National Academies Press: OpenBook

Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field (1999)

Chapter:Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations

« Previous: Appendix F: Biographical Sketches
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

G
Acronyms and Abbreviations


AA

arachidonic acid

AAs

amino acids

ACH

acetylcholine

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

ADX

adrenalectomy

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ALA

α-linolenic acid

APC

antigen-presenting cell

ARC

AIDS-related complex

ARS

Agricultural Research Service

ASNS

American Society for Nutritional Sciences

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

AVP

arginine vasopressin

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

BCG

Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (vaccine)

BCNH

Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women

BCT

basic combat training

BIA

bioelectrical impedance

Bq

becquerel

BSE

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BW

body weight


CD

cluster of differentiation

CEHR

Center for Environmental Health Research

CHD

coronary heart disease

CMI

cell-mediated immunity

CMNR

Committee on Military Nutrition Research

CNS

central nervous system

ConA

concanavalin A

CORT

corticosterone

CRDA

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

CRH

corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVB4

coxsackievirus B4

CVO

circumventricular organ


DCM

dilated cardiomyopathy

DDH

delayed dermal hypersensitivity

DGLA

dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

DHEA

dehydroepiandrosterone

DLW

doubly labeled water

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNFB

dinitrofluorobenzene

DoD

Department of Defense

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

DTH

delayed-type hypersensitivity

DWHRP

Defense Women's Health Research Program

DXA

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry


EFA

essential fatty acid

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

en%

energy percent

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Fab

fragment-antibody

Fc

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FFA

free fatty acid

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

FFM

fat-free mass

FNB

Food and Nutrition Board

FTX

field training exercises


GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GC

glucocorticoids

GH

growth hormone

GMCSF

granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GTP

guanosine triphosphate


HAPE

high-altitude pulmonary edema

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HDT

Human Dimensions Teams

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HPAA

hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

HYPOX

hypophysectomy


icv

intracerebroventricular

Ig

immunoglobulin

IGF-I

insulin-like growth factor-I

IL

interleukin

IL-1ra

interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

IOM

Institute of Medicine

ip

intraperitoneal

IR

immune response

IRE

iron-responsive element

IRE-BP

iron-responsive element-binding protein

iv

intravenous


KD

Keshan disease


LA

linoleic acid

LAK

lymphokine-activated killer (cell)

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LH

luteinizing hormone

LLRP

Long-Life Ration Packet

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LTB4

leukotriene-B4

L-TRP-EMS

1-tryptophan eosinophilia myalgia syndrome


Mabs

monoclonal antibodies

MDA

malondialdehyde

MFA

monounsaturated fatty acid

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MN-CS

multiple nutrients for cellular synthesis

MN-PS

multiple nutrients for protein synthesis

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

MND

Military Nutrition Division (currently Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division)

MOA

Memorandum of Agreement

MR

mitogenic responsiveness

MRDA

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance

MRDR

modified relative dose response (test)

MRE

Meal, Ready-to-Eat

MUFA

monounsaturated fatty acid


NAD

nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide

NAIDS

nutritionally acquired immune dysfunction syndromes

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBT

nitroblue tetrazolium

NCI-FCRDC

National Cancer Institute–Frederick Cancer Research & Development Center

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NRC

National Research Council

NK

natural killer (cell)


OLVT

organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis


PBMC

peripheral blood mononuclear cell

PEM

protein-energy malnutrition

PGE2

prostaglandin E2

PHA

phytohemagglutinin

PHA-T

phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-cell proliferation

PMN

polymorphonuclear neutrophil

PPD

purified protein derivative (skin test)

PSS

pituitary stalk section

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acid

PVFS

postviral fatigue syndrome

PVN

paraventricular nuclear


RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

RE

retinol equivalent

REM

rapid eye movement

RfD

reference dose

RGR-I

first U.S. Army Ranger training course

RGR-II

second U.S. Army Ranger training course

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RTB

U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade

RT-PCR

reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction


SAA

serum amyloid antecedent

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

SCID

severe combined–immunodeficient

SFA

saturated fatty acid

SFAS

Special Forces Assessment and Selection

SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion

sIL-2r

soluble receptor for IL-2

SOZ

serum opsonized zymosan

SRBC

sheep red blood cell

SSCOM

Soldier System Command


T3

triiodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TBG

thyroid-binding globulin

TDEE

total daily energy expenditure

TE

tocopherol equivalent

TfR

transferrin receptor

Th1

T-helper 1 (cell)

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

TRH

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone


UCLA

University of California–Los Angeles

URI

upper respiratory infection

URTI

upper respiratory tract infection

USAF

U.S. Air Force

USAMRIID

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

USAMRMC

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

USARIEM

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture


VIP

vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

VP

vasopressin


WBC

white blood cell

WHO

World Health Organization

WRAIR

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page575
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page576
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page577
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page578
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page579
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×
Page580
Next: Appendix H: Nutrition and Immune Function: A Selected Bibliography »
Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $180.00 Buy Ebook | $139.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Every aspect of immune function and host defense is dependent upon a proper supply and balance of nutrients. Severe malnutrition can cause significant alteration in immune response, but even subclinical deficits may be associated with an impaired immune response, and an increased risk of infection. Infectious diseases have accounted for more off-duty days during major wars than combat wounds or nonbattle injuries. Combined stressors may reduce the normal ability of soldiers to resist pathogens, increase their susceptibility to biological warfare agents, and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines intended to protect them. There is also a concern with the inappropriate use of dietary supplements.

This book, one of a series, examines the impact of various types of stressors and the role of specific dietary nutrients in maintaining immune function of military personnel in the field. It reviews the impact of compromised nutrition status on immune function; the interaction of health, exercise, and stress (both physical and psychological) in immune function; and the role of nutritional supplements and newer biotechnology methods reported to enhance immune function.

The first part of the book contains the committee's workshop summary and evaluation of ongoing research by Army scientists on immune status in special forces troops, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations. The rest of the book contains papers contributed by workshop speakers, grouped under such broad topics as an introduction to what is known about immune function, the assessment of immune function, the effect of nutrition, and the relation between the many and varied stresses encountered by military personnel and their effect on health.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!