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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

CHIMPANZEES IN RESEARCH

STRATEGIES FOR THEIR ETHICAL CARE, MANAGEMENT, AND USE

COMMITTEE ON LONG-TERM CARE OF CHIMPANZEES

INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
1997

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported under contract NO1-OD-4-2139, T.O. 17, from the National Institutes of Health. Core support is provided to the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources by the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, through grant 5P40RR0137; by the National Science Foundation through grant BIR-9024967; by the US Army Medical Research and Development Command, which serves as the lead agency for combined US Department of Defense funding, also received from the Human Systems Division of the US Air Force Systems Command, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and US Naval Medical Research and Development Command, through grant DAMD17-93-J-3016; and by research project grant RC-1-34 from the American Cancer Society.

Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Health and Human Services or other sponsors, nor does the mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government or other sponsors.

Cover photograph by Susanna Berdecio, Primate Foundation of Arizona

Additional copies of this report are available from the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

COMMITTEE ON LONG-TERM CARE OF CHIMPANZEES

Dani P. Bolognesi (Chair),

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Thomas M. Butler,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Philip Davies,

Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey

Neal L. First,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

Nathan R. Flesness,

International Species Information System, Apple Valley, Minnesota

Jo Fritz,

Primate Foundation of Arizona, Mesa, Arizona

Patricia Fultz,

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama

Peter Theran,

Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals/American Humane Education Society, Boston, Massachusetts

Sarah Williams-Blangero,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Lilly-Marlene Russow (Consultant),

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Staff

Thomas L. Wolfle, Program Director

Carol M. Rozmiarek, Project Assistant

Cheryl Mitchell, Project Assistant

Norman Grossblatt, Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

John L. VandeBerg (Chair),

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Christian R. Abee,

University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama

Muriel T. Davisson,

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine

Bennett Dyke,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Neal L. First,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

Gerald F. Gebhart,

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

James W. Glosser,

Massillon, Ohio

John P. Hearn,

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin

Margaret S. Landi,

SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

Charles R. McCarthy,

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC

Robert J. Russell,

Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, Indiana

John G. Vandenbergh,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

Richard C. Van Sluyters,

University of California, Berkeley, California

Peter A. Ward,

University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Thomas D. Pollard (Ex-officio Member),

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

Staff

Thomas L. Wolfle, Director

Tania Williams, Project Officer

Mara L. Glenshaw, Research Assistant

Carol M. Rozmiarek, Project Assistant

Cheryl Mitchell, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. A component of the Commission on Life Sciences, ILAR develops guidelines and disseminates information on the scientific, technologic, and ethical use of animals and related biologic resources in research, testing, and education. ILAR promotes high-quality, humane care of animals and the appropriate use of animals and alternatives. ILAR functions within the mission of the National Academy of Sciences as an adviser to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

Thomas D. Pollard (Chair),

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

Frederick R. Anderson,

Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C.

John C. Bailar III,

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Paul Berg,

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

John E. Burris,

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Sharon L. Dunwoody

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

Ursula W. Goodenough,

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

Henry W. Heikkinen,

University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado

Hans J. Kende,

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

Susan E. Leeman,

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

Thomas E. Lovejoy,

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Donald R. Mattison,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Joseph E. Murray,

Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts

Edward E. Penhoet,

Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California

Emil A. Pfitzer,

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., Hackensack, New Jersey

Malcolm C. Pike,

University of Southern California Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California

Henry C. Pitot III,

McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Madison, Wisconsin

Jonathan M. Samet,

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Charles Stevens,

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

John L. VandeBerg,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Paul Gilman, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

PREFACE

The use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in biomedical research has led to numerous medical advances, including the development of a vaccine for hepatitis B virus. In 1986, chimpanzees were thought to constitute the critical model for understanding the human immunodeficiency virus, and a breeding program was established to provide animals for the study of this virus. The breeding program was very successful, and the combination of an increase in chimpanzee numbers and less-extensive research use than was expected has created a surplus of chimpanzees and a substantial management problem. Although chimpanzees are available for research, there are also pressures not to use them, such as the high cost of housing and maintenance and their endangered status in the wild. Their close genetic relationship to humans, which makes them the appropriate surrogate for human-health research, also creates serious concerns about the ethics of their use by scientists and the public. The US federal government now owns or supports some 900-1000 chimpanzees at a cost of approximately $7.3 million per year, but government investigators pay "use fees" for using animals in government research. Each of those issues contributes to the cost to investigators and the complexity of using chimpanzees in research.

The cost, ownership, and complex genetic management requirements of chimpanzees so greatly affect US policy regarding the use of chimpanzees in research that in 1994 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested advice from the National Research Council on

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
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  • The size of the breeding colony required to support the need.

  • Issues of ownership, long-term care, and use in research.

  • Mechanisms by which nongovernment organizations could assist in achieving appropriate goals and solutions for the long-term care of chimpanzees.

To address these issues, the National Research Council appointed a committee of experts. The committee convened four public meetings and communicated with chimpanzee-colony directors and behaviorists in each of the six major chimpanzee facilities and with the administrators and scientists who use chimpanzees in research. The public meetings provided opportunities for scientists, members of the public, and representatives of animal-protection societies to voice their concerns. One of the meetings was held in the form of a seminar at the joint meeting of the American Society of Primatologists and the International Primatological Society and was attended by many of the world's leading chimpanzee biologists and conservationists. Brief questionnaires were also sent to all grantees listed in the NIH Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) database who use chimpanzees in research. The public meetings and questionnaires all yielded information that was used in the preparation of this report.

The committee was faced with conflicting scientific, financial, and ethical situations. Euthanasia and cost were the chief contentious issues and led to a minority opinion (see Appendix A). The committee, like the public, found it difficult to agree on a single approach that embraces both euthanasia and cost. Euthanasia is common in veterinary medicine to alleviate uncontrollable suffering and for population control, but it is not easy to decide when it is acceptable for chimpanzees. Nor is it easy to address the expenditure of public funds for the "retirement" of chimpanzees that perhaps have never been used in government research, although they were bred for this purpose. The committee provides recommendations on these and other issues, but putting the recommendations into practice will require as much diligence and soul-searching as the committee itself used in developing the recommendations.

Presenting the population numbers and costs clearly and unambiguously has been a difficult task. It is largely because of the difficulty of accounting

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

for sizes of the various subpopulations of chimpanzees (such as, those used in infectious research, available for research, and not needed for research) and the funding to support the research and the not-needed-for-research populations that the National Research Council was asked to prepare these recommendations. Great care has been used in collecting accurate information, but different sources of the same information often differed because of overlapping distributions. For example, surveys of chimpanzee facilities of the numbers of animals available for research and the number posing a public health threat, revealed 360 and 260, respectively (table 3.2). However, when asked just about the numbers of animals posing a public health threat they report 350. One might conclude from this that there are 360 animals available for research and 350 posing a public health threat, but to do so would double-count some animals. The difference is due to the fact that in the former case some of the animals posing a threat are also available for research. Such overlap exists in every subpopulation. The numbers presented in the text and tables are accurate to the best of the committee's ability. When the numbers are approximate or the populations overlap, they are so labeled. With this in mind, careful reading of the text in conjunction with the tables should yield an accurate picture, but, it is because of the difficulty in understanding these issues that the report addresses a need for an autonomous, high-level management and oversight structure with funding from increased appropriations to avoid reducing support for biomedical research.

We believe that our recommendations are sound, justifiable, cost-effective—although not inexpensive—and ethically responsible. We anticipate that they will meet with the approval of scientists, chimpanzee-colony directors, animal protectionists, the public, and members of Congress. We also strongly believe that NIH must work hard to achieve that breadth of approval.

This report would not have been possible without the information and advice provided by those who wrote to and met with the committee. All the chimpanzee-colony directors participated in conference calls and responded to questionnaires, for which the committee is most grateful. The NIH Interagency Animal Models Committee was helpful and frank in assisting the committee; its breadth of experience and its records were invaluable. The committee appreciated the opportunity to tour and have discussions

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

with the staff of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research and the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Science Park.

Equally important were the people who came to the public meetings or wrote to the committee because they cared. They came or wrote to share their concerns for chimpanzees and to seek assurance of their appropriate long-term care. Members of humane, protectionist, and anti-vivisectionist groups came to public meetings and gave testimony of their sincerity in seeking partnerships with the government for the long-term care of chimpanzees no longer needed in research. Among these were Nancy Blaney, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; Peggy Cunniff, Donald J. Barnes, and Claire Haggarty, National Anti-Vivisection Society; Tina Nelson, American Anti-Vivisection Society; Alan Berger, Animal Protection Institute; Holly Hazard, Doris Day Animal League; Anne Kleiman, In Defense of Animals, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and the New England Anti-Vivisection Society; Carole Noon, International Primate Protection League; Valerie Stanley, Animal Legal Defense Fund; Martin Stephens, Humane Society of the United States; and Christine Stevens, Animal Welfare Institute. We are indeed grateful to the reception and informative tours provided to members of the committee by Wally Swett, Primarily Primates, and Martine Colette, Wildlife Waystation. The committee was saddened by the death of Michael McGehee during the course of this study. He was a strong spokesman for the National Chimpanzee Sanctuary Task Force, and the committee members appreciated the time that he took to inform them of the task force and for his dedication on behalf of chimpanzees. We thank all for their time and for their expressions of concern for this unique species. They are strong allies of the goals of this report and should be consulted in the implementation of its recommendations.

Naming people who assisted the committee risks errors of omission, yet some must be acknowledged. The work in the field by Jane Goodall and others has greatly assisted in the understanding of appropriate captive management and housing of chimpanzees. Their work contributes substantially both to the well-being of chimpanzees in captivity and to our recommendations. We appreciate the time and thoughtfulness of Donald Buford, Jane Goodall Foundation; Joseph Erwin; William I. Gay; Travis Griffin, Coulston Foundation; and Barbara Orlans, Kennedy Institute of

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

Ethics. We also thank three staff behaviorists from chimpanzee colonies who briefed the committee on the physical and social structures of captive facilities that contribute to well-being: Mollie Bloomsmith, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Research Center; Linda Brent, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research; and Sue Howell, Primate Foundation of Arizona. Finally, we wish to acknowledge Lilly-Marlene Russow's contribution. Her thoughtful assertiveness stimulated discussion and resolution of difficult ethical issues. Her choice of wording throughout the text attests to her commitment to the animals and to her profession. We thank her.

We also want to acknowledge the contribution of the many individuals who agreed to review our work. Their labor improved the quality of the report. Readers who detect errors of omission or commission in this report are encouraged to send their suggestions to the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418.

The committee extends its appreciation to the sponsor of this report; to Norman Grossblatt for editing the manuscript; to Carol Rozmiarek and Cheryl Mitchell for their skillful support at each of the committee's meetings and for coordinating the great flow of information to and from committee members; and to Tania Williams for her skillful assistance in the coordination and planning of two meetings. The committee reserves special thanks for Thomas Wolfle, expressed by the following quotation: ''Working with Dr. Wolfle has been an enriching experience for the committee. His insistence on continuous progress toward the resolution of the complex issues facing the committee was always tempered by patience, professionalism, and the warmth of his genuine and unassuming personality. The ability of the committee to reach consensus was due, in no small part, to his unusual skill in bringing people of diverse backgrounds together for a common purpose. We are grateful for his guidance."

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1997. Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5843.
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CHIMPANZEES IN RESEARCHSTRATEGIES FOR THEIR ETHICAL CARE, MANAGEMENT, AND USE

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Chimpanzees in biomedical and behavioral research constitute a national resource that has been valuable in addressing national health needs. Facilities that house chimpanzees owned and supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have successfully met the research requirements of the scientific community. The captive chimpanzee population in the United States has grown substantially, particularly over the last decade. That growth is due primarily to the success of the NIH-sponsored Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program, which achieved the birth numbers thought necessary to meet the projected needs of biomedical research. However, the expected level of use of the chimpanzee model in biomedical research did not materialize, and that has created a complex problem that threatens both the availability of chimpanzees for research in the future and the infrastructure required to ensure the well-being of captive chimpanzees used in biomedical research.

Because the present system is fragmented, it is impossible to formulate an accurate overview of the size and nature of the chimpanzee population. But, if the chimpanzee is to continue to be used in biomedical research responsibly, effectively, and cost-effectively, we must be able to oversee, track, and coordinate the maintenance and use of chimpanzees and to control the size of the population. To assess the long-range situation and to develop, implement, and monitor the application of policies for the proper use and care of chimpanzees, an authoritative, centralized oversight structure is imperative. Once it is in place, it will be possible to refine and implement this report's recommendations.

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