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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
This study was supported by Contract DTMA91-94-G-00003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Maritime Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
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COMMITTEE ON MARITIME ADVANCED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
H. THOMAS KORNEGAY (chair),
Port of Houston Authority, Houston, Texas
WILLIAM A. WALLACE (vice chair),
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
ANNE D. AYLWARD,
Volpe Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts
WILLIAM O. GRAY,
Gray Maritime Company, Darien, Connecticut
Port of New Orleans, Louisiana
ROBERT G. MOORE,
Coastwatch, Inc., Vashon, Washington
JOHN S. NIEDERHAUSER,
Puget Sound Pilots, Seattle, Washington
Sea-Land Service, Inc., Elizabeth, New Jersey
Hollywood Marine, Inc., Houston, Texas
E. CAMERON WILLIAMS,
Massachusetts Maritime Academy, Buzzard's Bay
Council of American Master Mariners, Inc., Charleston, South Carolina
Liaisons of Sponsoring Agencies
WILLIAM A. BERGEN,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
J. MICHAEL SOLLOSI,
U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C.
Marine Board Liaison
BERNHARD J. ABRAHAMSSON, independent consultant, Superior,
Marine Board Staff
PETER A. JOHNSON, director,
CARLA MOORE, administrative assistant (until July 1996)
DELPHINE GLAZE, administrative assistant (July 1996 to May 1997)
THERESA M. FISHER, administrative assistant (from May 1997)
GARY BAHAM, consultant
LAURA OST, consultant
JAMES M. COLEMAN (chair),
NAE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
JERRY A. ASPLAND (vice chair),
The California Maritime Academy, Vallejo
BERNHARD J. ABRAHAMSSON, consultant, Superior,
LARRY P. ATKINSON,
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
PETER F. BONTADELLI,
California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento
LILLIAN C. BORRONE,
NAE, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
University of Delaware, Newark
SYLVIA A. EARLE,
Deep Ocean Exploration and Research, Oakland, California
BILLY L. EDGE,
Texas A&M University, College Station
JOHN W. FARRINGTON,
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
R. KEITH MICHEL,
Herbert Engineering, San Francisco, California
JEROME H. MILGRAM,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
JAMES D. MURFF,
Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas
STEVEN T. SCALZO,
Foss Maritime Company, Seattle, Washington
MALCOLM L. SPAULDING,
University of Rhode Island, Narragansett
Sea-Land Service, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina
E. G. "SKIP" WARD,
Texas A&M University, College Station
PETER A. JOHNSON, director
DANA CAINES, financial associate
SUSAN GARBINI, senior staff officer
THERESA M. FISHER, administrative assistant
DONNA HENRY, project assistant
Recent advances in information technology could greatly improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. maritime industry and the daily operations of ports and waterways. Advanced maritime information systems, singly or in combination, could ameliorate many problems faced by mariners if economic and other barriers to their implementation could be overcome. Improvements are already evident in other nations that have invested heavily in ports, advanced maritime information systems, and supporting infrastructures, leaving the United States at a growing disadvantage.
The Committee on Maritime Advanced Information Systems was established under the auspices of the Marine Board of the National Research Council to identify systems and their infrastructures that could promote safe and effective vessel transits through U.S. ports. In 1996, the committee released an interim report on a variety of issues related to the U.S. Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Services Program that set the stage for studies of additional safety and waterways management systems, as well as issues related to the efficiency of maritime commerce and the movement of cargo through U.S. ports.
In this final report, the committee has attempted to accomplish the following tasks:
- identify ways that advanced maritime information systems could ameliorate current shortfalls and maintain or improve environmental protection and waterway safety
- describe how those systems could minimize the costs and problems of adapting to changes in transportation and contribute to maintaining the nation's competitive position
- provide a vision of the future showing how advanced information management systems could enhance vessel safety and waterway efficiency
After collecting a substantial amount of background information from the literature and stakeholders,1 the committee, with sponsor concurrence, decided to focus on information systems that promote navigation safety and improve vessel traffic management. Improvements in the systems offer the greatest benefits for improving U.S. port operations. The committee recognized that information systems that promote transportation efficiency are also important, but many effective systems are already in use or are under development, primarily in the private sector, to meet rigorous commercial demands for efficiency and customer service. The committee assessed these systems only insofar as they contribute to maritime safety. The committee also understands the critical role of information systems and information mapping in the context of intermodal transportation even though limitations of time and resources prevented the committee from focusing on this area.
Eleven of the original 15 committee members carried out this second phase of the study. Members were selected for their scientific, technical, economic, policy, and practical expertise. Committee members include users of maritime information systems, developers of technologies and systems, specialists in information architecture, individuals with expertise in key sectors of the maritime industry, and other stakeholders in port operations. Biographies of committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee's work was facilitated by liaisons from the sponsoring agencies and the Marine Board.
The committee met eight times during the two-year period of this study. Individual committee members or subgroups visited 10 U.S. ports and several foreign ports where advanced information technology is used to enhance the movement and safety of vessel traffic and cargo handling operations. Since the publication of its interim report, the committee has held three meetings and two meetings of a subgroup, one in Charleston, South Carolina, and one in Seattle, Washington, to investigate existing information systems and identify critical needs for improvements or changes. The information collected by the subgroup and
other background material are presented in the appendices to the report.
The committee received substantial assistance from a number of federal, state, and local agencies, as well as from private companies. The committee would particularly like to thank the following federal liaisons for providing essential data and advice: Michael Sollosi, U.S. Coast Guard; Frederick Ganjon and Millington Lockwood, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; John Pisani, Maritime Administration; and Michael Onder, U.S. Department of Transportation. In addition, the following experts made valuable presentations to the committee: Gordon Fink, ITS America; John Allen, Sealand Corp.; William Habeck, Tie Logistics, Inc.; Roger Nortillo, Maher Terminals; Brian FitzGibbon, Atlantic Tonnage Center; Timothy Huckbody, Maersk, Inc.; Capt. Richard Softe, Puget Sound Marine Exchange; Mark Walker, Microsoft, Inc.; CDR David McKenzie, U.S. Coast Guard, Puget Sound; Robert Pavia, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle; Stan Norman, Washington Office of Marine Safety; Joseph Nortz, Washington State Ferries; Douglas Ward, American President Lines; and Janice Granberg, Port of Seattle. These individuals and many others contributed to the completeness and quality of this report.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspective and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Bernhard J. Abrahamsson, consultant; Larry P. Atkinson, Old Dominion University; John P. Basilotto, Texas Transportation Institute; Peter F. Bontadelli, California Department of Fish and Game; Martha Grabowski, LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Donald G. Iselin, U.S. Navy, retired; Warren G. Leback, consultant; and James G. Wenzel, Marine Development Associates, Inc.
While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Figures and Boxes
History and forecast of waterborne foreign trade through U.S. ports
Status of PORTS implementation (October 1998)
PWASS project concept-VTS system based on automatic identification system (AIS)
U.S. Coast Guard risk-based port selection process
Vessel traffic management hierarchy
automatic identification system
American Pilots Association
captain of the port
differential global positioning system
electronic chart display and information system
Federal Communications Commission
global maritime distress and safety system
global positioning system
International Association of Lighthouse Authorities
Interagency Committee on Waterways Management
International Maritime Organization
International Safety Management
international tug of opportunity system
Los Angeles/Long Beach
national distress system
National Imagery and Mapping Agency
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
ports and waterways safety system
physical oceanographic real-time system
regulated navigation area
twenty-foot equivalent unit
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Coast Guard
vessel traffic center
vessel traffic information services
vessel traffic services