-response relations;

Pollutant discharges;

Relative risk;

individual toxic substances

RR. See Relative risk

S

Salmonella, 120

Sample size, 6, 9, 18, 20-21, 42, 95, 160

Sampling, personal, 40-41, 107

Sampling instruments, new developments in, 45

Sanitation, basic, 9

SARA. See Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

SAROAD. See Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data monitoring

Secondary data. See Exposures, databases of

Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 7

Secrecy issues, 8-9, 155.

See also Confidentiality issues

Sediment contaminants. See Soil and sediment contaminants

SEER. See Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results

Semen biochemistry, 76

Sentinel health events, 113, 124

Serial correlations. See Dose-response relations, correlated data

Serum-cholesterol measurement, 58

Sexual function effects, 76-77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

Short-term monitoring. See Monitoring

Significance, statistical. See Statistical techniques

Silica, 54

Silicon carbide, 59

Six Cities Study of Air Pollution and Health, 48, 71

Skin patch samples. See Sampling, personal

Smoking. See Lifestyle factors, Tobacco smoke

Smoothing techniques, 143-144

SMR. See Standard mortality ratio

Software, mapping, 15

Soil and sediment contaminants, 33, 38-39

Source monitoring. See Monitoring

Spatial-covariance function, estimated. See Kriging

Sperm counts, 76

Standard mortality ratio, 22

State Environmental Health Information Clearinghouse, 156, 174

State health-department reports, 1, 4, 9, 155-169

Statistical power. See Power considerations

Statistical techniques, 50, 62, 130-150.

See also individual analytic methods

aggregate, 6

robust methods, 144-145

significance testing, 21

Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data monitoring, 48, 102, 110

Stress, 74

Study design. See Design of studies

Study size. See Sample size

Subjective symptoms. See Symptom incidence

Sulfate, 71

Sulfur dioxide, 71-72

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, 103

Superfund sites, 4-5, 15

Surface soil contaminants. See Soil and sediment contaminants

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 105, 107-109, 118

Surveillance systems, 14, 118-120

Susceptible populations, 84-86, 116-117

Symptom incidence, 52-56

Syndromes. See Diseases

T

Temporality. See Latency period

Tetrachloroethane, 41, 44-45

Thalidomide, 77

Time-activity diaries. See Diaries

Time factor. See Latency period

Tobacco smoke, 2, 13, 22, 24, 45-46

Total exposure, 29

Total suspended particle concentrations, 72, 138, 140

Toxicokinetic modeling. See Modeling

Toxicology,50

Toxic Release Inventory, 107

Toxic-waste sites. See Hazardous-waste sites

Training. See Exposure analysts

Transient populations, 116-117

Trends, 6, 14, 18

Trichloroethylene, 14, 41, 69

TSP. See Total suspended particle concentrations

Type I errors. See False positives

Type II errors. See False negatives

U

Uncertainty, random. See P values

Urine samples. See Sampling, personal

U.S. General Accounting Office, 4

V

Variation in immunologic markers, coefficients of, 83

Variograms. See Kriging

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
×

Vinyl chloride, 23

VOCS. See Chemicals, volatile organic

Volatile organic compounds. See Chemicals, volatile organic

W

Water contaminants, 78

factors affecting uptake of, 7

measuring, 32, 40-41, 49

World Bank, 2, 4, 170

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5804.
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Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology Get This Book
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Determining the health risks to humans of exposure to toxic substances in the environment is made difficult by problems such as measuring the degree to which people have been exposed and determining causation—whether observed health effects are due to exposure to a suspected toxicant. Building on the well-received first volume, Environmental Epidemiology: Hazardous Wastes and Public Health, this second volume continues the examination of ways to address these difficulties. It describes effective epidemiological methods for analyzing data and focuses on errors that may occur in the course of analyses.

The book also investigates the utility of the gray literature in helping to identify the often elusive causative agent behind reported health effects. Although gray literature studies are often based on a study group that is quite small, use inadequate measures of exposure, and are not published, many of the reports from about 20 states that were examined by the committee were judged to be publishable with some additional work. The committee makes recommendations to improve the utility of the gray literature by enhancing quality and availability.

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