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APPENDIX A 279 Appendix A Guidelines for Public and Occupational Chemical Exposures to Materials That Are Also Found in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Table A-1 gives a series of guidelines for public and industrial populations regarding exposure to chemicals that are also constituents in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Not all of the constituents of ETS thought to be toxic or carcinogenic have had guideline levels established. The values in the table are taken from the fourth edition of the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values, published by the American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (1986). The NIOSH recommendations and OSHA standards can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1981). Each of these guidelines and standards has been established with different considerations in mind. The EPA standards, which apply to outdoor environments, have been established by law to protect the most susceptible individuals. The OSHA standards and ACGIH, NIOSH, and European guidelines have been established for the normal, healthy adult working populations. These guidelines accept some level of risk to some people. They do not consider children, the elderly, or populations with preexisting health conditions who may be at greater risk for health effects of exposure. The appropriate guidelines for susceptible populations probably would be lower. These industrial guidelines also differ from the environmental standards in that they assume that the exposure is limited to a workday period or a time-limited emergency.
APPENDIX A 280 TABLE A-1 Some Occupational and Public Standards for Materials That Are Also in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd Vapor Phase Carbon monoxide 1 mg/m3âmax. TLVeâ50 ppm 35 ppmâ8 h 50 ppm West Germanyâ 8-h STELfâ400 TWAg 50 ppm 40 mg/m3âmax. ppm 200 ppm ceilh Swedenâ35 ppm 1-h (no min time) Neither to be exceeded more than once per year Carbon dioxide None TLVâ5,000 10,000 ppmâ 5,000 ppm â ppm 10-h TWA STELâ30,000 30,000 ppmâ ppm 10-min ceil. Benzene None TLVâ10 ppm 1 ppmâ60-min 10 ppm Swedenâ10 ppm A2 ceil. 50 ppmâ10- West Germanyâ0 min ceil. ppm Toluene None TLVâ100 ppm 100 ppmâ10-h 200 ppm West Germanyâ STELâ150 TWA 300 ppm ceil. 200 ppm ppm 200 ppmâ10- 500 ppmâ10- Swedenâ100 min ceil. min peak ppm Formaldehyde None TLVâ1 ppm Lowest feasible 3 ppm Swedenâ2 ppm A2 limit 5 ppm ceil. West Germanyâ1 10 ppmâ30- ppm min ceil. Acrolein None TLVâ0.1 ppm None 0.1 ppm â STELâ0.3 ppm Acetone None TLVâ750 ppm 250 ppmâ10-h 1,000 ppm Swedenâ500 STELâ1,000 TWA ppm ppm Germanyâ1,000 ppm Pyridine None TLVâ5 ppm None 5 ppm West Germany, STELâ10 ppm Swedenâ5 ppm Hydrogen cyanide None Ceiling limitiâ 4.7 ppmâ10- 4.7 ppm West Germany, 10 ppm min ceil. Great Britainâ10 ppm
APPENDIX A 281 Hydrazine None TLVâ0.1 0.04 mg/m3 1 ppm â ppm â120-min A2 ceil. Ammonia None TLVâ25 50 ppmâ5- 50 ppm West Germany ppm min ceil. â50 ppm STELâ35 Swedenâ25 ppm ppm Methylamine None TLVâ10 None 10 ppm â ppm Dimethylamine None TLVâ10 None 10 ppm â ppm Nitrogen oxide None TLVâ25 25 ppm 25 ppmâ10-h â ppm TWA Nitrogen dioxide 0.053 ppmâ TLVâ3 ppm 1 ppmâ15 5 ppm ceil. West Germany annual arithmetic STELâ5 min ceil. â5 ppm mean ppm Swedenâ2 ppm N-Nitrosodimethylamine None A2 None Listed as a â cancer-suspect agent Formic acid None TLVâ5 ppm None 5 ppm â Acetic acid None TLVâ10 None 10 ppm â ppm STELâ15 ppm Participate phase Participate matter 75 Âµ g/m3â TLVâ10 None 15 mg/m3 â annual geometric mg/m3 mean 260 Âµ g/m3/24-h max Not to be exceeded more than once per year Nicotine None TLVâ0.5 None 0.5 mg/m3 â mg/m3 Phenol None TLVâ19 20 mg/m3 â 19 mg/m3 West Germany mg/m3 10-h TWA â19 mg/m3 60 mg/m3 â 15-min ceil. Catechol None TLVâ5 ppm None None â Hydroquinone None TLVâ2 mg/ 2 mg/m3 â 2 mg/m3 â m3 15-min ceil. Aniline None TLVâ2 ppm None 5 ppm â 2-Toluidine None TLVâ2 ppm None 5 ppm West Germany A2 â5 ppm
APPENDIX A 282 Public Industrial EPA ACGIHa NIOSHb OSHAc European Standardsd 2-Naphthylamine None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent â 4-Aminobiphenyl None A1b None Listed as a cancer-suspect agent â aAmerican Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists. b National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. cOccupational Safety and Health Administration. d Includes standards set in Sweden, Great Britain, and West Germany as examples. eTLV=threshold limit valueâtime-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday, 40-hour week. fSTEL=short-term exposure limitâ15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded. g TWA=time-weighted average. h Ceil.=ceiling. iCeiling Limitâconcentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. A2âIndustrial substance suspect of carcinogenic potential for man; exposure should be avoided. A1bâHuman carcinogen. Substance associated with industrial processes, recognized to have carcinogenic potential without an assigned TLV. For substances of this designation, no exposure or contact by any routeârespiratory, skin, or oral, as detected by the most sensitive methods âshould be permitted. NOTE: Materials in ETS for which there are no standards: carbonyl sulfide, 3-methylpyridine, 3-vinylpyridine, anatabine, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, cholesterol, y-butyrolactone, quinoline, harman, N-nitrosonornicotine, NNK, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, zinc, polonium-210.
APPENDIX A 283 The guidelines are given in terms of cumulative exposure over a period of time or in terms of maximal concentrations. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the time-weighted average concentration of a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour work week. The Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is defined as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday, even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. Exposures at the STEL should not be repeated more than four times per day, with at least 60 minutes between successive exposures at the STEL. The ceiling limit is the concentration that should never be exceeded. Finally, it should be noted that the guidelines are established for individual chemicals, without consideration of complex mixtures that may contain these chemicals. The behavior of the chemicals in a complex mixture over time is likely to be complicated. In summary, the direct comparisons of these guidelines with ambient levels measured in natural or experimental conditions should be made with caution. In some cases, the comparison may be inappropriate. REFERENCES American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, fifth ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1986. 743 pp. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHEW Publ. No. 85â14. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1985. 241 pp. Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarksyddsstyrelsens). Hygieniska Gransvarden. Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Distribution, 1984. 60 pp.