National Academies Press: OpenBook

Vaccine Supply and Innovation (1985)

Chapter:Appendix G: Mechanisms Used in Other Countries to Ensure Vaccine Supply

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Mechanisms Used in Other Countries to Ensure Vaccine Supply." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1985. Vaccine Supply and Innovation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/599.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Mechanisms Used in Other Countries to Ensure Vaccine Supply." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1985. Vaccine Supply and Innovation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/599.

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Appendix G MECHANISMS USED IN OTHER COUNTRIES TO ENSURE VACCINE SUPPLY Country Belgium Canada Denmark Extent of Government Involvement The Office Vaccinogene within the Ministere de la Sante Publique et de la Famille is the only government-sponsored establishment producing vaccines. It produces only smallpox vaccine, which, at present, is used to maintain emergency stocks for Belgium. While the government has no financial holding in any vaccine manufacturer, it does maintain adequate supplies of the following vaccines by contracting with producers and importers: live polio (oral); tetanus adsorbed; diphtheria and tetanus adsorbed (DT); diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis adsorbed (DTP); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), or combinations thereof; yellow fever vaccine (for international travel); and cholera and typhoid (for Army and international travel). The Ministry of Health also grants funds to the Institut Pasteur du Brabant for production of DTP, cholera, typhoid, and Bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG) vaccines. The government has minority shareholding in Connaught Laboratories, Inc. through the Canadian Development Corporation. This shareholding will be returned to the private sector in the future. The government is not involved in company decision making. The National Serum Institute, which provides rcee vaccination against whooping cough, diph- theria, polio, tetanus, and tuberculosis, receives funds from the government treasury. The Institute produces most of the vaccines and imports a small amount. The Institute is cur- rently the only vaccine manufacturer in Denmark. _ . . . . . . 192

193 Federal Republic The government has no financial involvement of Germany in any vaccine production enterprise. In the past, Land Vaccination Agencies produced smallpox vaccine, but these were closed with the discontinuance of smallpox vaccination. France Rhone-Poulenc, a nationally-owned holding company, has a 51 percent interest in Institut Merieux. In Janury 1985, Institut Merieux acquired a 51 percent interest in the Institut Pasteur (production) and first rights to any vaccine research from the Pasteur Foundation. Japan Netherlands Sweden Switzerland Several independent manufacturers are subject to fairly tight government controls. All vaccines included in the national immunization program (DTP-polio combination; DT-polio combination; rubella; measles; and BCG for high-risk groups) are produced at the National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene. In 1986, an MMR vaccine will be included in the national program. A state-owned institute manufactures or procures vaccines. There is no government involvement in the Swiss Serum Institut. United Kingdom The Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research (of the Public Health Labor atorY Service) is supported by government funds and currently produces anthrax vaccine and botulism toxoids for use in the United Kingdom. The government is not involved financially in any commercial production of vaccine. The Secretary of State for Social Services can apply for and hold product licenses for vaccines that manufacturers choose not to hold. The Secretary then arranges for production of such vaccines, and may underwrite costs. The government also purchases vaccine directly from manufacturers.

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The United States is facing a vaccine shortage that may threaten public health. This book examines vaccine research and development, production and supply, and utilization and offers recommendations aimed at ensuring vaccine supply and promoting innovation. In addition, this comprehensive volume provides information on the adverse reactions associated with the range of vaccines used in the United States and contains the most thorough analysis ever published on the state of the law regarding vaccine-related injury and compensation for vaccine injury.

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