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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
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Index

A

Abatement, see Pollution abatement and control

Accounts and accounting, definition and purpose, 12, 19, 27, 207

Acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

Aggregation and disaggregation, 14, 19, 32, 36, 37, 39-40, 84, 123 , 152, 186

see also Gross domestic product;

Gross national product

Agriculture, 34, 115, 168, 199

air pollutants, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147

forests and, 132, 133, 135, 138-139

hedonic valuation, 118

IEESA, 3, 106, 109, 111-112, 118, 168, 169

land and structures valuation, 111-112, 168

production costs, 135

see also Department of Agriculture

Air quality and pollution, 8, 32, 113-116, 121-122, 126, 141-149, 152, 178-180, 199

acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

agriculture, impacts on, 114, 144, 145, 146, 147

BEA methodology, 148-149

carbon dioxide, 134, 135, 136, 176, 208

carbon monoxide, 142-143, 145, 208-209

chlorofluorocarbons, 143

data requirements/availability, 149, 171-172, 199

defined, 207

ecosystem impacts, 149, 156

forests, 34, 145, 147

climate change and, 34, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178

fossil fuels, general, 60

see also Climate change

historical perspectives, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148

IEESA, 3, 55, 110, 112, 156-157, 160, 171-172

market forces, 142, 144-145

nitrogen dioxide, 143, 144, 145

ozone, ground-level, 143, 144, 145, 147

ozone layer depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149, 218

particulate matter, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 218

photochemical, 218

recreation and, 114, 149, 156

residuals, 7, 113-116, 119, 121, 147, 150

secondary, 220

SEEA, 112

sulfur dioxide, 143, 144, 145

see also ''acid precipitation" supra

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

toxins, 144, 149

see also Ozone layer depletion

Air quality standards, 142-146

cost of, 23, 33, 146-147

defined, 207

dose-response relationship, 121-122

emission permits, 111

greenhouse gases, 34

see also Emission standards

Ambient concentrations, 122, 208

defined, 207

Assimilation

defined, 207

Associated capital, minerals, 5, 67, 68, 72, 73, 76, 79, 84, 87-89, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 174, 175

defined, 207

Augmented accounts, see Satellite accounts

Australia, 52, 96, 97-98, 140

B

BEA, see Bureau of Economic Analysis

Biodiversity, 39, 144-145, 178, 198

defined, 208

forests, 39, 132, 134, 135

Bureau of Census, 54, 80, 111, 151, 159, 176

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 1-2, 24, 51, 53-55, 208

air quality, 148-149

forests, 134-141

IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171

health and safety regulations, 33

mineral resources, 4, 70-96, 102-105

foreign comparisons, 96-99

renewable resources, 106-113, 134-141, 148-149, 151-152

see also Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts;

National Income and Product Accounts

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 151, 154

Bureau of Mines, 80

Bush Administration, 154

C

Canada, 17, 52, 96, 97, 98, 140

Capital, 117-119, 187-188

defined, 208, 185

forests, 136-137

Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188

mineral resources, 66, 67, 69, 72, 76, 78, 81-82, 87-88, 98

see also Associated capital, minerals

foreign countries, 96

see also Depreciation and depletion;

Human capital;

Investments and investment accounts

Capital accumulation, 15, 22, 31, 44, 56, 59, 116, 117

defined, 208

Capital consumption, 44 (n.10), 65, 187

defined, 208

Carbon dioxide, 176

defined, 208

forests, 134, 135, 136

see also Climate change

Carbon monoxide, 142-143, 145

defined, 208-209

Carter Administration, 154

Chlorofluorocarbons, 143, 209

see also Ozone layer depletion

Clean Air Act, 145-146

Clean Water Act, 45, 54

Climate change, 23, 29, 40, 60, 112, 116, 142, 143-145, 149, 200

cost-benefit analysis, 34-35, 57, 157-158

defined, 209

forests, 24, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178

Kyoto Protocol, 38, 136

public goods and, 128

Clinton Administration, 16

Coastal zones, 33, 116, 118, 125, 128, 131, 191

Commission of the European Communities, 51, 209

Consumer Price Index, 47

Consumer surplus, 47, 125, 128

defined, 209

Consumption

augmented accounts, general, see "satellite accounts" infra

defined, 209

environmental variables, 22, 113, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133 , 145, 147, 150, 155, 162, 168, 176, 179

pollution abatement, 25, 53

foreign earnings and, 27

investment and, 13, 15, 25

mineral resources, 73-74

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

nonmarket, 23, 31, 36, 43, 44

see also "environmental variables" supra and "satellite accounts" infra

recreation, public resources, 23, 43

renewable resources, 25, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133, 145, 147, 150

rent methods, 73-74, 119

residuals, 116

patterns, 2

public vs private services, 22

satellite accounts, general, 22, 27, 31, 57, 117

see also Capital consumption;

Sustainability and sustainable development

Contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166

defined, 209

Core accounts, 8, 24, 27, 58, 112, 159, 160

defined, 12, 209

foreign countries, 51

forests, 131

Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188

IEESA, 161-163

near-market goods, 130

satellite accounts vs, general, 21

UN systems, 21, 49

see also Gross domestic product;

Gross national product

Cost and cost-benefit factors, 8, 30, 58, 173, 216

agricultural production, 135

air pollution regulations, 23, 33, 146-147

climate change, 34-35, 57, 157-158

cost of living, CPI, 47

defensive environmental costs, 210

defined, 209-210

depletion costs, 49, 210

economic instruments, 210-211

environmental degradation, 48

environmental restoration, 49, 220

IESSA, 170, 172, 173, 180

minerals,

exploration/extraction, 60, 61, 63-66, 68-69, 81-82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 95, 96, 97

imports, 105

replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

nonmarket activities, data collection, 23, 29

opportunity costs, 30, 63, 97, 218

pollution abatement, 22, 25, 30-31, 33-34, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219

pollution expenditure accounting, 40, 45-46

public vs private goods, 7, 157

recreational services, 139

regulations, 15, 22, 32, 33, 46, 111, 157, 179

see also "air pollution regulations" and "pollution abatement" supra

replacement costs, 49

mineral resources, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

sectoral breakdowns, 33, 157

timber production, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205

transaction prices, 47

mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

travel costs, 17, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222

user costs, 222

Crime, see Illegal activities

Current rent method, 71-77 (passim), 79, 80, 84-85, 87, 88-89, 91, 95-101 (passim)

defined, 210

CV, see Contingent valuation

D

Data requirements and availability, general, 31-32, 34, 37-38, 170 -178, 196-201

air quality, 149, 171-172, 199

environmental accounting, general, 121-123, 157

hedonic valuation, 119

interagency cooperation, 80, 139, 141, 151, 171-173

mineral resources, 77-78, 80, 95, 103, 173-175

nonmarket activities, general, 19, 23, 29, 38

pollution abatement, 111

public good issues, 157

renewable resources, 121-123, 149, 150-152, 171-172, 175-178

Department of Agriculture, 111-112, 151, 159, 176, 196, 198

Forest Service, 135, 136, 139, 141, 196, 198, 199, 205-206

Department of Commerce, 1-2, 13, 53-54, 154

Bureau of Census, 54, 80, 111, 151, 159, 176

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

NOAA, 131, 196, 199, 200

study at hand, methodology, 16-17

see also Bureau of Economic Analysis

Department of Energy, 80, 151

Department of Health and Human Services, 151, 196, 201

Depreciation and depletion, 25-26, 44-45, 48, 49, 50, 59

defined, 44, 65, 210

depletion vs, 87-89, 164

foreign systems, 50

forests, 139, 203-204

mineral resources, domestic, 45, 51, 53, 55, 59, 60, 65, 71-94 (passim), 101, 103, 104, 162, 168, 194

depreciation vs, 87-89, 164

scarcity and price, 92-95, 104-105

mineral resources, foreign countries, 96

recreational land, 112

Depression and recession, see Economic cycles

Discounting of natural assets, 44-45, 50, 173, 189, 202, 206

defined, 210

mineral resources, 69-71, 74, 75, 76, 86, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 101

renewable resources, 115, 138, 146

Doses and dose-response relationship, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149

E

Earth Summit, see United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

Ecological impacts, 42, 156, 177-178, 180

air pollutants, 149, 156

defined, 210

see also Biodiversity;

Wildlife

Economic assets, 12-13, 14, 19-20, 150, 155

air pollutants, impacts on, 113, 148

defined, 12, 210-211

forests, 136-137

mineral resource stocks, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60, 61, 73, 75, 77, 80, 81-82, 84, 85, 92, 95, 96, 101, 103, 162

renewable resources, 113, 136-137, 148, 175-177

see also Depreciation and depletion;

Investments and investment accounts;

Valuation of natural assets

Economic cycles, 12, 13, 81

Great Depression, 13, 35

Economic profit/Economic rent, see Rent methods

Education and training, 14, 21, 22, 23, 54, 119

Emission standards, 142-145

defined, 211

foreign countries, 52

see also Air quality standards;

Water quality standards

Energy Information Administration, 211

Energy resources, production and consumption, 6, 50, 193-194

Department of Energy, 80, 151, 211

price factors, 25, 84

primary energy consumption, 219

renewable, 219

valuation, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96

wood fuel, 133, 135

see also Fossil fuels

Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting Program, 42-43, 211

Environmental degradation, 11, 17, 25, 48

aggregation techniques, 40

foreign systems, 50-51

GDP and, 28

IEESA, 55, 112

recreational land, 112

SEEA, 112

see also Pollution abatement and control

Environmental Protection Agency, 23, 142-144, 145-146, 147, 151, 159, 172, 179, 196, 197, 199-200, 212

Environmental restoration

costs, 49, 220

defined, 212

foreign systems, 51

SEEA, 112

Equations

forest assets, 202-206

mineral resources valuation, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101

NNP, 190

sustainable income, 192

Europe, 17, 40, 50, 121

Commission of the European Communities, 51, 154, 209

fossil fuels, 50, 96, 97, 98

see also specific countries

European System for the Collection of Information on the Environment , 213

Exports and imports, see Foreign trade

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

F

Farming and farmland, see Agriculture

Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board, 172, 213

Federal government, general

assets of, 31

budgetary accounts, 28

interagency cooperation, 80, 139, 141, 151, 171-173

mineral estate, 31, 34

see also Funding;

Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific departments and agencies

Fish and Wildlife Service, 196, 198, 200

Fisheries, 7, 25, 31, 156, 199

IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 167-168, 169, 171

Flow measures, 3, 38, 48, 51, 52, 57

environmental, 3, 22, 31, 37, 38, 44, 48, 52, 107, 113, 120-121, 122, 161-162, 165, 167, 170-171, 177, 178, 179, 186, 196

investment, 22

minerals, 59, 70, 74, 76, 79, 82, 84, 95, 96, 173

near-market, 130

nonmarket, general, 8, 151, 169, 178

public goods, 8, 151

renewable resources, 115, 116, 117, 121, 130, 132, 133, 135, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 161-162, 165, 167, 174, 177, 178, 186, 190, 196

SEEA, 48

sustainability, 186, 190

Ford Administration, 154

Foreign countries, see Europe;

International perspectives;

specific countries

Foreign direct investment, 24, 30

Foreign trade, 24, 159

mineral resources, 6, 104, 105

services, 24

Forests, 7, 20, 25, 26, 30, 34, 131-141, 152, 176, 177-178, 180, 202-206

agriculture and, 132, 133, 135, 138-139

air pollutants, 34, 145, 147

climate change and, 34, 134, 135, 136, 158, 178

BEA methodology, 134-141

IEESA, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171

biodiversity and, 39, 132, 134, 135

foreign countries, 52

historical perspectives, 132(n.6), 133, 137

household accounts, 134, 135, 141

NIPA, 131-136

nonmarket goods and services, 135-136, 141

price factors, 137, 138, 139, 140, 202, 204

public goods issues, 133-134

recreational activities, 132, 135, 139, 141, 156

timber, 3, 6, 7, 16, 17, 23, 30, 31, 34, 37-38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 106 , 112, 118, 132-133, 134-135, 137-138, 141, 168, 169, 174, 176-177, 199, 203

production costs, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205

regional factors, 139, 205

stumpage value, 31, 139, 156, 171, 204, 221

valuation, general, 39, 112, 132-141, 156, 167-168, 176-178, 202-206

wildlife, 39, 132, 134, 135

wood fuel, 133, 135

Forest Service, 135, 136, 139, 141, 196, 198, 199, 205-206

Fossil fuels, 6, 18, 50, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96, 97, 174

defined, 214

Europe, 50, 96, 97, 98

see also Climate change

France, 38, 52

Funding

committee recommendations, 4, 8, 159, 160

satellite accounts, 4, 8, 54, 111, 159, 160, 170

G

Gas, see Fossil fuels

Geological Survey, 80, 200

Global environment, general, 11, 23, 112

ozone depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149, 218

public goods, 128, 131

see also Climate change

Great Depression, 13, 35

Greenhouse effect, see Climate change

Gross domestic product, 14, 16, 25, 26-27, 57, 162, 187

defined, 12, 20, 56, 214

depreciation, 26

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

environmental disasters, 28

foreign accounting, 51

forests, 136

mineral resources, 60, 79, 80, 81, 91-92, 102

nonmarket accounts, 14, 20

omissions, 26-27

pollution abatement, 53-54

pollution expenditure accounting, 45

US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27, 187

Gross national product, 13, 163

defined, 214

foreign accounting, 51

US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27

H

Health as a resource, 22, 25, 30-31, 33, 38, 114, 116, 119-120, 123 , 126-127, 179-180, 197, 201

air quality impacts, 142-144, 146, 147-149, 151, 156, 179-180, 197

Department of Health and Human Services, 151, 196, 201

pollutant doses and dose-response, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149

public vs private goods, 128

see also Recreation activities and resources

Hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167

defined, 214-215

Hicksian income, 24, 35, 188

Historical perspectives, 11, 20-24, 53-56, 154

air quality, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148

comprehensive economic accounts, 41-42

forests, 132(n.6), 133, 137

IEESA, 54-55, 56, 58, 154, 158

NIPA, 13-14, 19, 20, 35-37, 41-42, 53

satellite accounts, 14-15, 16, 20-37, 55

Hotelling rents

defined, 63, 215

mineral resources, 63, 64, 65, 69-70, 73, 74, 76, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 95, 103, 137, 175, 203

timber, 137, 137-138, 203

Households, 150

air pollutants, 113, 146, 148

capital acquisition, 30

production, 11, 12, 14, 46, 48, 50, 129-130

forests, 134, 135, 141

see also Near-market goods and services;

Recreation activities and resources

Human capital, 3, 5, 22, 54, 57, 119, 191

doses and dose-response relationship, 121-122, 124, 126-127, 149

education and training, 14, 21, 22, 23, 54, 119

see also Health as a resource

I

IEESA, see Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts

Illegal activities, 20

Incentives, general, 51, 174-175

Inflation, 24, 26, 97

Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts, 1-3, 16-17, 18, 153-154, 155, 158-170

air quality and pollution, 3, 55, 110, 112, 156-157, 160, 171-172

asset accounts, by type of asset, 1987, 108-110

core accounts and, 161-163

cost-benefit analysis, 170, 172, 173, 180

environmental degradation, 55, 112

fisheries, 3, 16, 106, 167-168, 169, 171

forests, 3, 16, 106, 112, 141, 167-168, 169, 171

history of, 54-55, 56, 58, 154, 158

international perspectives, 2, 154, 163-165

land use, 109-110, 112

mineral resources, 3, 4-6, 16, 55, 61, 70-96, 102-105, 109, 156, 162, 167, 168, 169

near-market goods, 3, 161, 169

nonmarket goods and services, general, 16, 155-158, 161, 163

renewable resources, 3, 55, 107-113

study at hand, methodology, 17-18

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 136

International perspectives, 14-15, 24, 38, 40, 42-43, 50-53, 154, 160, 170

foreign direct investment, 24, 30

forests, 131, 136, 139, 140

IEESA, 2, 154, 163-165

mineral resources, 6, 96-99, 104, 105

US residents' foreign earnings, 26-27, 187

see also Climate change;

Foreign trade;

Global environment;

specific countries;

terms beginning "United Nations"

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

Investments and investment accounts, 2, 12, 13-14, 22, 24, 25, 117 , 155

foreign direct investment, 24

gross, 12

human capital, 3, 5, 22, 30, 162

mineral resources, 81, 162

natural resources, 3

NDP, 15

omissions, 30, 31

public/private sector collaboration, 30

public vs private research, 32-33, 157, 161

technological innovation, 37

see also Capital;

Depreciation and depletion

J

Japan, 41-42

K

Kuznets, Simon, 13-14

Kyoto Protocol, 38, 136

L

La Follette, Robert, 13

Land use, 15, 57, 106, 111, 167-168, 199

classification, 215

foreign countries, 52

IEESA, 109-110, 112

see also Agriculture;

Forests;

Recreation activities and resources

Lead pollution, 143

Legislation

Clean Air Act, 145-146

Clean Water Act, 45, 54

national accounts, 13

Resource Planning Act, 199

see also Regulatory issues

Leisure activities, see Recreation activities and resources

M

Market forces, 37, 53, 56, 123, 124, 150

air quality impacts, 142, 144-145

contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209

forests, 133

market valuation, 7, 216

mineral resources, 5, 63, 103

public goods, 7, 128-130

see Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Near-market goods and services;

Price factors

Measurement of Economic and Social Performance Project, 42

Measure of Economic Welfare, 41

Minerals and mining, 4-6, 17, 30, 34, 45, 59-105, 156, 180

alternative methodologies, 99-102

associated capital, minerals, 5, 67, 68, 72, 73, 76, 79, 84, 87-89, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 174, 175, 207

BEA methodologies, 4, 70-96, 102-105

foreign comparisons, 96-99

stocks/reserves, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60-65, 70-96 (passim), 101 , 103, 167, 168, 173-174

see also "depletion" infra

capital, 66, 67, 69, 72, 76, 78, 81-82, 87-88, 98

see also Associated capital, minerals

foreign countries, 96

costs

exploration/extortion, 60, 61, 63-66, 68-69, 81-82, 83, 84, 85, 88 , 95, 96, 97

replacement, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

data requirements/availability, 77-78, 80, 95, 103, 173-175

definitions, 61, 216-217, 219, 221

depletion, domestic, 45, 51, 53, 55, 59, 60, 65, 71-94 (passim), 101, 103, 104, 162, 168, 194

depreciation vs, 87-89, 164

scarcity and price, 92-95, 104-105

depletion, foreign countries, 96

discounting of assets, 69-71, 74, 75, 76, 86, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 101

federal estate, 31, 34

flow measures, 59, 70, 74, 76, 79, 82, 84, 95, 96, 173

foreign countries, 52, 96-99, 104, 105

GDP, 60, 79, 80, 81, 91-92, 102

IEESA, 3, 4-6, 16, 55, 61, 70-96, 102-105, 109, 156, 162, 167, 168 , 169

market forces, 5, 63, 103

national forests, 135

NDP, 79, 80, 89, 92, 101-102

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

net present value, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99

NIPA, 59-60, 80-82, 102-105

omitted from BEA accounts, 86-87, 90

option values, 64, 65

price factors, 5, 25, 34, 60, 63-72 (passim), 76, 77, 80, 82-92 (passim), 103, 104-105, 160-161, 180

foreign countries, 97, 98-99

revaluation effects, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92 , 94, 99, 162

scarcity, 92-95, 104-105

transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

regional factors, 5, 60, 63(n.3), 175

rents, 64, 65, 71-74, 79, 84-85, 87-89, 91, 95, 96-100

see also Hotelling rents

replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

royalties, 67-68, 90, 98, 99, 220

social factors, 5, 103

stocks/reserves

alternative, 99-102

BEA, 20, 25, 43, 49, 55, 59, 60-65, 70-96 (passim), 101, 103, 167, 168, 173-174

see also "depletion" supra

foreign countries, 52, 96-99

strip mining, 221

sustainability, 5, 91, 92, 101, 102, 104-105

see also "depletion" and "stocks/reserves" supra

replacement costs, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

taxes, 67-68, 78, 90, 98, 99

timber harvest vs, 137

transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

valuation, 61, 64, 65-105, 167, 168

equations, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101

see also Energy resources, production and consumption;

Fossil fuels

N

National Accounting Matrix Including Environmental Accounts, 38, 40

National Bureau of Economic Research, 13

National Center for Health Statistics, 196, 201

National Income and Product Accounts, general, 2, 12-14, 19-58, 155

committee recommendations, 2-3, 4, 6, 7-8, 9, 102-105

defined, 1, 12, 14, 217

forests, 134-141

history of, 13-14, 19, 20, 35-37, 41-42, 53

investment, 25, 26

mineral resources, 59-60, 80-82, 102-105

sectoral breakdowns, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 42, 43

sustainability, 187, 188, 189, 195

see also Core accounts;

Gross domestic product;

Gross national product;

Satellite accounts

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 131, 196, 199, 200

National parks, 8, 20, 23, 26

as public goods, 128(n.5), 130

National Performance Review, 40

National Science Foundation, 42

National Toxins Inventory, 146

Natural gas, see Fossil fuels

Near-market goods and services, 7, 11, 20, 23, 37-38, 46, 150, 152

forest products, 135

IEESA, 3, 161, 169

public vs private goods, 129-130

see also Households

Net domestic product

defined, 15, 217

environmental degradation, 48

mineral resources, 79, 80, 89, 92, 101-102

sustainable income, general, 36-37, 189, 190, 192-193, 195

Netherlands, 38, 40, 52, 98

Net national income, 26, 31, 43

Net national product, 26, 27, 31, 35, 163, 184, 187-188, 189-190

defined, 184

environmental degradation, 48

forests, 136

Net National Welfare, 41-42

Net present value, 44, 45

defined, 217

forests, 140

mineral resources, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99

NIPA, see National Income and Product Accounts

Nitrogen dioxide, 143, 144, 145

Nonmarket accounts, general, 3, 7-8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 23, 29, 36, 113 , 123-131, 165-169, 190

air quality impacts, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

climate change, 34-35

consumption measures, 23, 31, 36, 43, 44

contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209

CPI, 47

data collection costs, 19, 23, 29, 38

defined, 218

flow measures, 8, 151, 169, 178

forests, 135-136, 141

hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167, 214-215

IEESA, 16, 155-158, 161, 163

NIPA lacking, 13

travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222

see also Air quality and pollution;

Biodiversity;

Health as a resource;

Households;

Near-market goods and services;

Recreation activities and resources;

Satellite accounts;

Water resources and pollution

Norway, 38, 52, 96, 98

NPV, see Net present value

O

Office of Management and Budget, 172

Oil and gas, see Fossil fuels

Opportunity costs, 30, 63, 97, 218

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 154(n.1), 218

Ozone, ground-level, 143, 144, 145, 147

Ozone layer depletion, 23, 115, 121, 122, 143-144, 145, 149

defined, 218

P

Parks, see National parks

Particulate matter, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147

defined, 218

Petroleum, see Fossil fuels

Petty, Sir William, 13

Philippines, 42-43, 140

Photochemical air pollution, 113-114, 218

Physical accounting, general, 3, 7, 8, 19, 23, 34, 37, 38-41, 47, 48, 120, 165, 167

defined, 218

environmental accounting, 113, 120-121, 123

mineral resources, 88, 96, 97, 98

see also Flow measures

Pollutant transport, 113, 119, 121, 122, 221

Pollution, general, see Air quality and pollution;

Doses and dose-response relationship;

Environmental degradation;

Health as a resource;

Residuals, pollutants;

Water resources and pollution

Pollution abatement and control, 18, 22, 25, 30-31, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 108, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219

defined, 219

foreign systems, 50, 52

GDP, 53-54

see also Air quality standards;

Regulatory issues

Pollution expenditure accounting, 40, 45-46

President's Council on Sustainable Development, 40

Price factors, 8, 24, 27, 43, 118, 150, 160-161, 166, 188

complement, 209

CPI, 47

energy resources, 25, 84

forest resources, 137, 138, 139, 140, 202, 204

hedonic, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 167, 214-215

inflation, 24, 26, 97

mineral resources, 5, 25, 34, 60, 63-72 (passim), 76, 77, 80, 82-92 (passim), 103, 104-105, 160-161, 180

foreign countries, 97, 98-99

revaluation effects, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92 , 94, 99, 162

scarcity, 92-95, 104-105

transaction prices, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

nonmarket services, 43

public vs private goods, 7, 129, 150

residual pollutants, 116

revaluation effects, 30, 37, 44, 189, 192-193, 195, 206

mineral resources, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92, 94, 99, 162

timber, 137, 138

transaction prices, 47, 204

mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

Public goods, 23, 128-130, 150, 152, 169

CPI and, 47

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

data requirements/availability, 157

defined, 128, 219

forests as, 133-134

national parks as, 128(n.5), 130

near-market, 129-130

price factors, 7, 129, 150

private vs, 7, 128-129, 134, 150

recreation resources, 128(n.5), 130, 131

see also Air quality and pollution;

Water resources and pollution

Q

Quality of life

CPI and, 47

defined, 219

standard of living, 15, 28, 36, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194

R

Recession, see Economic cycles

Recreation activities and resources, 20, 23, 28, 30, 39, 156, 160, 177, 197, 198, 201

air pollutants, 114, 149, 156

consumption measures, 23, 43

defined, 219

forests, 132, 135, 139, 141, 156

IEESA, 55

national parks, 8, 20, 23, 26, 128(n.5), 130

pollution abatement, 31

public goods issues, 128(n.5), 130, 131

valuation of land, 112, 167-168

Regional factors, 27, 29, 152

mineral resources, 5, 60, 63(n.3), 175

timber, 139, 205

Regulatory issues, 39, 155, 196

air quality, 142

see also Air quality standards

costs of, 15, 22, 32, 33, 46, 111, 157, 179

air pollution regulations, 23, 33, 146-147

pollution abatement and control, 22, 25, 30-31, 33-34, 45-46, 49, 53-54, 111, 146-147, 156, 157-158, 164, 178, 219

health and safety, 33

satellite accounts, 15, 22, 31, 56-57

see also Environmental Protection Agency;

Standards

Renewable resources, general, 6-8, 106-152, 161

BEA methodology, 3, 106-113, 134-141, 148-149, 151-152

consumption measures, 25, 117, 119, 122, 128(n.5), 129, 133, 145, 147, 150

data requirements/availability, 121-123, 149, 150-152, 171-172, 175 -178

defined, 219

depreciation, 45

discounting, 115, 138, 146

flow measures, 115, 116, 117, 121, 130, 132, 133, 135, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 161-162, 165, 167, 174, 177, 178, 186, 190, 196

IEESA, 3, 55, 107-113

see also Agriculture;

Air quality and pollution;

Fisheries;

Forests;

Sustainability and sustainable development

Rent methods

defined, 219-220

forests, 202

mineral resources, 64, 65, 71-74, 79, 84-85, 87-89, 91, 95, 96-100

see also Hotelling rents

Replacement costs, 49

mineral resources, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

Residuals, pollutants, 7, 113-116, 119, 121, 147, 150

see also Ozone layer depletion

Resource Planning Act, 199

Revaluation effects, 30, 37, 44, 189, 192-193, 195, 206

mineral resources, 65, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 85, 90-91, 92, 94, 99, 162

Ricardian rents, mineral resources, 64, 65, 87

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, see United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

Risk assessment and management, 36, 186, 220

Royalties, mineral resources, 67-68, 90, 98, 99, 220

S

Satellite accounts, 3-4, 7, 17, 21, 46, 48, 151, 153, 154-158

air quality, 148-149, 151

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

capital assets, 117-118

comprehensive economic accounts, 41

consumption measures, 22, 27, 31, 57, 117

defined, 3-4, 22, 220

foreign countries, 53, 58

funding, 4, 8, 54, 111, 159, 160, 170

history of, 14-15, 20-37, 55

mineral resources, 55, 61

regulatory issues, 15, 22, 31, 56-57

sustainability, 183-184

see also Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts;

Nonmarket accounts

Savings, 22, 28, 30

Scorekeeping, 27-28, 39, 40, 119

defined, 119

foreign countries, 53

Sectoral factors, general

air quality as sector, 8

cost-benefit analysis by sector, 33, 157

ENRAP, 42, 43

IEESA, 3

NIPA, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 42, 43

sustainability, 186-187, 194

see also specific sectors

SEEA, see System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

SERIEE, see European System for the Collection of Information on the Environment

Smog, see Photochemical air pollution

SNA, see System of National Accounts

Social factors, 11, 25, 54, 180, 188, 191, 193

mineral resources, 5, 103

quality of life, 15, 28, 36, 47, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194, 219

see also Health as a resource;

Human capital

Soils, 6, 61, 118, 148, 165, 167, 198, 201

acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

see also Agriculture

Standard of living, 15, 28, 36, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194

Standards

data collection/classification, 51, 84, 163-164, 173

see also Air quality standards;

Emission standards;

Regulatory issues

State government and state-level factors, 29

mineral resources, 5

see also Regional factors

Subsoil assets,

see also Minerals and mining

Sulfur dioxide, 143, 144, 145

see also Acid precipitation

Survey of Current Business, 16

Sustainability and sustainable development, 2, 26-27, 28, 35-37, 44, 57, 155, 162, 183-195

defined, 15, 28, 36, 183, 221

flow measures, 186, 190

mineral resources, 5, 91, 92, 101, 102, 104-105

NDP, 36-37, 189, 190, 192-193, 195

NIPA, 187, 188, 189, 195

replacement costs, 49, 68-69, 76, 79, 89, 91

satellite accounts, 183-184

see also Quality of life

Sweden, 98-99

System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting, 48, 49 -50, 81, 112, 154, 163-165, 221

System of National Accounts, 21, 47-50, 58, 80, 221

T

Taxation, 22, 155

ecological, 51

indirect, 12

mineral resources, 67-68, 78, 90, 98, 99

Technological change, 37, 186, 191, 194, 195

defined, 221

mineral extraction, 63

pollution abatement, impact on, 111

Timber resources, 3, 6, 7, 16, 17, 23, 30, 31, 34, 37-38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 106, 112, 118, 132-133, 134-135, 137-138, 141, 168, 169, 174, 176-177, 199, 203

production costs, 26, 134-135, 137, 139, 176, 203, 204, 205

regional factors, 139, 205

stumpage value, 31, 139, 156, 171, 204, 221

wood fuel, 133, 135

Trade, international, see Foreign trade

Transaction prices, 47

mineral resources, 60, 66-68, 69, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 87, 90

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
×

Transport of pollutants, see Pollutant transport

Travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 150, 165, 177, 222

U

United Kingdom, 52, 98, 99

United Nations, 38, 154

core accounts, 21, 49

System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting, 48, 49 -50, 81, 112, 154, 163-165, 221

System of National Accounts, 21, 47-50, 58, 80, 221

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 222

United Nations Environment Program, 222

Utility, 82, 162, 189, 222

defined, 222

V

Valuation of natural assets, 3, 26, 38, 44-45, 46-47, 123-131, 154 , 163-167

contingent valuation, 7, 38, 125-128, 131, 166, 209

defined, 222

energy resources, 59-60, 71, 76, 78, 81, 82, 84, 96

forests, 39, 112, 132-141, 156, 167-168, 176-178, 202-206

hedonic modeling and pricing, 7, 118-119, 124-125, 126-127, 150, 165-166, 214-215

mineral resources, 61, 64, 65-105, 167, 168

equations, 71, 72-73, 75, 77, 101

net present value, 44, 45, 140, 217

mineral resources, 69-70, 74-75, 76, 88, 95, 99

private vs public goods, 7, 128-129, 134, 150

recommendations, 7, 102-103, 150

recreation resources, 112, 167-168

travel-cost valuation, 7, 124, 126-127, 222, 150, 165, 222

see also Depreciation and depletion;

Discounting of natural assets;

Market forces;

Price factors;

Revaluation effects

W

Water quality standards, 29, 223

Water resources and pollution, 8, 20, 32, 126-127, 156-157, 178-180, 197, 199-200, 223

acid precipitation, 40, 113, 116, 119, 121, 122, 142, 143, 145, 147 , 148

foreign countries, 52

forested watersheds, 133, 135

human exposure, 151

IEESA, 3, 16, 55, 112, 160, 169, 171-172

pollution abatement, 46

wetlands, 113, 118, 123, 197, 198, 200

Western Europe, see Europe

Wetlands, 113, 118, 123, 197, 198, 200

Wildlife, 177, 198, 200

air quality, 144-145

forests, 39, 132, 134, 135

see also Biodiversity;

Fisheries

Willingness to pay, see Contingent valuation

World Bank, 43, 140

World Resources Institute, 43

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6374.
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Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment Get This Book
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In order to really see the forest, what's the best way to count the trees? Understanding how the economy interacts with the environment has important implications for policy, regulatory, and business decisions. How should our national economic accounts recognize the increasing interest in and importance of the environment?

Nature's Numbers responds to concerns about how the United States should make these measurements. The book recommends how to incorporate environmental and other non-market measures into the nation's income and product accounts.

The panel explores alternative approaches to environmental accounting, including those used in other countries, and addresses thorny issues such as how to measure the stocks of natural resources and how to value non-market activities and assets. Specific applications to subsoil minerals, forests, and clean air show how the general principles can be applied.

The analysis and insights provided in this book will be of interest to economists, policymakers, environmental advocates, economics faculty, businesses based on natural resources, and managers concerned with the role of the environment in our economic affairs.

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