Biographical Sketches of Task Group Members
Leslie Orgel, chair, is a senior fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Since 1964, he has also been an adjunct professor at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Orgel's research interests include chemical evolution and synthesis of oligonucleotide analogs and bioconjugates. He was a member of NASA's Molecular Analysis Team for the Mars Lander I and II. Dr. Orgel is the recipient of the Harrison Prize, the Evans Award (Ohio State University), and the U.C. Urey Medal (International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life). He was a Guggenheim Fellow and is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Orgel is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the Royal Society, and a member of Sigma Xi. He received a B.A. degree and a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Oxford.
Michael A'Hearn is a professor of astronomy at the University of Maryland at College Park. Dr. A'Hearn's research interests emphasize the origin, composition, and role of comets in our solar system. He was recently involved in the organization of the worldwide plan for the comet Hale-Bopp observing opportunity, acting as the observational campaign's co-coordinator. Dr. A'Hearn is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the American Astronomical Society, the Institute of Navigation, and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). He plays a prominent role in the science advisory community, sitting on a number of working groups and review panels and participating currently as chair of the Hubble Space Telescope time allocation committee, as a member of the Keck Review Team and of the Space Station Attached Payloads Peer Review Panel, and as associate editor for the journal Earth, Moon and Planets. The asteroid 3192 A'Hearn was named in his honor. He chaired the Task Group on Ballistic Missile Defense Organization/New Technology Orbital Observatory and was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union. He is currently president of IAU division III on planetary systems sciences. Dr. A'Hearn received a B.S. degree from Boston College and a Ph.D. degree in astronomy from the University of Wisconsin.
Jeffrey Bada is a professor of marine chemistry and the director of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Exobiology program at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. His research deals with the cosmogeochemistry of amino acids, the possible sources, the stability, and the composition of the organic material on the primitive Earth and other solar system bodies, and the development of methods for detecting remnants of ancient life on Mars, all areas of investigation central to the task group's deliberations. Dr. Bada is a past recipient of an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship. Dr. Bada is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Society for the Study of
the Origin of Life, the Geochemical Society, and the Geochemistry Division of the American Chemical Society. He received a B.S. degree in chemistry from San Diego State University and a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego.
John Baross is a professor in oceanography at the University of Washington. His research speciality is in the ecology, physiology and taxonomy of microorganisms from hydrothermal vent environments, as well as the use of biochemical and molecular methods to detect, quantify, and classify the same. Dr. Baross has particular interests in the microbiology of extreme environments and in the significance of submarine hydrothermal vent environments for the origin and evolution of life. He is a member of the American Society for Microbiology, the American Chemical Society, the Oceanography Society, the American Geophysical Union, the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography, and the Society for Industrial Microbiology (Puget Sound Branch). Dr. Baross is a former member of the National Research Council's Ad Hoc Task Group on Planetary Protection and of the American Academy of Microbiology Committee on the Future of Microbiology; a member of the Ridge InterDisciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) Steering Committee and of the RIDGE Observatory Coordinating Committee; and an advisory member for Europa Ocean Studies. Dr. Baross received a B.S. degree from San Francisco State University and a Ph.D. degree in marine microbiology from the University of Washington.
Clark Chapman is a scientist with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is also a consulting scientist for Science Applications International Corporation. His research interests encompass the study of small bodies in the solar system, including the study of the near-Earth asteroid population. Dr. Chapman is a member of the Galileo imaging science team, with his role focused on the data returned from the Galilean satellites. He is a member of the American Astronomical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and is a fellow of the Meteoritical Society. Dr. Chapman was chairman of the Organizing Committee for the 1991 International Conference on Near-Earth Asteroids and a member of a number of advisory groups, including IAU Colloquia on Mercury and the Moon, the NASA Near-Earth Objects Survey Working Group, and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Science Working Group (NASA later canceled the CRAF mission). He served on the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. Dr. Chapman received a B.S. degree from Harvard University and a Ph.D. degree in planetary science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Michael Drake is a professor of planetary sciences and geosciences at the University of Arizona. He is also head of the Department of Planetary Sciences and director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Dr. Drake's research has focused on investigations involving understanding the petrology and geochemistry of lunar samples and meteorites, the evolution of planetary bodies, and mineral-melt equilibria. He is currently the chair of NASA's Planetary Materials and Geochemistry Management Operations Working Group and has served on numerous other NASA advisory committees or working groups. Dr. Drake served as an associate editor of four peer-reviewed journals, including the Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Journal of Geophysical Research, and Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. He is a fellow of the Meteoritical Society and a member of the American Geophysical Union, the American Astronomical Society, the Geochemical Society, and the European Union of Geosciences. Dr. Drake received a B.S. degree from the University of Manchester and a Ph.D. degree in geology from the University of Oregon.
John F. Kerridge is a research cosmochemist in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, San Diego. His research has focused on the physics and chemistry of the early solar system, particularly the formation and geochemical evolution of small bodies, and the synthesis of organic molecules. Dr. Kerridge has served on a number of advisory and review boards, including the AIBS/NASA Exobiology Advisory Panel, a NASA workshop ''Cosmic History of the Biogenic Elements," the Scientific Organizing Committee for the Comet Nucleus Sample Return Workshop, the NASA Exobiology Discipline Working Group, and The Origins of Solar Systems Review Panel (on which he served as chair). Dr. Kerridge is a fellow of the Meteoritical Society, as well as a member of the American Geophysical Union and the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. He
is also a past member of the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. Dr. Kerridge received a B.S. degree from the University of Birmingham and an M.S. degree and Ph.D. degree in crystallography from the University of London.
Margaret S. Race is an ecologist at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. Her current research focuses on planetary protection, environmental impact analysis and risk assessment for extraterrestrial sample return missions. Concurrent with her work at the SETI Institute, Dr. Race is a research affiliate with the Energy and Resources Graduate Group at the University of California, Berkeley, and a Lawrence Hall of Science Fellow, where she works on science education curricula for K-12 schools. She was a member of the Space Studies Board's Task Group on Issues in Sample Return and the Transportation Research Board's Study on Transportation and a Sustainable Environment. Dr. Race received a B.A. degree in biology and an M.S. degree in energy management and policy from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. degree in ecology from the University of California, Berkeley.
Mitchell Sogin is the director of the Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Dr. Sogin's research interests emphasize molecular phylogeny and the evolution of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs. He is a member of the American Society for Microbiology, the Society of Protozoologists, the International Society of Evolutionary Protozoologists, the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Society for Cell Biology. Dr. Sogin is an associate fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, a division lecturer for the American Society for Microbiology, a recipient of the Stoll Stunkard Award from the American Society of Parasitologists, a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, a Fellow of the American Association of Arts and Sciences, and a visiting Miller Research Professor at the University of California, Berkele. He also serves on several editorial boards in his specialization. Dr. Sogin received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology and molecular biology from the University of Illinois at Urbana.
Steven Squyres is a professor in the Department of Astronomy at Cornell University. His research includes the study of the geophysics and tectonics of icy satellites and the planet Mars as well as the use of planetary gammaray spectroscopy. He is the recipient of two NASA group achievement medals as well as the American Astronomical Society's Harold C. Urey Prize. Dr. Squyres has experience as a research scientist at NASA Ames Research Center and as a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. He is currently a member of the Cassini imaging science team and a co-investigator for the Champollion lander imaging investigation for the European Space Agency-led Rosetta mission to a comet. His experience on advisory boards includes terms on the NEAR mission Design Review Board, the NASA Solar System Exploration advisory subcommittee, the Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science's Panel on Planetary and Primitive Bodies, and the NASA Mission to the Solar System Roadmap Team. He is a member of the Space Studies Board Task Group on Research and Analysis Programs. Dr. Squyres received a B.A. degree and a Ph.D. degree in planetary sciences from Cornell University.