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Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products (1956)

Chapter:V. Building Type Analysis

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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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Suggested Citation:"V. Building Type Analysis." National Research Council. 1956. Modern Masonry: Natural Stone and Clay Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9551.
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PART FIVE PRESIDING CIIAIRMAN Walter A. Taylor Director, Department of Education and Research, American Institute of Architects Building Type Analysis MR. SILLING: In an earlier year, the next presiding officer was a mis- sionary in China. He has practiced architecture in New York' in the Grand Central Station a noisy place for such an endeavor. Mr. Walter A. Taylor is tile Director of the Department of Education and Research of the American Institute of Architects. He is also a representative of the ATA to the Building Research Institute and is a November of the Executive Co~n~nittee of the Builcling Research AcI- visory Board. Mr. Taylor began his career as a resident architect and engineer in the Central China University in Wuchang, was an architectural engi- neer with the Los Angeles Board of Education, practiced in partner- ship in New York City, and has been a lecturer and professor of archi- tecture at Syracuse and Columbia universities. He has a Bachelor of Architectural Engineering from Ohio State, ~ Bachelor of Architecture frown Colun~bia, and a Master of Architecture from Ohio State. Besides his n~e~nbership in the American Institute of Architects, he is a member of the American Society of Engineering Eclucation, the American Association of University Professors, and the Society of Architectural Historians. 125

Resi~ientio! Design MR. TVALTER A. TAYLOR: It seems to note that we might have had another title for this Fifth Session. It might be called Masonry in Contemporary Design. ~ don't think any one of these architects on the pane, would like to be caZI:ed traditional. ~ know they are doing some very interesting work. ~ hope you notice that the speakers are listed in aZphabetical order, so there is no implied preference as to buiZ4ing type or architect. Our first speaker is S. Robert Anshen, who is a vice-president and partner in the firm of AM very crappy to talk about n~asonr,v in connection with houses, because T think we ~ . . have used far too little of it. ~ don't think that any discussion of houses is complete without recalling what Xenophon said that Socrates said about how a house should be S. Robert Anshen Anshen & Allen, San Francisco, CaZif. Anshen ~ AZZen. He has been winning ATA Honor Awards with embarrassing frequency. He is doing some very interesting work on the west coast. Mr. Anshen has Bachelor and Master of Architecture degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, and studied under a Stewardson TraveZZing FeZIowship. He is a member of the American Institute of Architects and Sigma Psi, an honorary engineering fraternity. Re- centZy he was a lecturer in design at the Uni- versity of California College of Architecture. built. You have all Learc! of solar houses and various different kinds of houses. You no cloubt know about a certain magazine which has gotten very fancy climatologists and weather experts and what-not to tell us that we should not put houses where the wind is going to 127

disturb them or where flash floods are going to hurt them. And there is a very costly pro- gram of selling the American public on the fact that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. ~ was glad to hear Air. Ayes mention the east anc! west sides of vertical buildings, be- cause it has always been a mystery to nice why most skyscrapers built have the same facades on the north, south, east and west. Back to what Xenophon saicl about what Socrates saic! about how a house should be built. Socrates, resorting to his usual question ancT answer methocT, asked, `'Should a house be a pleasant place to live in and a safe place to store one's belongings?" Ashen this question, too, evoked no disagreement, he saicT, "Well then, should a house be coo] in the sundrier and warns in the winter?" When this question, too, evoked no disagreement, he saicT, "Well then, if you buiTc] the north side low and the porticos Ligh and facing south, the builcling will be protected frown the coIcT in the winter and, in the sunnier when the sun is high, it will cast shade and it will be cool, but in the winter when the sun is low, warns. If, then, these are clesirable character- istics, this is the way to builc! your house." Today there is probably no more co~npli- cated building, for its size, and for its rela- tively singe use, than a ([welling. We may forget that our early houses take a New Eng- land farmhouse, for exa~np~ie had simply four rooms with a chimney in the center contain- ing three or four fireplaces so grouped as to face into the four rooms. One of the fire- places was the kitchen stove. Ladies and gentIen~en, there was no inside water, no kitchen sink, no insulation, no wash- ing machine, no dryer, no refrigerator, no dis- posal, no dishwasher, no ironer, no air cooling, no interior plunking, no vacuum cleaner, and no light, except for a candle or oil lamp. To- day, if we built only as much into our houses as our forefathers did into theirs, they would 128 cost approxin~ately 2/ percent of what our houses now cost and shelter would be one of our cheapest commodities in relation to food, clothing, etc. However, the cliFerence in houses of today and those early ones represents one of the great symbols of the civilized advance of our tinge. It cannot be stated too basically or clearly that mass production, and thus the mass use of delicate and fine products to lighten the labor of n~ankind (to say nothing of woman- kind), is the halIn~ark of our advancing civili- zation. The difference between the early house and the house of today means the difference be- tween a sTaver,v-in-drudgery, anct emancipation to a life of ease and leisure. Leisure through all time has been the basic requirement for the flowering of culture in any civilization. You cannot address your mind to the stars, to inventions, to poetry, to the n~ys- teries of the universe, if all your time is occu- pie(1 in getting your food and cleaning your nest. Thus the concept of the Louse is simple, as expressed in colonial tinges, but has indeed become now the repository of some of that vast body of applied science and myriad intri- cate skills and invention, which lead to a successful realization of advance toward lei- sure, ant! thus a higher culture. Continuity of history conjoined with vig- orous advances in tile developn~ent of new materials, the better use of oIc] materials, the imaginative, bold advances in techniques, was only begun. Our best products, man treacle? cone from the research integration, variation and mass production of n~aterial things. How does this affect the use of masonry? To begin with, modern power tools and tech- niques of handling age-old n~aterials have changed our use of these materials. Not so very long ago even kings could not afford such luxurious selections of materials as can we

today. Now heavy n~aterials can be hauled thousands of miles by ship and rail at a frac- tion of the cost of hauling then a few miles a short tinge ago. Which materials are at hand with which to build depends upon how far we can reach, not only in space but also in tine. Advancing civilization negates available new uses of exist- ing materials and existing materials in new uses. As we progress, we are wise if we make full use of new ways of using oIct materials and oIc3 ways of using new n~aterials. For example, fireplaces have been superceded by more effi- cient n~ethods of heating, but everyone should have one, of masonry, and everyone wants one of masonry because of the simple clelight of looking at tee fire burning on the hearth. Nonfat atavistic Opuses may activate us in observing the fire burning on the hearth ~ do not know, but ~ clo know that it is an impor- tant part of life-a part not to be missed. It may be that the flickering light has the varia- tions of nature, pleasing and soothing to the eye, as opposed to the monotony of artificial light. In houses, as elsewhere in architecture, n~a- sonrv is used because in certain areas it is the only material available which concubines the requisite properties of strength, durability, in- sulation, weatherproofing and a rich texture or finish. Man-fabricated n~aterials, which compress the strength and insulation of a two- foot thick stone wall into a few inches and which come in large sheets, easy to erect, can- not be used as yet in certain areas because they have not been developed in finishes which give the proper life anc] clepth of tex- ture. We must reverence the fabulous genius of mankind in the introduction of steel, aTu- minu~n, etc., which are made uncler heat and pressure, nauch as the n~inerals and oils, which were created in geologic tinge, were made by nature under the heat and pressure of cata clysn~ic changes in the earth. Plywood, plas- tics, glass these materials do not exist in nature. They are wonderfully created by man- kind for his greater convenience and in order to make his architecture greater. The advances which n~ankinc3 makes in altering natural ma- terials to alter his environment to suit him- self have only begun. But it is not only new materials, but the snore effective use of old materials which stirs the imagination. Stone is as old as the hills. Masonry is the n~aterial which mankind instinctively thinks of when he considers historical works of art in architecture. Psychologically, masonry in a building conveys a sense of permanence, of its having been "alive" when our forebears were living and of its survival, through the vicissitudes of generations to cone. Countries where proper pine forests grow United States' iNorway, Sweden, Finland, etc. are "lucky.' They never existed in Spain or Italy. It is evident that "newer" countries, where there are ante supplies of suitable wood available, use a great deal of it, particularly in the construction of houses. Older countries have snore traditionally used masonry. This is a matter of expediency, cost and getting something built fast. The American frontier from east to west could never have been conquered with such incredible speed if it had not been for the "ten~porar,v" use of wood for construction. The fact that wood is relatively non-fire resistant, subject to the attack of in- sects and vermin, highly costly to maintain, is lost in the exigency of the Tower initial cost. It is to be observed that n~ankinc] generally takes better care of its goods and n~aterial pos- sessions than it does of its human resources. Thus factories and warehouses, counting houses, temples and churches have been con- structed of n~asonr,v while dwellings have been made of lesser materials. If there is a fire, theoretically, Duncan beings can nerve away 129

front it, but goods and possessions nicest be protected by strong wails and heavy doors. Houses are the last buiTclings in our age to receive the benefits of the best building tech- niques. Good planning, good plumbing, good lleating, ventilating, ligllting, design cone last to houses in our civilization. This is also true in ancient civilizations. An industrial or co~n~ercial owner will ex- pend untold energies and treasure learning how best to construct buiTclings for his plant and equipment. He will experiment ant! ob- jectivel`; weigh the pros and cons of new ancI Olin rnethocds, materials and techniques. His mind anct his architects' minds are free to weigh the catastrophic results of calamity versus first cost. This is not so of tee Louse-buiTding owner. He is first concerned with an amazing array of intangible concepts which go creep into his early life and notate hint view his dwelling in a confused haze of history, custom, fancily background, keeping up with the Joneses or conformity to the current usage in the particu- lar economic class he happens to be in or wants to get into. If be has a half a ~niTTion dollars to spend for his dwelling, he wants a nonillion dollars worth of dwelling. If he has SI0,000 to spend, he wants $25,000 wortl1 of dwelling. In costly custom built houses, the architect frequently can employ the use of fire-resistant materials, of which n~asonr,v is, of course, presently the most satisfying. However, as we go clown the economic scale into 50, 25, ~ 5, ~ 2 thousand dollar dwellings, masonry be- co~nes harder and harder to use. We wind up in a $17,000 house with a $770 fireplace, prob- ably made of brick. This is true of the entire country, except in some eastern and ~id- western metropolitan areas. Since the vast majority of houses built since the war have cost frown $15,000 clown, this poses quite a problem and the fault must be 130 principally laid at the door of our national concept, of cheap temporariness. This, ~ think, scenes front the early pioneering necessities of getting things built as cheaply and as quickly as possible and is terribly, ostentatiously- wl~ile principally subconsciously reflected in our national regulations regarding how houses may be built. Low cost and speed were necessary in the pioneering clays. Today tl~ev are causing fan- tastic waste of opportunity, treasure and na- tural resources. The F.H.A. and the V.A. insure mortgages on most of the houses built today. Their power to control design, materials and n~etl~- ocis of construction are, from a practical point of view, almost limitless. As insurance com- panies, Clay leave stockholders, in this case the American public, anc! they are even more cautious and bent to current tradition than private insurance companies, if possible. The architect, the builder, has to conform to their ideas of what a dwelling should cost. Their tables and statistical data are all based on the way we have been building. prinicipallv in wood. :[f the architect has a project for, say, one thousand $15-70,000 houses he is forced to employ wood principal!;, or the buyer for such louses cannot adorcl to but then. The agencies will not say not to build of masonry' but they will appraise principally: as though wood were to be used because their basic data for appraisal are the size of the dwelling and the number of loony, rather than the quality. Thus we are rapidly building these vast poten- tial suburban slums which without the neces- sary maintenance which they are not going to get are now creating the necessity, for vast surburban redevelopment con~nissions. To rearrange properly the mess we are now creating will cost our children billions of dol- lars. If someone or some group could affect these

insurance agencies sufficiently to allow their appraisals to reflect the cost of fire resistant dwellings, great strides could be made. But when ~ say; this, the decision as to the neces- sity for fire resistance must be sufficient to put an advantage in the hands of a citizen who builds such dwellings. Let me go into some figures here. In a typical house which now sells for $16.- 700, here is the rough breakdown: Construction Cost .......... Land and Improvements .... Miscellaneous fees, construction money, overhead, etc. Profit .. .. . in. . ~ 1nanclng ........ · $ 9500. ... 3000. Thus the actual dwelling the end product -costs about '87G of the total cost. If its cost were raisecI 20: or $1900 in orcler to make use of ~nasonr,n, construction, the end pack- age wouic3 cost $~S,100 or a little over T I GO more than it does now. Compare this with a necessary budget in- crease of 51500 for money alone clue to the rise in interest rates in the last two years. No one asks whether it is appropriate to increase the cost of a house $1500, or approximate 10°/0 to pay the banker, but if you try to increase the quality; by the expenditure of a similar sum for masonry you are absolutely; sty~niecI. The reason T speak of money in adcTi- tion to appearance and psychological and aes- thetic gratifications is that, all rumors to the contrary notwithstanding, handsome, satisfy- ing buildings cost more than others. Architects have done and are cloing wonders with the materials and budgets at hand, but in city planning and achitecture it is idle to separate costs from results. Now, there has been a great deal of talk about '`temporary" buildings and how our modern age changes so rapidly that permanent structures should not be built. It is said that each American family changes its abode every seven years, obsolesence take place rapidity, etc. There is an unfortunate tendency in the United States to relate houses to automobiles in the public, and even in songs professional minds. An automobile is a temporary contrap- tion and the reason for this is that it moves from place to place. A house does not and shouIc] not move. It is related to a garden which takes years to grow to a satisfactory state of maturity. The only thing about a house which is temporary is its mechanical and electrical equipment which can be renewed through the years if the shell is considered as ........ ~ _IJ\J. .......... 1000. . . 1500. a permanent, abiding structure. ..... ....$16,200. Even though Americans may move every seven years, they do not build new dwellings when they move. How attractive would our legacy to our progeny be if we hancled down to them beautifully arranged fire-resistant dwellings with the patina of time on the walls and roofs and surrounded by old, well kept gardens. One of the prinicipal ingredients of beauti ful architecture is contrast. While architects are thrilled by the new developments in glass, steel, plastics and aluminum because of their light weight, their beauty and the real acI vances in (resign which they make possible, n~asonr,v, nevertheless, is the only material in existence that notates possible the proper con trast, balance with the newer materials. :~la sonr,v is the textured tie with the past and the future which itself becomes more beautiful used in juxtaposition to the newer materials, and makes the newer materials more beautiful by its presence with them in architecture. A building which combines the use of masonry with light metals and glass is more beautiful than just a masonry building or just a metal and glass building. Above ~ have been speaking of solid ma sonr,v walls. The whole area of veneers has 131

not been touched upon, and this is a subject of great importance to masonry. Masonry veneer is a beautiful and wonderful thing as long as it is properly usecl. Architects know that the proper way to use masonry veneers is to express the fact that it is a veneer. It is incorrect to use masonry veneer in imitation of solid masonry. This is the same principle which makes it incorrect to use plastic in imi- tation of tile, synthetic paper products in incitation of brick, etc. This produces a dilemma, particularly in houses. Many houses are macle of wood with masonry veneers and their builders point with pride to the fact that they look just like ma- sonry and you don't have to paint the outside. This kinc! of fake is particularly bad and we have a firm rule in the office that n~asonr,v may never be veneered onto wood frame con- struction. The practical reason for this is that a thin veneer of masonry on wood is unsafe in earthquake and is fire-resistant from the out- sicle only. More fires originate in the insides of c~wellings. The fake and sham of veneer on wood is to be avoided. Masonry veneer on masonry structural n~a- terials, however, is a beautiful thing as long as it expresses itself as veneer. Mr. Henry H. Saylor states in his Dictionary of Architecture that masonry is "that branch of construction cleating with plastering, con- crete construction, and the laying up of stone, brick, tile, and other such units with mortar." Too little use is negate in houses of the art and artistry which can be obtained by the use of ceramic veneers, tile and n~arblle. The inte- gration of other arts with architecture is sadly lacking in our tinge. The color and texture which can be added to a building by way of designs with the use of these materials is in- finite anc] too little explored, particularly in houses. Even wealthy people hesitate, for some strange psychological reason, to spend vast 132 sums of money on a dwelling. It somehow seems wrong with our puritanical background to overly embellish the spaces in which one spends one's life. People will travel ant] spend vast sums in order to see the wonders of the world but they don't want to spend an extra $50,000 or $!00,000 for integral color ancI integral decoration which would be possible by using the great artists of our time to ac- complish this. Marble is one of the most beautiful materials in existence ant] it is rarely used in houses, principally because it might give the idea of ostentation to one's neighbors. When one is rich, it is just as ostentatious to pretenc] that one is poor, as it is ostentatious for one who is poor to pretend to be rich. We believe that one place in houses where masonry will be user! to a greater extent in the future than at present is in the kitchen. De- signwise, the American dwelling is becoming more simplified and direct. Most dwellings are still built in incitation of the days when everyone had servants who lived in. This mystic hangover front the past is still present in the basic plan of the so-called central hall plan. This generally means a postage sunup size house with a tiny hall, a tiny living room' a tiny dining room, a tiny kitchen and a tiny den. The impact of easy, servantless' inforn~al living in moderate climatic conditions is ~nak- ing itself felt throughout the country now. More and more people are willing to allow the facts of servantless life to make an impact upon the plan of the house itself. We are now building houses which have a great living-kitchen-recreation-television room as the core of the house. In this room there is a fireplace, barbecue masonry of course- kitchen equipment, television, sofa, chairs for reclining, as well as dining. Then there is a small, quiet room, also preferably with a fire- place and witl1 a door that shuts out the noise

of the big room Then bedrooms and baths to taste. More and noose we are developing dwellings which form a pleasant background for the living of the individuals in them. The individ- ual must have individuality, the person per- sonality, not the house or room, except insofar as it, with gentleness and strength, forms a simple background for the activities of the inclividual and family. An objective view of the development in houses in this country leads to a recognition of the value of the technological advances in equipment of houses set forth above. That same objectivity leads us to recognize the appallingly poor design which characterizes most dwellings built since the war. (This is also true of most of those built before the war.) There is a strange clichoton~y between the great anc! careful attention paid to the equip- ~nent in American houses anc! the general dis- dainfuT ineptituc:le of the design of their struc- tures. This extremely poor design is characterized by the most elen~entary kind of mistake. Dis- regarding the generally poor proportions of the buildings one facade will have three or four different sizes of windows and Coors head ant] sill heights will be different. This is the result of a myopic view on the part of the builder who is generally user] to looking at only one thing at a tinge. More than 9070 of the builclers do not use architects at all. Another objective view shows us that site planning results front a concatenation of all sorts of obsolete rules and regulations, few of which were designed to affect such a situa- tion as has obtained since the war. Prior to World War TI, the majority of houses were built on land which was "de- velopecI" by a subdivider. He then sold these "lots" either to a builder or owner who built houses on then. Thus the rules and regula- tions were made to make a nominal size of "lot," no one knowing what kind or size of house would be put on them at a later date. Since the war the buiTcier and subdivider in most parts of the country were one ant! the same person. Thus for the first tinge in history it is possible to design the subdivision knowing exactly what size of house will go on which particular piece of property. It is possible to vary the volume and size ant! price of houses which are adjacent to each other, thus over- con~ing the awful monotony, the fantastically awful monotony of most of the subdivisions built since the war. That this has not been done has been a great failure on the part of builders and architects. Our subdivisions do not make any provision for the grandmother and grandfather who wish to live in a small house not too far away from their children and grandchildren. We are particularly blessed in America with the vast quantities of beautiful materials readi- Ty at han(l to be used. We have architects an(l builders of great skill. If we could realize, as a nation, that we have these vast resources and that we ought to use then, money to the con- trary notwithstanding, in order to create, wher- ever we build, a Shangri-La of beauty, charm ant] satisfaction, we could do it. it needs but the will for its accomplishment. We have everything else. 133

MUIIi-StOrY Buildings MR. TAYLOR: Thanks very much, Mr. An- shen. ~ will attempt to abuse my position as moderator to make a comment. Mr. Anshen went back to Socrates. Our chairman tried to put me back in Ancient Greece. ~ would only go as far back as Pliny the Second, and i! think anybody who essays to design for climate and he really functional ought to read his description of his villa, where he anticipates many of the things that have been mentioned and are talked about, including the question of a private room away from the noise of the househoZd. It would seem that, in respect to a certain element of the popuZation, Mr. Anshen is an DIGGING into the archives of Smith, Hinch- man & GryIls, prior to 1929, we founc! that three of the skyscrapers designed by that firm furnished an excellent example of the type of thing that we are attempting to :liscuss 1 Robert F. Hastings Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, Inc., Detroit, Mich. ing to modify the phrase "keeping up with the T ~. ~T ? ~ _ [ ~c ~ Joneses' to "keeping down with the Joneses. ~ . Now. to get on with our excetZent pane, here, OUT next speaker is the vice-president of Smith, Hinch man e) GryIls, Inc., one of the oldest and one of the most eminent firms in the country, located in Detroit. He had his special training at the University of Illinois. He has a great deal of concern for the practical and technical aspects of the work produced in that office. He has been very helpful to the ATA in connection with the Committee on Expansion of Schools which served the entire industry by improving the training of consu1~- ing engineers in the Building feld. here today primarily, stone, brick and terra cotta finishes. The 46-story Penobscot Building, done in limestone, back in 1977, is characteristic of the type of structures that one wouIcT expect 135

to see in those clays. Notice the clouble-hung windowing set back from the face of the stone some eight to twelve inches. The BuhT Builcling, in Detroit, is laid out anti plannecT in the front of a Latin cross. This gave us a very efficient type of buiIcling, and the plan was pern~ittecT by the cli~nensions of the site. It was done in 1973 and is a terra cotta faced building. The owners have done an excellent job in keeping it up. The; have gone over it very thoroughly two or three tinges. They have hacl to replace songs of tile stones, but in general it leas Ilelci up very, very; pencil. The 40-story Union Guardian BuilcTing. now called the Guardian BuiTcTing, in Detroit, was clone in brick. There were brick spancirels and metal spandrels usecT at the various story freights. There was also a Tot of very colorful PENOBSCOT BUILDING 136 BULL BUILDING terra cotta usecT where necessary. in order to give color and atmosphere to this building. It is almost unbelievable that the sense person clesignecT this who clesignecT the Penobscot Building. That was our goocT friend Bert Rollin, who was chief designer of our firm at that tinge. This buiTcling is perhaps tile most colorful one of the three, due to tile use of the warn masonry materials. i~-~cI~cTing brick ancT terra cotta. The entrance cletaiI illustrates tile colorful feeling that the designer put into the building. as well as the use of the various types of ~na- sonry materials. Note the character of arclli- tecture going back to the forms and color :LSC' in Aztec architecture. The Federal Reserve Bang; Building, acicTi- tion, (lone twenty-two years after the Union Guardian Building, was Detroit s first major

'' UNION GUARDIAN BUILDING'" FEDERAL RESERVE BANK BUILDING ADDITION UNIO N GUARDIAN BUILDING ENTRANCE downtown office building built after the cle- pression. It is a very daring departure front the snore or less conventional downtown builcl- ings done in the twenties. The designers cie- parted frown the method of construction of the twenties and used a prefabricated curtain wall. It is an addition to a n~arble-faced buiTd- ing, very classic in achitecture. The building has been set back front the property line, rather than providing a court at the rear. For the walls of this building we used a il/2" marble spandrel backed up by two inches of foam glass anal alu~nafoi] insulation. These panels, in turn, are set in stainless steel frames, both vertical ancT horizontal. The TI~ern~o- pane glass is brought forward more or less flush with the n~arble spandrels thcn~seIves. During this saline perioc! that the FecleraI Reserve BuiTcling was being c:lesignecl, Sn~itl~, 137

STEVENS T. MASON BUILDING Hinchn~an 8z GryITs designecl tee Stevens T. Mason Building at the Michigan State Capitol. were done with the saline feeling of lightness that we have attempted to carry through in the other panel wall buildings that we have clone, except that we have used three-incI~ Manicato stone spancirels, and limestone cover- ing on our columns, and then in turn aTu~ni- nu~n sash brought forwarc] snore or less flush with the Mankato stone. The glass area is far less than in the previous l~uilding, but still acle- quate to give a very pleasant living atmosphere for tile office workers in this buiTcling, giving Flea an opportunity to see the pleasant capitol cTeve~opn~ent around it. Our picture of the outsicie cTining area of the Tllis is an eight-story building containing ap- Stevens T. Mason Building illustrates tile liv- proxi~nately 750,000 square feet typical, flex- ing space nude available to the occupants of ible once space that you wouIcT expect to see the building. There is a very pleasant restau- in a capitol clevelopn~ent. The exterior walls rant ancT cafeteria on this grouncT floor, and an OUTSIDE DINING AREA OF STEVENS T. MASON BUILDING STATE CAPITOL DEVELOPMENT 138 . ~_ . ~I_ [ ~ ~ . ~ ..................................... ; [ ,~ ~ ~ ..... ~ 1 t 1 ~ ~ ~............................................... se ~ ~.. .. ~ ~ ~ ~ .......~. ~ At. id ,2,: "':222 .:222:""2:"2 .:.". .2:2:.:2:: ,. .2", ...2. . f - i' .................. ~ a_ ~ e_ 15

~ - ~ EDWARD J. JEFFRIES HOUSING PROJECT Supreme Court and Law Library, and then also a Record or Archives Building. In the design of tile general library or Ar- chives Building we are attempting to carry through the sense ~nasonr,v materials, the saline feeling that we think is consistent with the stately structures that one would expect to cie- sign for a state capitol development. The main capitol is one of those old relics that most states have, and it was done in a sandstone many years ago. It is just one block away frown this group of builclings. The high rise buildings at the Edward l. Jeffries Housing Project clone in brick are not spectacular in appearance, but do provide pleasant, low-cost living facilities for those in- con~e groups tint need them so badIv. i~asonr~ is used because, as has been said many tines previously, it is one of the most economical netllocis of enclosing space. Tile 3-stor,~ office building and telepllone ex- change of the Michigan Bell Telephone Con~- pany in Binningha~n, Michigan, was clesignecI of Norman brick with stack bond, ancl backed up with eight inches of back-up, two inches ~ l ~ . ·~.~.i::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. :::::::::::: - .. ~. ~ . ~ ~ ~1 ! . ... _! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . .. . ~ ~ ~ ~ ........................ ~ I.. ~ ,......................................... ............... , ~ .................................... ~. ~........ MICHIGAN BELL TELEPHONE CO. OFFICE BUILDING outdoor terrace where the employees can dine in tile su~n~erti~ne in a very relaxing and co~n- fortable atmosphere. Smith, HincL~nan & Gratis are now in the preli~ninar,v design stages of the remainder of the capitol clevelop~nent that is projected at this particular tine. The Stevens T. Mason Building is already constructed. In addition to that, there will be a 14-story office building, a ANGELL HALL' UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - ._ - _s ~: - - - - By.. .~; > ~ ~: ~ :~ ~. ~ ~. ~:~ ~? ;~ !~ ~.~ ~ ~§ - . ... --~ -~ ~ ~ ~ : - - - : - - 139

GENER.\L NIOTORS TECHNICAL CENTER of tile anti 3-inch plaster, to give a flush in- terior surface. As you will note, limestone Las been user! very; eEectively at the entrance ancI at one encT in the Tower store; to acic! color anc! interest to the builcling. Our S-storv; aciclition to Angell Hall of tile University of Michigan is aciclecT on to an oicT lancin~ark. It is a cIassroon~ buiTcTing clone in brick laicl up in Fiendish boncI, to Hate the bond of the original builclings. The col- un~ns in tile first story anc! tile trim arounc] tile window ancT between the winclows is clone in limestone. One of the most publicizecT projects in re- cent years has been the General Motors TecI~- nical Center, designecT by Eero Saarinen ancT Associates, and Smith, Hinchn~an & GryITs. AI- though these buiTclings are often thought of as metal pane] structures, a new n~aterial was clevelopec] for this project, namely, the por- celain enamel or the enamel brickwork, which was designee] in orcler to give a more or less sculptured quality to the buiTclings that wouIc! otherwise be harsh, mechanical, inclustrial tripe structures. Tn passing, T might comment that ~ ant very glac] to see that the brick industry is taking the steps that they are. They clicin't have their fine research organization at the tinge He started this project. Anc! when the designers wanted a brick that was not the sane oIcl mechanical, exact dimension type of thing, 140 they hacT to clesign one the~nseives. So they usecT a NVyanclotte brick, and by working with the Cranbrook Acaclen~y of Art, proved you couIcI take a ~Vyanclotte bricT; anc! put on a glaze ancT cleveJop a very pleasant sculptural quality to the material that couIcT acicT softness to structures such as these. Briefly, the project inclucles the research group that you see here, consisting of a clyna- mo~neter type buiTcTing, a shop, a large labora- tory, ancT a metallurgical laboratory. An cl then at the far encT there is the General Motors styling section, ancT then the engineering de- velopn~ent group, and their process developing group, ancl their service group. All of the builcI- ings have the same general character, but are quite cTiFerent in cietail. As you drive arounc] the twenty-two acre lake which was created as a focal point for the Technical Center, you will see the very colorful yellows and reds and blues and tan- gerines and chartreuse bricks at the ends of these structures. .~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~..~.~.~ GNI TECHNICAL CF,~TTER DYNAMONIE,TER BUILDING Above is one of the dynamometer buildings at the General Motors Technical Center, one of the earlier buildings that were developed. There is glazed brick at the end of this struc- ture, and porccIain enamel panels on the side, with painted steel stacks and painted alu~ni- num trinity We could write a book on all of tile things

trusion rubber, which has eli~ninatecT 99 per- cent of our clifEculties. As one wanclers arouncT the General Motors Technical Center, one sees such pleasant views as that shown at the left with the pedestrian light in the foreground anc] briTTiantly-colorecT glazecl brick, which is lightec! in the evening and on special occasions in orcler to give color and texture to the buiTclings arounc! the main lake. In a(l(lition there are the shop-t~pe struc- tures in the background, all softened by tile skillful lanciscaping conceivect by Tone Church ancT a local lanciscape architect, EcT Eichstecit. Our black-ancI-white reproduction of close- up cietaiT of some of the glazecT brick clevelopecT at tee Center misses a most important element GE:NERAL MOTORS TECHNICAL CENTER, GENERAL VIEW that we learned about tile General Motors Technical Center. Our clients were wonclerfuT in working with us in these new materials. \Vc now know how to Blake brick sucks as these. Mie clicT not initialIv. NVe now know how to make panels. Note certainly cTicT not initially. In this particular buiTcling, the wall panels have all had to be reproved ancT new panels replaced. Eve learned. touch to our disappointment, that Calo was certainly: not a material to put in a metal panel. It went all to pot but we have soiled that. bile also learner! that there is no such thing as tile right lying of glazing co~npouncI. In or- cJer to licT; that problem, we went to tile auto- n~otive people. ancT very logically they saicT "\Vell, use the rubber glazing that we use on our autonomies.' So in the later buildings we set our panels anti bile set our glass in ex ~.~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ GENERAL MOTORS TECHNICAL CENTF,R GLAZED BRICK P.\NEES color. But the picture does illustrate tile dif- ference in cti~nension, the sculptural quality and the irregularity of the brick the type of thing we were trying to get to contrast with tile harsh, mechanical pane} and glass exterior. FLINT CULTURAL CENTER 141

FLINT CULTURAL CENTER FLINT CULTURAL CENTER The Flint Cultural Center, which is being, cTesignec3 by Smith, HincT~n~an & GryIls, is an example of the use of alun~inu~n panels, por- celain enhance] panels, brick, some n~arLle, ancT all those colorful n~aterials in order to give a vibrant canapes atmosphere to the entire project. This group of builclings will inclucle a large auditorium for approximately 3,000 people, a transportation building, a ~nuseu~n, pllanetari- um, a senate auclitoriu~n, an art school anc! 142 auditorium, ant! a library;. It is placed adjacent to a junior college, down the ravine tonne thirty feet. It is a very spectacular sight up high on the hill with thirty-two acres, which permits the designers to place their buildings in an arrangement that can lee very inexpressive. Smith, Hinchman feels that a great clear has been learned during the last ten years in the use of metal pane] construction. We do not feel, however, that panel construction should be limited to aluminum, stainless steel, porce- lain enamel and like panels. There are many instances where masonry units provicle far superior materials for specific applications. This is why masonry was usecT in the Fecleral Re- serve Bank building in Detroit and the Michi- gan State Capital clevelopn~ent at Lansing. We feel that this is a most exciting day for architectural clesigners. New materials and techniques have given these designers un- clrean~ec3 of opportunities. In the last few years, however, I'n~ afraid that too many of us have been so wrapped up in the techniques of constructing unites ancT unites of prefabricated metal walls which all look alike that we have neglected the warn, colorful, sculptural quali- ties necessary in good achitecture. Masonry materials can be used to supply these neces- sary ingredients and should be used wherever Possible

Hospitals FIR TAYLOR: If the ax-professor may be permitted one contingent, we have been saying for the last twenty years that this new crudity represented by the archaic character of some of the contemporaries woozy have to be hu- mani~ed, and f think you see it is being done, and clone very successfuZZy, in a very interest- zng way. GENTLENIEN ~ awn delightecT to be here this morning anc! discuss the hospital problem, with particular reference to masonry. ~ hope to give you nay basic thesis in a nut- sllell so 1[ Piglet be able to give you a message that T fee! very sincerely is an important one if we are to use masonry properly and effectively in not only hospital buildings, but in all of our design. Vincent G. Kling :\rcizitect, Philadelphia, Pa. Our next speaker is a practicing architect front PhiZadeZphia. He has had his profes- sionaZ training at Columbia University. Also, one of his hospitals placed in the AlA Honor Awards. He has combined the functionalism of the complicated probZen~ of a modern hos- pitaZ with some very striking design. ~ ant very gZacl to present Mr. Vincent G. :K'ling. ~ feet tile greatest problem we leave in appl`;- ing masonry is to recognize that we have cone of age in structures where our builclings are being framed in tile lightest possible manner and then being clad in tile lightest possible enclosure, compatible, of course, Fitly fire- proofing problems and good weathering. We leave done many, many buildings in wl~icl~ masonry products leave been glee basic 143

irlclosure and a good percentage of tile in- terior subdivision of the building. But we have always tried to use the masonry in a light and skin-Tike manner. Masonry, to nay father, meant a wall cleat carried a load; it meant a wall that dicl a tremendous amount of work structurally. Ma- sonry, to us today, means a system of enclos- ing space, and certainly a very economical one. ~ feel that in adapting n~asonr,v units to our buildings we have blazed some trails and made some mistakes. And I a1n going to bare 1nv soul, just as the previous speaker c3id, and try to tell you some of the experiences we have Lad, some of the things we are doing to over- con~e difI;culties we have found. Now, T guess most of you architects have tried cavity walls on your buildings. :it does give us a system of lighter construction. It also gives us a much thinner wall to do the job of keeping out the weather, and also giving us an inside finish. We had songs very interesting experiences with cavity walls, and ~ think prob- ably the most serious one is tl~e cone-and-go problem. When the old masonry walls did a job from the ground to the roof and were bonded through in a very thick and massive manner, they took their thermal stresses in a very orderly way. We find now that cavity walls give a great deal of difI;culty in connection with the n~oven~ent of the outside which takes all the heat and the inside which rocks along behind the air space and doesn't noose as n~uch as the outside, and we have some very serious problems with separation of the masonry units. The answer obviously is a n~uch smaller increment of subdivision of the outside skin- facing of Else brick. NVe have also had tonne fun Title the appli- cation of masonry products on the interior. Naturally, when we use them in subdividing space, they Second a light division element. The faster they can be put in place, the better. 144 The greener the wall that we can deliver to the customer, the happier he is, because he can occupy the building that much sooner. But that is Allele we begin to leave our probes. iNot so many years ago we started to use thin setting becT materials for applying n~a- sonry products. And now ~ awn consicLering ceramics, structural tile, as part of tl~is family;. It makes a very delightful ancT simple way of facing a rough block wall, simply to apply a glazed tile set Title one of the patented compounds that holds that tile to tile wall, in lieu of tl~e good old mortar setting ~etl~ocI. Two great big problems carve into our sloop througl~ that installation the first of Alicia was that tile vapor pressure in that wall, else moisture that was entrained in it, particularly if it were a cinder block wall as a divider, wanted out, and it wanted out as soon as tl~e building took heat, and it did a great deal of co~npro~nising as far as the a(lllesive was concerned. So we had this beautiful tile work peeled frown our wall. We also found that the saline filling l;lap- pened in connection with any ~necl~anical gear travelling in the space. If the walls were super- heated, tl~e adhesive failed. TO great virtue, it seems to fee, in tile use of ~nasonr,~- units as an interior space divider in the hospital field is tl~e fact that it leas mass, and by leaving mass, it gives us the kind of acoustical control that we are seeking in so many areas in the hospital. The divider walls between bedrooms, the enclosing walls arouncT labor rooms the entire objective of building hospitals which leave an environment Illicit is conducive to landing people Alto are in distress. NVe find that the mass in the wall, when done with a masonry unit, gives us an acoustical advantage over the lightweight construction. Of course, again, we load up our structure. But ~ thinl: the very basic law of physics which says that mass stops sound is one which we

POTTSTOWN HOSPITAL, POTTSTOWN' PA. The design cor.nbines masonry with panels. The porcelain and enamel en crate help to break up the west sun. The end wall and some of the around level face world are done in brick to tie flee new wing in with the old brick structure on the site. have adopted ancT we are using very success- fuliv. J ~ would like to point out that the great objective ~ have hac] in the design of this particular buiTcling type is to create an en- vironn~ent where people can go when they: are sick. wizen their kinfolk are in distress, ancT get some lift frown the experience of us- ing the buiTcTing that overcomes the stresses that exist within the walls of every hospital. It is not only goocT for the people who go there as patients ancT Visitors, but it is very- helpful to the people who work in a hospital to enjoy an environment which is quite cTifferent front the institutional hospital buiTcling that we saw spring up all over the country- before tile war. It seems to Nile that the general practice then was to enclose these buildings with brick or lin~estone ancT Allen subdivicle them Keith a glazecT procluct of some kind in orcler to get tile sanitation and ease of maintenance that hospitals IllUSt have. how, we cannot quite agree w it's that tonsil . NVe think that there nest be a little more love and a little snore cheer in the thing, ancT we have limited our glazed ceramic products, structural block, our tile, various types of flooring which give us excellent housekeeping. but very noisy, shiny surfaces-we have finitely those to the areas where clinical con 145

HUNTERDON MEDICAL CENTER, FLEMINGTON, N. J. This is a brick building with sp andrels sub- divided at intervals. The brick is complemented with projecting, eyebrows in architectural con- crete and a textured bottom. ditions must prevail. ~ see no excuse for lining the walls, the corridor walls, in a patients' area, with ceramic product that shines with ever`; light that reflects frown it and bounces bacT; every noise that is emitted in that corridor. NVe do feel there is no substitute, gentle- n~en, for a good grade of ceramic tile in an area which is subjected to the chemistry, the abuser the live steam, that a hospital operating room must endure. We have tried other materials. Some of them are excellent under abrasion and excellent under washing operations ancI leave fewer joints. But they succumb to the heat propylene, or they succumb to the che~nis- try propylene. AncT we feet in those areas where the most critical conditions of sanitation must be ~naintainecI, the goocT oIc] ceramic product is pretty hard to beat. Now, we translate that down to the floor level of the buiTcTing, ant] we have a very critical problem in the hospital fieTcT today. ~ guess every agency involvecT in the safety of the patient in the operating room in a hospital has delved into the probe of floor surfacing for the operating suite, the delivery suite, the emergency operating areas. Mociern ~neclicine 146 employs very hazardous gases for anesthetic purposes. These gases, when sniped with oxy- gen normally acin~inistere(1 to a patient on an operating table, procluce a very violent ex- plosion when ignite] by either static elec- tricity or other electrical disorders in the space. The National BoarcT of Fire Underwriters says we have got to produce a static-arresting floor in these operating rooms, ancT they slave set a limitation on the ohms of resistance that title floor must have. Ancl until very recently; the bible said use carbon black in a terrazzo co~npouncI. ~ clon't think that is the answer. Eve have hacT too much of it fait. Anc: we now lean back towards the brick and tile in- clustry for the answer that was found in the use of a ceramic tile on the floor. So we have been working with the tile boys .JEFFERSON MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL. This ]~uildin~; represents the constant striving of the architect to get a building which ernl~races masonry, but at the same time expresses the light, frame-lil~e quality of our modern- structures.

~ ~ ~ Ail - S ~ ~ c ~ ... ~< ~. m .~ . ~ } ~ .~ ... q HUNTERDON MEDICAL CENTER' FLEMINGTON' N. J. The sand brick and yellow panels give a Waring cheerful appearance to this TB hospital for children. Hard-burned brick was used for the inside division of the space. on the subject of tile floors in wI~ich each tessera of tile has its conductive capacity built into it when it is firecl. bile think this is a great stride in this Relet of safe practice in hospital operating rooms. Certainly the problems of maintenance anc] housekeeping in other areas of the hospital are very con~fortably handled with tile procl- ucts the kitchens, the utility rooms, becT pan closet rezones. ~ certainly think the toilet rounds do enjoy a very definite acI`antage front the use of the tile product. We have tried many of the plastic products which have been de- veloped to replace tile, ancT without belaboring the situation, we still feel that for the very difficult problem of thermal change, a certain amount of chemistry, abusive abrasives ancT clean-down, your glazecl biscuit is about the best answer to the problems. ~ wouIc] like to talk in a very general way about large sheet masonry materials that we are using the marble, the Iin~estone, and granite. ) think we have built into songs of our buil(lings Tong-ter-~n maintenance head- aches by skinning down tl~e physical climLen- sions of tile sheet materials to reduce the clead- Toad on the lightweight steel or concrete France builcling. ~ have concluded that this is a wall- paper operation and we had better stop doing it, because the long-tern~ performance of a 147

thin facing n~aterial is a very hazardous thing for us to recon~n~encl in tile building of our buildings. have been offset by paying the freight for a little thicker material and doing it right in the first place. T ant sure on some of your jobs the amount ~ have therefore designecT nag buildings with of breakage anc! the distress you have had in a view toward using masonry in senate pane! setting up thin facing materials couIc:l very well units as a skin n~ateriaT. 148

Schools MR. TAYLOR: Our next speaker represents the seconds generation in the practice of archi- tecture. His father was one of the eminent Lawrence Ba Perkins Perkins & Will Chicago, ill. school in Winnetka, ~ think most people woozy agree, marks the major turning point in the design of school buiZ1ings. Mr. Perkins is a FeIZow of the American Institute of Architects and had his profes architects of Chicago in the preceding genera- tion. He has inherited ~ lot of experience in school buildings. His firm, in association with sionaZ degree from Cornell. r am sure that the elder Saarinen, did a building which is Lawrence B. Perkins wiZZ have interesting not very old, but which is already historic. The things to say about school buildings. E VERYTHING of a general nature WiliCi1 T material; to you, Mr. AnsIlen, for many of wouicl like to have saicT Las been saic! by the tile things you said beautifully, articulately, preceding speakers in a way tint T wish ~ wisely, on the relation of materials to each could have saic! it. Put one (lown for several other and your wishes for greater wiscTon1 in brief "~ne-too's" to you, Mr. Kling, on the their use; and to you, Mr. Hastings, for tile bitter experience with concrete as a finish many tilings you saicI. 149

Tile purpose of slowing the classroom pic- ture of tee Heathcote School, Scarsdale, N.Y. (at right) is to illustrate a relation of masonry to tl~e earth on wl~icl: it rests. It is an instru- ~nent for snaking a warns ancT pleasant con- nection between the enroll, ancT the roof of the enclosure. ~ not particularly new discovery Las been that walls seems to be attacker! front else ton. Therefore we use overhangs. During an early experience as a maintenance Nan, one of nay clitoris was to replace 600 feet of parapet wall, with three other guys. It took us quite a wl~ile. In our office tociav. anvbocT~ ~. . . , . . . who wishes to put a parapet wall into one of our clesigns Slav clo so coincident Title Lois . . resignation. ~ clon't know whetter this school building is properly n~asonr~; or not. but tl~e effect of tile view sloven below could be achieve Title any building material. The stone wl~icl~ you see timbre is decorative stone usecT as transition frown tl~e earths to flee builcTing. Allis stone traveled less than thirty feet to get there. It was part of flat we leach to blast to slope the floor for a little theater Chicle adjoins. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. . ~ HEATHCOTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL' SCARSDALE' N. Y. 150

~ ~ - ~ - ~ - - - ~ ~ - ~ - - There are two kincTs of space. There are the square feet that you Quill, which you measure, which you pay money for, generally too much money for too few of the square feet. There is also the illusion of space- by far the snore i~n- portant kincT of space as far as the art of archi- tecture (as distinguished front the mechanics of buildings is concerned. The illusion of space is what you really ex- perience relating the inside of a school to the outside to prevent any feeling of being trappect. We think masonry has been an instrument in nearing possible a feeling of snore space than that which you could pay for. Example Everybody has ridden in the roo~nette of a PulIn~an car. Think for a nominate HOOVER SCHO0~7 NEENAH' WISC. what an intoleral~le little tin can that would be without its huge oversized Winslow. Sup- pose you had a porthole instead. Suppose you didn't have the mirrors. Suppose that it actually Toolied the size that it physically is. How notary of you wouIct buy space in it? Not very nanny. It is tolerable because you sit in a space just barely big enough to hoIcl your physical body, and you final yourself part of the outside worIcl which you are passing. This same attitude is an element in the design of most school build- ings today. It is not stylistic reasons or fashion reasons that have caused us to turn our backs on previous structures; it is the need for the sense of flow from the limited space in which you sit to tile larger space in which you wish to tale part psychologically. 151

~ tiling that structure and materials leave lead relativeiv little to do Title tile change in J design of school buildings. Tile changing awareness of Low people use buildings, Low Cloy feel almost buildings, Low teaching is conducted, DOW learning takes place, sliest leave done snore to change the design of schools than all the technology Of Willis century. BLYTHE PARK SCHOOL, RIVERSIDE, ILl,. HEATHCOTE SCHOOL, SCARSD \LE' A. Y. Timbre Ilave been some i~nproven~ents, of course, particularly ~necl~anical. But many SCilOO]S you see could 1lave been built in 1900. Tile need to approach cl~iTclren in man; different ways rather tIlan the single-~nindecI, bookish way leas necessitated a broadening of tile tools of teaching, wl~icl~ in turn requires just plain space. FOCANTICO HILLS CENTRAL SCHOOL, N. Y. 152

To achieve that space, we have done what was clone in the time between the Romanesque churches and tile Gothic churches and undone widen tile GotI~ic style started to have its reciprocal influence back on its parent, Italy;. We leave taken Toad-bearing walls ancT usecT talent wI:ere they are normal to the exterior of tee building rather than to enclose space. This change of thinking, frown tile enclosed space to the larger, open, and more fluid appearing space, is, ~ believe, a response to people rather than structure. The quite comfortable suburb of Winnetta, IlI., choose to let this building shown below go ahead in tile cannon brick with which we nor~naliv face the back and sides of a cheap apartment buiTcling. This is a select version of our Chicago cannon. This overhang takes cognizance, in a structural sense, of the fact that in ever:: builcling, the minute the seconc! brick gets on the first, the forces of nature be- gin their work to put that building back into the earth again. Think how sad you wouIcT be if it were not so and we had all of the inheri- tance of buiTctings that were built thousands of years ago. Destruction is a very- merciful thing. ~ have had Inane; occasions to give tI~anks to it in other people's work, and son~e- tin~es in our own. Choosing this cannon brick for what was taken the luxury public school building of the country 1939 was, ~ think, more than a piece of calculated arrogance. It certainly was designed consciously to shame the prudes who put face brick on the front and this on the sicle and back. T believe there is a song about tile Queen Anne in front and Mary- Anne be- hind. We decided here that perhaps it would be an interesting contribution if we could glamorize Mary Anne. .~ ~ .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CROW ISLAND SCHOOL' WINNETKA' ILL.

Closing Remarks WE ARE indebtecT to the Chamber of Con~- n~erce for this handsome mounting for the program of the BuiTcling Research Institute, ancT it is a privilege for the Institute to have the use of these accon~n~ociations. ~ cannot resist saying, on behalf of the architects included in the several technical panels of this conference. that ~ wouic] like to thank the Building Research Institute for then, for the privilege they have enjoyed in meeting with you and participating in your studies. T think architects are stin~ulating and inter- esting people. it is conceivable that, in certain personal instances, some of you may prefer a more colloquial description of architects. C. E. Silling C. E. Silling & Associates, Charleston, W. Va. In this Builcling Research Institute Con- ference on Modern Masonry, you have heard authoritative statements on research in fire clay products, natural stone, n~arble, granite, the cavity, veneer and face-bonded walls, meth- ods for their reinforcement, their thern~al performance, in-the-wall costs, and a variety of ideas on maintenance. Also we have had an analysis of building types, the importance of over-all industry adoption of modular meas- ures, so ably presented by Mr. Ralph Walker, the aesthetic Pendants of contemporary archi- tecture upon masonry. All of us in the Building Research Institute are indebted to these several speakers for the exhaustive treatment of their subjects and 155

their generosity- in coining 1lere for this oc- of construction. Australia sent a productivity casion. But teat they; woulcT clo so is full recogni- tion of the eminent place occupier] by the Building Research Institute in this great sprawl of American business callecT the builcT- ing inclustr,v. En~boIclenec] be; the kincT tolerance of my impertinent introductions of the session chair- n~en, ~ would now like to l~azarc] these per- sonal remarks. ~ believe one of the greatest unrealized ancT unexploited opportunities for tl~e builcTing in- clustry to capture the public imagination ancT cTeliver to it a real aciclecT value in design ancT lower cost lies in an inclustry-wicle aclop- tion of the system of nodular measure. In no ~ J view, once it is acloptecT ancl its many acI- vantages properly acivertisecI, our competitive reach for the investors' ancT the consumers' cTollar will be comparably in~provecT. It is not something that is uniquely proposed to be projected better or not you are willing. It is a world-wicie search. You ren~en~ber that Ralph Walker toIcT you of the stucTies the British were snaking. Bill Den~arest, who heaclec] this up for the ALA, has appearec! by invitation in France to discuss this ~nethocI 156 team to this country, ancT one of their prime interests was a rather exhaustive stucly of nodular measure. At this meeting, T have been invited to meet at a later time with architects and buiTcling people in a Canadian national convention. So that it is not just something that is picket] out of the air, but it has a history anc] a success where it has been usecT, in the very single manner in which it has been set up. ~ believe adequate shelter is the business of everybody. When a n~asonr,~ unit of any n~a- terial, color, texture or size is ~nanufacturecI, quarried, processed, sold, or incorporated in any; planner in or about a building, every human component that cones in contact with it at any stage of that clevelopn~ent exerts his influence for goocT or evil on the aesthetic ancT economic effect of contemporary architecture. We plan ancT clesign together- ~nanufacturer, supplier, contractor, architect, owner. Let us search ourselves that each one of us may aic] in an improving culture for all of our people. Gentie~nen, tl~e Conference on Modern Ma- sonry is acljournecI.

Attendance at the Conference Abel, Carl R., Structural Engineer, Bricl; & Tile Service, Inc. 1021 Arnold St., Grecusboro, N. C. Accardo, Joseph I., Supervising Architectural-Engi- nccr Dept. of Bldgs. & Grouncls, 300 Indiana As c.. IT. \\''' ., Washington, D. C. Adler, Harold, Architectural Student, Catholic Uni- versit~ of America, 7943 1 5th Avc., Hyattsvillc, Md. Ahern, Frank L., Chief Safctv Officer, National Parl; Scrx-ice, Interior Building, Washington 25, D. C. Allen, Harr`; G., State Architect, Dept. of Public \Vorl;, Di`-. State Arch. & Eng., 70 5 Ohio Dc- partmcuts Blab., 6 5 S. Front Strcct, Columbus 1 5, Ohio. Allen, Malcolm H., Manager, Field Engineering & Development, Structural Clay; Products Rescarch Foundation, Geneva, Illinois. Allison, David C., Technology Editor, Architectural Forum, 9 Rockefcller Plaza, New York, N. Y. Alwine, Charles E., President, Alwinc Bricl; Com- pan;;, New Oxford, Pennsylvania. Anderson, Jack B., Associate Editor, Brick & Clay Record, 5 S. NNiabash A~cnue, Chicago 3, Ill. Arconti, Bart, Sr., President, Bart Arconti & Sons, Inc., '92 2 Hicl;orv; A; c., Baltimore 1 1, Md. Areas, Arthur, Jr., Partner, Purloins Liz Will, Archi- tc ts & Engineers, 309 NVcst Jacl~son Bled., Chi- ca~,o 6, Ill. Atkins, Williams F., Prcsidcnt, Expanded Shale Clay: & Slate Institute, '72 IIamilton Strcct. Allentown, Penn. Baber, Aubrev V., Manager, Technical Devclop- ~nent, Pcoplcs Research & Mfg. Company, 246 N. Higl~ Strcct, Columbus, Ohio Bach, Carl H., President, Tuthill Building Material Co., '4' E 10'rd St., Chicago 78, Ill. Barnes, Albert E., Manager, Architectural Products Promotion, Cladding, McBean & Co., 1275 Har- rison Street, San Francisco 3, Calif. Barrett, Fred M., President, Matthc~vs Bros. Co., Box 6S, Bloomington, Ind. Barron, Leslie A., Manager, Technical Service. Vermiculite Institute, 208 S. LaSalle Strect, Chi- cago 4, Ill. Bartlett, William H., Chief Engineer, Dur-O-\Val Bldg., 650-12th Arc., SW, Div., Cedar Rapids Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Beard, Reed, Director of Sales, Indiana Li~cstone Co., Inc., Bedford, Ind. Bell, Carlton D., Chief Architect, Ford Motor Co.. '1800 Brandingham, Franklin, Mich. Bennett, I. E., Manager, Froehling & Robertson, Inc., 170 3 Sixth Street, N.W., Washington 1, D. C. :Bennett, Richard M., Lochl, Schlossman & Bennett, 430 N. Michigan Alec., Chicago 11, Ill. Bergs, Joseph M., Gencral Superintendent, James King ~ Son, Inc., 350 5th Avenue, New York, N. Y. Best, Stu C., Sales Manager, Sccretary-Treasurer, Toronto Brick Co., Limited, 425 Ba~;view Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Bennett, Robert J., Architect, Robert J. Bennett ck Associates, Monongahela Building, Morgantown, NV. Va. Blair, John O., Architect, The Detroit Edison Co., 2000 2nd Ave., Detroit 26, Mice. Blickensderfer, Robert, Advisory Engineer-Bldg. Products, Arn~co Steel Corporation, 70 ~ Curtis Street, Middletown, Ohio Bock, Paul L., Eastern Sales Manager, Lime ~ Stone Division, \Varner Co., 1721 Arch Street, Phila- delphia 3, Pa. 157

Boeglen, Durwood L., Vice Prcsident, Cusll`~-a Bricl: Co., 137 Ingral~am Strcct, N. E., ~Vashing- ton 11, D. C. Booker, Merle B., Chicago Salcs Rep., Ingalls Stone Co., 337 S. Micl~igan Avc., Chicago, Ill. Boone, Donald I., Cl~cmist, Congoleum-Nairn, Inc., Kcarny, N. l. Brayton, Trillion B., Division Sales Manager, Medusa Portland Cement Co., 3 010 Ridgewood Ave., Baltimore 15, Md. Breed, Charles W., Carbide & Carbon Chemical Co., South Charleston, By. Va. Brewer, Arthur S., Vice President, Salcs. Natco Corporation, 325 5th Ave., Pittsburgh 22, Pa. Bridg~nan, C. T., Dircctor of Engineering HAT Rc- scarcl~. Goodwin Afliliated Companies, 206 Ccn- tral National Building. Dcs Moincs, Iowa. Brown, Jazzes I., Asst. Salcs Manager, Baltimore Bricl; Co., 3200 E. Madison St., Baltimore, Md. Brown, Joseph A., Presidcut, Baltimorc Bricl; Co.. 3200 E. Madison St., Baltimore. Md. Brown, Paul B., Vice Prcsident, Harley, Ellington & Day, Inc., 153 E. Eliz.abetl~ St.. Detroit 1, Micl~. Brown, Will. S., Staff Arcllitcct, Building Research Advisory Board, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.\V., \Vasllington 25, D. C. Byce, Richard, Chief Enginccr, Miller-Dais Co., 1029 Portage Strcct, Kalamazoo, Mich. Cain, Walker O., McKim, :Mead ~ NVl~ite' 101 Parl; Avenue, New Yorl:, 17, New Yorl;. Caputo, Arnold, Division Salcs lVIanagcr, Plasticrcte Corp., 1883 Dixwell Avc., Hamden 14, Conn. Carney, Jack W., Southern Bricl; ~ Tile Mfrs. Assn., 1328 Candler Bldg., Atlanta 3, Ga. Cochran, Marion, Civil Engineer, Brick (sir Tile Serv- ice, Inc., 1021 Arnold St., Grccnsboro, N. C. Cole, Frank W., Architect, F. ~V. Cole Associates, 17 2 8 Connecticut Ave., N.\V., Washington 6, D. C. Conners, William, 1st Vice Prcsident, Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers' International Union of America, 815-15th St., Washington 5, D. C. Cook, Byron W., Vice President Car Sales Manager, Stark Ceramics, Inc., Box 230, Canton, Ohio. Coombs, James E., President, Balker ~ Coombs, Inc., 601 E. Brockway Ave., Morgantown, W. Va. Copeland, Ronald E., Director of Engineering, Na- tional Concrete Masonry Assn.. 33 So. Dearborn St., Chicago 3. Ill. Conradi, Robert W., Secretary, Linit NIasonrv Assn., 2436 Kosciusko St., St. Louis 4, iMo. Correalc, William H., Director, Bureau of Con- struction, New York Citv Board of Education 42-15 Crescent St., Long Island City 1, N. Y. 158 Crowley, James B., Executive Dircctor, Unit ~Ia- sonry Assn., 122 N. 7tl1 St., St. Louis 1. Pro. Culin, Ne~nbhard N., l~rcderick G. [Frost Associates, 144 E. 30tl1 St., NO York 16, N. Y. Curtis, John, Rescarcll Dircctor, Vermont 1\Iarblc Co., 61 :Main St., Proctor, Vt. Cushwa, David K., Victor Cusllwa & Sons. ~iVil- liamsport, Md. Cushwa, Victor, Gcncral Manager, Victor Cusllwa & Sons, N~Villiamsport, livid. Dalry~nple, Win. L., Architect Service, U. S. Gyp- sun~ Co., 1001 Arlington Blvd., Arlington 9, Va. Daues, Fred H., President, Mason Contractor Assn. Of America, 708 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, Ill. Davison, Max H., Simpson & Davison, ~ 808 So. Troy St., Chicago 23, Ill. De~narest, Brilliant, Assistant Director, Construction Dept., N.A.H.B., 1625 L St., Washington, D. C. Denny, Robert R., Public Relations Dircctor, Henry J. Kaufman ANT Associates, 1409 I] St., N. TV., N~Vasl~ington 5, D. C. Diclcey, Walter L., Chief Civil Engineer, Power Divi- sion, Bechtel Corp., 101 California Strect, San l~rancis~o 11, Calif. Dietrich, Les. J., Owner, Dietricl: Bricl; Contracting Co., 10030 Conway, St. Louis, Mo. Dillon, Robert M., Staff Arcl~itcct, Building Re- search Advisory Board, ~ 101 Constitution Ave., N.\V., iVasl~ington 25, D. C. Dodge, James Robert, Architectural Advisor, Inter- national Housing Service, HHFA, LaFayette Bldg., Washington, D. C. Donaldson, Lee E., Indiana Li~nestonc Institute, Beclford, Ind. D'Orazio, P. Arthur, Architect, 1005 Belmont Ave.. Youngstown 4, Ohio Duhig, M. Michael, Claim Construction Engineer, Bakelite, U.C.C., /17 Denninger Road, North Plainfield, N. J. Edwards, Herbert C., Gen. Masonrv Superintendent, Balker Liz Coombs, Inc., 601 E. Brockwav Ave., Morgantown, NV. Va. Ellis, Nelson L., Sales Promotion Manager, Eastern Stainless Steel Corp., P. O. Box 1975, Baltimore 3, told. Erickson, Ernest L., Architect, NVebber ~ Ericl;son, Gryphon Bldg., Rutland, Vt. Evans, Roy G., President, Bedford Stone Service, P. O. Box 144, Bedford, Ind. Eyerly, George, Ceramic Engineer, iMalvern Bricl: Tile Co., P. O. Box 415, Malvern, Ark. Widen, Henry, Architect, Henry Widen & Associates, 809 Churchill Dr., Charleston, W. Va.

Farrell, Hal C., Assistant to Executive Director, Building Research Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W.. Washington 25, D. C. Faulkner, Waldron, Senior Partner, Faull;ner, Kings- bury ~ Stcnhouse, 1200-lStl~ St., N.W., NVasl~- ington 6, D. C. Ferrell, Dallas R., Architect, Henry; Eldcn & Assoc., 509 Churchill Drive, Charleston, W. Va. Fisher, Howard, President Howard Fisher ~ Asso- ciates, '22 W. NVasl~ington St., Chicago 6, Ill. Freen~an, Paul E., Development Engineer, Alun~i- num Co. of America, New Kensington, Pa. Frey, Hugh B., Enginccr, American Telcpl~one & Telegraph Co., 195 Broadwav, Room 1~30A, New York I, N. Y. pry, Arthur L., New Product Dcvclopmcnt Engineer, Minnesota Mining, ~ Manufacturing Co., 900 Fanquicr Ave., St. Paul 6, Minn. Fry, Louis E., Professor of Arcl~itccture, Howard University, \Vasl~ington 1, D. C. Furbee, Fritz, Sales Engineer, Claycraft Company, Columbus, Elsie. Gabler, Cornelius L. T., Architect, Cornelius L. T. Gabler & Associates, '300 Book BlUg., Detroit 26, Micl~. Gacde, Robert C., Arcl~itcct, Robert C. Gacde Arcl~i- tect, 3725 Lee Rd., Cleveland, Ohio. Gaertner, Edward C., Assistant to Acting Director, Bldg. Materials Liz Construction Div., Business & Defcr~sc Service Adm., U. S. Dept. of Commerce, NVasl~ington, D. C. Gill, G. Douglas, Architect, Grayson Gill, Architects & Engineers, 1913 San Jacinto St., Dallas 1, Taxes. Gillengerten, Lawrence P., Building &7 Propertv Sec- tion, Procter ~ Gamble Co., ~ A.&R. Bldg., Ivorvdale, Cincinnati 17. Ohio. Gloninger, James L., Partner, Gloninger Sir CO.. 1815 Washington Rd., Pittsburgh 2S, Pa. Condo, Keln~an P., Architectural Enginccr, Bricl; & Tile Service Inc., 1021 Arnold St.. Greensboro, N. C. Gray, George V., Associate Architect, New York State Executive Dept., Division of Budget, Capi- tol Bldg., Alban,v, New Yorl:. Grimm, Clayford T., Assistant Director of Engineer- ing, Structural Clav Products Institute, 1 5 ~ 0-1 Sth St., N.W., ~Vashirigton, D. C. Gutschick, Kenneth A., Managers Technical Service, National Lime Association. 925-15th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. Hagenbuch, Dave B., Sales Manager, Progressive Architecture, 430 Parl: Ave., New Yorl;, N. Y. Haines, Barney, Partner, Gloninger & Co., 1 815 Washington Rd., Pittsburgh 28. Pa. Halle, Roger, 2/ I Park Ave., New Yorl; 1/, N. Y. Harrer, Anthony I., Architect, Ronald S. Senscman, /705 Georgia Ave., Washington, D. C. Hartshorn, George E., Supervising Structural Engi- necr, General Services Administrc.tion, 19tl~ & St., Nil., Washington, D. C. Harwood, John E., Architect, iVoolwine Har~vood & Clark, American Trust Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. Hastings, Robert F., Smith, Hinchman & Grvlls Inc., 243 by. Congress, Detroit, Mich. Hawkins, Albert W., Assistant Director. Bal;elitc Corp., River Road, Bound Brook, N. J. Hawkins, Robert, President, Thrnwav Builders Sup- plics, Buffalo Brick Corp., 3200 Genesee St., Buffalo 25, N. Y. Heard, Sanford K., Technical Advisor to Federal Govt., Owcns-Corning Fiberglas Corp., 806 Connecticut Ave., N.\V., Washington, D. C. Heider, S. A., Staff Engineer, Building Rcsearcl~ Ad- visory Board, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.~V., Washington 25, D. C. Henry, Warren C., Jr., Associate, Kemp. Bunch Ckr Jackson, Arcl~itccts, 3 3 So. Hogan St., Jacl;son- villc 2, Fla. Henriksen, C. O., iMason Contractors Association of America, 2~00 So. Avers Ave., Chicago 2/, Ill. [Iickev, Don L., Salesman, Louisville Cc~nent Co., Box Al, Greenbelt, Md. Hidding, T. R., Twin Citv Tile ~ Marble Co., 213- 219 East Island Ave., Minneapolis 1, Quinn. Hoadley, John A., President, B. G. Hoadley Quar- rics, Inc., P. O. Box 112, Bloomington, Ind. Hollister, Robert, Senior Engineer, Turner Con- struction Co.. 1500 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 2. Pa. Holmes, Burton H., Technical Editor, Progressive Architecture, 430 Parlor Ave., New Yorl:, N. Y. I]orner, J. R., Director, Advertising & Promotion, Glen-Gery Shale Bricl: Corp., Reading, Pa. Horowitz, Harold, Associate Architect, Building Re- search Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.\V., Washington, D. C. Howe, A. T., Vermont Marble Co.. 61 Main Street, Proctor, Vt. Hubbard, Gene, Manager, Prefabrication Research, Kawneer Company, Niles, Mich. Huber, George S., Executive Assistant Sales iMan- ager, Pepsico Corp., 5601 Eastern Avenue, Balti- n~ore 24, Md. Huckins, Edgar W., Chief, Nonmetallic Building Materials Branch, Business & Defense Service Edwin., Dept. of Co~nn~erce, Washington As, D. C. 159

Ingalls, Robert, Jr., Administrative Assistant to the Liberthson, Leo, Technical Director, L. Sonneborn President, Ingalls Stone Co., P. O. Box 507, Bed ford, Ind. Iversen, Harry, General Sales Manager, Manley Co., Inc., 101 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. Japp, Paul D., Pittsburgh Corning Corp., 1 Gate- way Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Karge, Alfred E., Vice-Prcsident, Chicago Cut Stone, 9355 Byron St., Schiller Parl:, Ill. Keane, Gustave R., Chief of Production, Eggers Higgins, Architects, 100 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. Kelly, H. W., Micst Virginia Bricl; Co., Charleston, W. Va. Kennickell, Edwin M., Architect, Design Section, Civil Engineering Division, U. S. Coast Guard, 1300 E St., N.W., Washington 25, D. C. Kent Stanley R., Architect, 56 Kings Cres., Aja:;, Ontario, Canada Kieffer, Jack H., Architectural Apprentice, Carbide Or Carbon Chemicals Co., 437 MacCorkle Ave., S.W., South Charleston 3, W. Va. King, Hector I., Professional Engineer, The Cool;s- ville Co., Ltd., 1055 Yonge St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada Kirsten, Leonard, Public Relations Director, Struc- tural Clay Products Institute, 1520-18tl~ St., N.~., Washington 6, D. C. Klueppelberg, Adolph E., Architect, 130 NIain Street, Flemington, N. J. Koehler, Charles R., Editor, Building Research In- stitute, 2101 Constitution Avc., N.~V., iVashing- ton 75, D. C. Koehler, Walter A., Director, Engineering Experi- mental Station, West Virginia University, Mineral Industries Bldg., Morgantown, W. Va. Kohn, Wayne W., Chief Structural Engineer, Lib- bey-Owens-Ford Glass Co., 1701 E. Broad~va~, Toledo 11, Ohio Kreuttner, I. W., Vice President, Bucusod-Staccv, Inc., 455~. 18thSt.,Ncw~Yorl: ll,N.Y. Larsen, Phyllis H. (Mrs.), Prcsident, Larsen Prod- ucts Corp., 4934 Elm Street, Bethesda A, Md. Leba, Theodore, Jr., Manager, N~Vasl~ington Office, National Concrete Masonry Assn., 711-14th St., N.W., Washington 5, D. C. Le Clercq, Leon, Equipment Development En~i- neer, Gladding, McBean ~ Co., 2901 Los Fcliz Blvd., Los Angeles 39, Calif. Lee, Jangles A., Southern Bricl; & Tile A/Ifrs. Assn., 1 ~ 28 Candler Bldg., Atlanta I, Ga. Leinweber, Jos. W., Vice-President, Yamasalci, Leinweber & Associates, 103 NV. Fifth St., Royal Oal:, Mich. 160 Sons, Inc., 404-4th Ave., New Yorl; 16, N. Y. Lloyd, Albert L., Architect (Specifications), Public Housing Administration, Washington 75, D. C. Lloyd, George O., Partner, Perry, Shaw, Hepburn ~ Dean, Achitccts, Room 955 Park Sq. Bldg., Bos- ton 16, Mass. Lower, Clarence G., Sales Manager, New Betl~lel~en; Tile Co., 311 Lafayette Street, New Bethlehem, Pa. Lucas, Joseph N., Sales Engineer. AA Attire Prod- ucts Co., 7211-21 Cottage Grove Avc., Chicago 19, Ill. Lukacs, Wm., Director of Research, Y~\/ICA Build- ing Service, 291 Broadway, New Yorl; I, N. Y. Lundquist, I. Robert, Technical Service Engineer, Medusa Portland Cemcut Co., 571 S. Russell St., Yorl;, Pa. Lutz, Godfrey, Director of Construction Research, Turner Construction Company, 150 E. 42nd St.. New York 17,N.Y. MacDonald, Hugh C., Regional Engineer, Structural Clay Products Inst., Region 5, 728 N. LaSalle St., Chicago 1, Ill. Enchanter, H. E., Director of Research, Ccco Steel Products Corp., 5601 TV. 26tl~ St., Chicago 50, Ill. Mariais, John L., Architect and Instructor in Archi- tecture, Columbia University, New Yorl:, N. Y. Marshall, Jim M., Assistant Sales Manager, Toronto Bricl: Co., Ltd., 425 Ba~view Ave., Toronto, Ont.. Canada Mathiasen, Karl, Prcsident, Federal Seaboard Terra Cotta Corp., 10 E. 40th St., New Yorl; 16, N. Y. McBurney, John W., Consultant on NIasonr`; & ~Ia- sonrv Materials, 1543 N. Fall;land Lane, Silver Spring, Md. McCalia, Kenneth, Sales Rcprcscntativc, Tc:;as Ouar- rics, Inc., P. O. Box 91, Austin, Tex. NIcCallister, Stanley E., Assistant Director, kIason Relations, Structural Clay Products Institute, 1570-18th St., N. NV., Washington 5, D. C. McCamley, Edward I., Industrial Specialist, Office of Technical Services, Dcpt. of Commerce. N\7asl~- ington 25, D. C. McGowan, J. Harold, John 1~. McGowan N/Iarble Co., Inc., 1180 Randall Ave., Nests Yorl;, N. Y. McIntire, John F., General Sales Manager, Mal~-ern Bricl; ~ Tile Co., P. O. Box 415, ~Ialvern, Arl;. McKnight, Jerry T., Vice President, Indiana Lime- stone Institute, Bedford, Ind. McNall, Sidney H., Chief Engineer, Structural Clay Products Institute, 15 ~ 0-1 Stl~ St., N.\V., NNiasl~- in~ton, D. C.

Merritt, Frederick S., Senior Editor, Engineering News-Rccord, ~ 30 At. 42nd St., New Yorl: 36, N. Y. Nickel, Ernest, NVasllington Editor, F. W. Dodge Publications, /2 / NVasl~ington Loan ~ Trust Bldg., NVasl~ington 4, D. C. Miller, George A., NIason Contractors Association of America, 708 SO. LaSalle St., Chicago 4, Ill. Miller, Joseph, Architect, 1640 Wisconsin Ave., 25, D. C. Nil., Washington 7, D. C. Miller, Raymond V., Director of Research & De- Pa. velopn~ent, George A. Fuller Co., 5/th St. & Payrle, Word H., Vice-President-General Sales Man Madison Ave New Yorl: 22, N. Y. ager, Metropolitan Briclc, Inc., 101/ Renlcert Miller, Verlin L., Product Development Engineer. Bldg., Canton 7, Ohio Pittsburgh Corning Corporation, Port Allcgany, Pelletier, Robert J., Research Associate, Delict. of . Moger, E. Franl;, Promotion, Structural Clay Prod ucts Institute, 18th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. Molander, Edward G., Agricultural Engineer, U. S. Departmcut of Agriculturc, P. I. Station, Bclts villc, Md. Parker, William A., Training Assistant, Housing Or Home Finance Agency, Lafa~ ette Bldg., NVasl~- ington 25, D. C. Parks, Russell W., Engineer, Overseas Engineering Division, Procter ~ Gan~ble Co., M.A.&R. Bldg., I`orvdale, Cincinnati 17, Ohio. Parsons, Douglas E., belief, Building Technology Div., National Bureau of Standards, Washington Paul, Daniel C., Salesman, \Varner Co. Dex ault Monk, Clarence B., Manager, Architectural and En- ginccring Research Division, Structural Clav Prod- ucts Research Foundation, Geneva, Ill. Moore, Joseph P., President, Moore ~ Co., Inc., 1700 Summer St., Stamford, Conn. Morrow, W. F., The \Vl~itacre-Greer [Fireproofing Co., NVa~ncsburg. Ohio Murphy, John I., Secrctarv;, Bricl~la~;crs, Masons and Plasterers' International Union of America, 81 5- 15tl1 St., N. NNi., Washington 5, D. C. Murphy, Richard J., Service Engineer, Universal Atlas Cement Co., 100 Parl: Ave., New York 17, N. Y. Murphy, Thrones F., Treasurer, BricT;lav;crs, NIasons and Plasterers International Union of America. 815-l jtl~ St.. N.\iV.' NVasl~ington 5, D. C. Nelson, Otto L., Jr., Vice-President in charge of Housing, NO York Life Insurance Co., 51 Madi- son Avc.. Nest Yorl; 10, N. Y. Neville, lint E., Regional Director, Structural Clav Products Institute, Region 6, 170~/' NVelcl~ Ave., Attics, Ion; Nicholson, J. R., Pittsburgh Corning Corp., 1 Gate- wa`; Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Noyes, H. T., Assistant Chief Engineer, Turner Con- struction Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. Olivine, Edward I., Head Specifications Writer ~ Associate, Yorl: & Sawver, 101 Parl: Ave., New Yorl;1/,N.Y. O'Neill, Richard W., House & Home, New Yorl;, N. Y. Orth, Eugene, Vice-President, Ccran~ic Building 2\Iaterials Con.. 39 Sa~brool~ Place, Newarl:, N. J. Civil ~ Sanitary Engr., YI.I.T., Cambridge 39, Class. Penn, Charles T., Vicc-President, Indiana Lime- stone Co., Inc., Trans-Lux Bldg., Suite 311, N;~1asl~- ington, D. C. Peterson, Harold W., Vicc-President, Mason Con- tractors Association of America, 14 39 N. Lotus, Chicago, Ill. Picco, Win. A., President, Picl; Masonrv Co., Inc., 903 Franl;lin Street, N.E., Washington 20, D. C. Pichler, Gregor G., Mason Contractors Association of America, 4235 TV. Roosevelt Drive., Milwau- l;ce 16, Anise. Platt, lances R., Regional Director, Region 4, Struc- tural Clay Products Institute, 2556 Clear~iew Aloe., N.\V., Canton, Ohio Plimpton, F. J., Vermont Marble Co., 101 Parl; Ave., New Yorl: 17, N. Y. Plunder, Harry C., Director of Engineering,, Allied Masonry Council, 1 j20-18tl~ St., N.~.. NVash- ington 6, D. C. Poiesz, Clen1 J., Architectural Engineer, U. S. Pub- lic Health Service, NVasl~ington, D. C. Price, Boyce P., Account Executive, NVildricl: & Mil- ler, 630-5th Axle., New York, N. Y. Prior, Brilliant L., Peoples Research ~ N/Ifg. Co., 746 N. High St., Columbus, Ohio Puffer, Winthrop M., Specifications, Clear. T. Main, Inc., 80 Federal St., Boston 10, Mass. Ouaclcenbush, Glenn, Indiana Limestone Co., Bcd- ford, Ind. Shinto, Stephen D., Vice-President, YIason Con- tractors Association of An~eriea, 208 So. LaSalle St., Chicago 4, Ill. Reardon, Brilliant F., Real Estate & Construction Dept., General Electric Co., ~ 0 ~ State St., Sel~enectady 5, N. Y. Reath, Bernard, Viee-President, Indiana Limestone Co., Trans-Lux Bldg., Suite '11, NVasl~ington, D. C. 161

llex~kert, Donald, President, Metropolitan Bricl:, Inc., 1017 Rcul;crt Bldg., Canton 7, Ohio Rice, Paul F., Technical Director, American Con- crete Institute, 18263 NV. Nichols, Detroit 19, Mich. Richards, David K., Assistant Chief Draftsman, Sargent-~Vebstcr-Crcnshaw & Folley, Architects, 2112 Erie Blvd. East, Syracuse 3, N. Y. Ritchie, Thongs, Assistant Research Officer, Na- tional Rescarch Council, Division of Building Re- search, Ottawa, Canada Rodgers, Gilbert, Architectural Editor, Masonrv Building, ~ So. \~Vabash, Chicago, I'1. Rogers, Solon W., NVoolery Stone Co., Inc., P. O. Box 49, Bloomington, Ind. Roney, Bernard W., Architcct, 10 S. 18th St., Phila- delphia I, Pa. Rosenthal, David R., Architectural Student, Catholic University of America, 800~-1 5th Avc., I-Iyatts- ;:illc, NId. Rushing, Jangles F., Ceco Steel Products Corp., 5601 W. 26th St., Chicago 50, Ill. Sanders, Philip :F., Chemist, Dupont-Marshall Lab., 3500 Grays Ferry Ave., Philadelphia 46, Pa. Saunders, I. F., Vice-Presidcnt, Gray Knox l~:arl~le Co., Knoxville, Tenn. Saunders, R. H., Charleston Clav Products, Charles- ton, NV. Va. Schmidt, Joseph M., Naugatucl: Chemical Div., U. S. Rubber Co., Naugatucl;, Conn. Scheick, Wn,. lI., Executive Director, Building Re- search Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington 25, D. C. Schneider, Harold A., Sales Manager, Mapleton Clay Products Co., P. O. Box 488, Canton, Ohio Schneider, Paul, West Virginia Bricl: Conapany, Charleston, W. Va. Schultz, Robert I., Associate Professor of Archi- tecturc, University of Notre Dame, 2834 Caroline St., South Bend, Ind. Sensen~an, Ronald, Architcct, 770 5 Georgia Ave., N.W., Washington 12, D. C. Shackelford, John E., i\Iarble Institute of America, Inc., 32 S. 5th Avenue, AJount Vernon, N. Y. Shawhan, Romer, Managing Director, Marble In- stitute of America, 32 S. 5th Avenue, Mount Vernon, N. Y. Shear, John Knox, Editor, Architectural Record, 1~. W. Dodge Corporation, 119 W. 40th St., New York 18, N. Y. Shuldes, Robert W., Engincer, Portland Cement Association, 33 W. Grancl, Chicago 10, Ill. Silling, C. E., C. E. Silling & Associates, Charleston, By. Va. Silling, C. E., Jr., American Viscose Corporation, 1617 Penna. Blvd., Philadelphia, Pa. Sloss, David W., President, D. W. Sloss, Inc., '123 Allen Ave., St. Louis 4, Mo. Smith, Chester A., 1Marblc Contractor' C. A. Smith, 1\]IA, 2338 Tremont Rd., Columbus, Ohio Smith, Frank A. III, Assistant Manager, Western Waterproofing Co., 1223 Syndicate Trust Bldg., St. Louis 1, Mo. Smith, Homer J., StaR Architect. Building Research Advisory Board, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington 25, D. C. Smith, Landon E., Architcct, Sn~ithey fir Boston, - 319 McClanahan St., RoanoLc, Va. Smith, Russell W., Technical Assistant, Producers Council, 7029 K St., N.\V., Washington, D. C. Squier, Arthur A., 1616 Walnut St., Philadelphia 3. Pa. Spratte, Jack, Director of Research, Bank Bldg. & Equipment Corp., 906 Sidney St., St. Louis 4, Mo. Steer, James W., President, Thruway Builders Sup- plics, 3700 Gencsee St., Buflalo, N. Y. Steinberg, Samuel, President, Building Stone In- stitute, 961 Grand St., Brooklyn 11, N. Y. Steiner, James F., Assistant Manager, Construction fir civic Development Dept., Chamber of Com- mercc of the United States, 1615 H St., N.W. Washington 6, D. C. Stelle, John, Chairman of Board, Arketex Ceramic Corp., Brazil, Ind. Stelle, Russell T., Vice-President, Arlietex Ceramic Corp., 6 N. Walnut, Brazil, Ind. Stevens, Elwin W., Associate Architect' State Uni- versity of New York, Capital Bldg. A., Albany, N. Y. Stevens, John H., Senior Architcct, Libbcv-Owens- Ford Glass Co., 1701 E. Broadway, Toledo 5, Ol~io Stroupe, B. E., 1 Gateway Center, Pittsburgh 22, Pa. Stryker, Joe W., Executive Director, Structural Clav Products Institute, 1520-1 8th St., N.W., NVash- ington 6, D. C. Taylor, L. I., Southern Brick Our Tile Manufacturers Shideler, Joseph, Manager, Products & Applications Association. :L32S Candler BlUg., Atlanl:a 3, Ga. Sec., Portland Cement Association, 33 W. Grand Taylor, Robert B., Director, Structural Clav Prod Ave., Chicago, Ill. 162 , ~_ _ . ucts Research Foundation, Geneva, Ill.

Taylor, Walter, Director, Department of Education and Research, American Institute of Arch itects, 1735 New Yorl; Ave., Nil., N~Vasl~ington 6, D. C. Tefit, ]. Carvel, Vice Presiclcnt, Clav Craft Co., Bo:; 866, Columbus 16. Ohio. Thompson, James P., Structural Engineer, National Bureau of Standards, Conn. Ave. & Van Ness St., Washington 25, D. C. Turner, James M., Architect, 5945 Hoh~nan Avc., I-Iammond. Ind. Turner, Robert C., Eastern Representative, Struc- tural Facing Tile Institute, 1947 Grand Central Terminal, Nc~v York, N. Y. Urdang, Laurence, Director, Public Relations. Moore & Co., Inc., 1700 Swinger St., Stamford, Conn. Ulcer, Saul, Structural Engineer, Public Housing Ad- n~inistration, 1741 Rhode Island Ave.. iVashing- ton 7', D. C. Van Bal;ergem, Swilled B., Architect. 95 Divest Bruce St., I-Iarrisonburg, Va. Van Etten, Lewis W., Salcs Manager, Arl;etex Ce- ran~ic Corp., Brazil, Ind. Vest, Newton P., Executive Secretary, N/Iasonrv In- stitute, Inc. 472-A N~Vasl~ington Bldg., N~Vasl~ing- ton. D. C. Von Eckardt, Wolf, Henry J. Kaufman & Asso- ciatcs, 1419 H St., N.~V., Washington 5, D. C. Viles, N. E., Associate Chief, School Housing Sec- tion. Office of Education, Dept. of Health, Edu- cation Or Welfare, Washington 75, D. C. Wakefield, Donald, Field Engineer, Structural Clay Products Institute, 431 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis 8, NIo. Walgren, Alvin M., Account Exccutix~e, Indiana Limestone Institute, L. TV. Ramisev- Adv. Agency, Union Arcade Bldg., Davenport, Iowa Walloper, Ralph, Partner, Voorhees, N~Vall;er, S~nitl~ ~ Smith, Nest Yorl:, N. Y. NVanner, Edwin F., Chief Enginccr, Natco Corpora- tion. '27-5th Ave., Pittsburgh 22, Pa. Waples, M. W., Salcs Representative, .Medusa Port- land Cement Co.. 728 Woodward Bldg., N~Vash- ington 5, D. C. Webb, John L., Partner, Bodman, YIurrell ~ Smith, Architects, 1175 Nicholson Drive, Baton Rouge, La. Weeks, Kenneth L., Assistant Director of Building and Real Estate, Columbia Gas System Service Corp., 170 E. 41st St., New Yorl; 17, N. Y. Welch, John, Architect, Fly ~ Welch, Architects, 707 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. Wells, I. Edwin, Partner, Tootles, Amisano Wells, 70 Fairlie St., N.W., Atlanta, Ga. Wells, Malcom B., Architect, Mcrchantsville, N. J. Welsch, Donald C., Engineer, State of Ohio, Co- lumbus 15, Ol~io Werken~a, Thomas E., Marlcet Research, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich. West, Gilbert E., Carthage Marble Corp., S73 Albee Bldg., Washington 5. D. C. Whitacre, Daniel C., Vice-Prcsident, NVhitacre-Grcer Co., Waynesburg, Ohio Whitlock, Douglas, General Counsel, Structural Clay Products Institute, Room 10~2, Shoreham Bldg., Washington, D. C. Whitman, r. Glenn, Vice-President, The Burns Russell Co., Bayard C&r Severn St., Baltimore 30, 1Md. Wilcox, James W., Secretary, Alliance Clay Prod- ucts, P. O. Box 170, Alliance, Ohio Brilliants, Harold G., Construction Engineer, R.C.A., Front & Cooper Sts., Camden, N. ). Wise, Arnold W., Sales [Manager, New Bethlehem Tile Co., 311 Lafayette St., New Bethlehem, Pa. Witter, Ted A., Witter Advertising Agency, 7519 Cleveland Avc., N.W., Canton 9, Ohio Yazujian, Armen, Development Engineer, Tl~iolcol Chemical Corp., 780 North Clinton Ave. Tren- ton, N. J. Young, E. Stanley, Architect, Baader, Young & Schult%c, 1500 Walnut Street Bldg., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 163

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