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Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
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H

Glossary and Acronyms

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Action

Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance

ADD

Attention deficit disorder

AGE

Advanced glycosylation end product

AI

Adequate Intake

AMD

Age-related macular degeneration

APTT

Activated partial thromboplastin times

Association

Potential interactions derived from epidemiological studies of the relationship between specific nutrients and chronic disease

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (Cancer Prevention Study)

AUC

Area under the curve

AVED

Ataxia and vitamin E deficiency

Bioavailability

Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic and/or physiological processes

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

BMI

Body mass index

CARET

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial

Carotenodermia

Yellow discoloration of the skin with elevated plasma carotene concentrations

α-CEHC

2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman

γ-CEHC

2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman

CHAOS

Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CLAS

Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals—a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

CV

Coefficient of variation: mean ÷ standard deviation

DDS

Delayed dermal sensitivity

DHA

Dehydroascorbic acid

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Dose-response assessment

Second step in a risk assessment, in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

DTH

Delayed-type hypersensitivity

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

F2-isoprostane

Indicator of oxidative lipid damage and free-radical generation

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Fore milk

Human milk collected at the beginning of an infant feeding

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

FOX

Ferrous oxidation/xylenol orange

FNB

Food and Nutrition Board

FT3

Free triiodothyronine

Function

Role played by a nutrient in growth, development and maturation

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSHPx

Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

Gun blue

Lubricant solution containing selenious acid, nitric acid, and copper nitrate

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

Hazard identification

First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

Hind milk

Human milk collected at the end of an infant feeding

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HOCl

Hypochlorous acid

HOPE

Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

ICAM-1

Intracellular cell adhesion molecule

IOM

Institute of Medicine

Kashin-Beck disease

Human cartilage disease found in some of the low-selenium intake areas in Asia

Keshan disease

Human cardiomyopathy that occurs only in selenium-deficient children

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

LOAEL

Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level—lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

Lycopenodermia

Deep orange discoloration of the skin resulting from high intakes of lycopene-rich food

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MONICA Project

Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Project

MPOD

Macular pigment optical density

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NEC

Necrotizing enterocolitis

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey—survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

NO

Nitric oxide

NOAEL

No-observed-adverse-effect level—highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed

NRC

National Research Council

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

Oxidative stress

Imbalance between the production of various reactive species and the ability of the organism's natural protective mechanisms to cope with these reactive compounds and prevent adverse effects

OxLDL

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

8-OxodG

8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine—a product of oxidative DNA damage

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

PHS

Physicians' Health Study

Provitamin A carotenoids

α-Carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

RBC

Red blood cell

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

Risk assessment

Organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk

Risk characterization

Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response, and estimates of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL

Risk management

Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RNI

Recommended Nutrient Intake

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Selenite and selenate

Inorganic selenium, the forms found in many dietary supplements

Selenomethionine and selenocysteine

Major dietary forms of selenium

Selenosis

Selenium toxicity characterized by hair loss and nail sloughing

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a nonspecific measure of lipid peroxidation

TD

Tardive dyskinesia

α-TE

α-Tocopherol equivalent

TEAC

Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

α-Tocopherol

The only form of vitamin E that is maintained in human plasma and thus it is the only form utilized to estimate the vitamin E requirement.

TRAP

Total radical-trapping antioxidant capability

α-TTP

α-Tocopherol transfer protein

UF

Uncertainty factor—number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL; the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USP

U.S. Pharmacopeia

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule

Vitamin E

The 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol)

VLDL

Very low density lipoproteins

WHO

World Health Organization

Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page463
Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page464
Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page465
Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page466
Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page467
Suggested Citation:"H Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×
Page468
Next: I Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Get This Book
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This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series of quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is the newest framework for an expanded approach developed by U.S. and Canadian scientists.

This book discusses in detail the role of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and the carotenoids in human physiology and health. For each nutrient the committee presents what is known about how it functions in the human body, which factors may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

Dietary Reference Intakes provides reference intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for different groups based on age and gender, along with a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), designed to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

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