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LIGHTNING PHENOMENOLOGY 29 Figure 1.6 Coverage of North America by time of arrival (dashed lines) and wide-band magnetic direction finders (solid lines) as of the summer of 1985. CONCLUSIONS The past decade has been a period of significant advances in lightning knowledge. Satellite studies have provided the first confirmation of the early estimates of the global lightning flash rates and added new information on the distribution of lightning over the land and over the ocean. The development of widely distributed ground-based lightning networks provides for the first time the ability to monitor and calculate lightning characteristics in near real time. Relating these parameters to the meteorological observations of visible and infrared images from space and to radar observations from the ground poses a major challenge in the near future. References Kotaki, M., I. Kuriki, C. Katoh, and H. Sugiuchij (1981). Global distribution of thunderstorm activity, J. Radio Res. Labs. Japan 66 . Kowalczyk, M., and E. Bauer (1981). Lightning as a source of NOx in the troposphere, final report FAA-EE-82-4. Krider, E. P., A. E. Pifer, and D. L. Vance (1980). Lightning direction-finding systems for forest fire detection, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 61 , 980-986 . Livingston, J. M., and E. P. Krider (1978). Electric fields produced by Florida thunderstorm, J. Geophys. Res. 83 , 385-401 . MacGorman, D. R., M. W. Maier, and W. D. Rust (1984). Lightning strike density for the contiguous United States from thunderstorm duration records, prepared for Division of Health, Siting and Waste Management, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D. C., 44 pp . Maier, M. W., and J. M. Piotrowicz (1983). Improved estimates of the area density of cloud-to-ground lightning over the United States, presented at 8th International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, June 21-23, 1983, Forth Worth, Texas. Maier, M. W., A. G. Boulanger, and J. Sarlet (1978). Cloud-to-ground lightning frequency over south Florida, preprint, Conference on Cloud Physics and Atmospheric Electricity (Issaquah, Wash.), American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., pp. 605-610 . Orville, R. E. (1981). Global distribution of midnight lightning September to November 1977, Mon. Weather Rev. 109 , 391-395 . Orville, R. E., and D. W. Spencer (1979). Global lightning flash frequency Mon. Weather Rev. 107 , 934-943 Orville, R. E., R. W. Henderson, and L. F. Bosart (1983). An East Coast lightning detection network, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64 , 1029-1037 . Piepgrass, M. V., E. P. Krider, and C. B. Moore (1982). Lightning and surface rainfall during Florida thunderstorms, J. Geophys. Res. 87 , 11193-11201 . Prentice, S. A. (1977). Frequencies of lightning discharges, in Physics of Lightning , R. H. Golde, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 465-496 . Prentice, S. A., and D. Mackerras (1977). The ratio of cloud to cloudground lightning flashes in thunderstorms, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 545-549 . Turman, B. N. (1978). Analysis of lightning data from the DMSP satellite, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 5019-5024 . Turman, B. N. (1979). Lightning detection from space, Am. Scientist 67 , 321-329 . Turman, B. N., and B. C. Edgar (1982). Global lightning distributions at dawn and dusk, J. Geophys. Res. 87 , 1191-1206 . Turman, B. N., B. C. Edgar, and L. N. Friesen (1978). Global lightning distribution at dawn and dusk for August-September 1977, EOS 59 , 285 .