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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Index

A

Abetalipoproteinemia, 202

Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale score, 223

Absorption of nutrients.
See also Bioavailability of nutrients;

Malabsorption syndromes

aging and, 31, 147-148, 238, 305

alpha-tocopherol, 196-198, 238, 251

carotenoids, 326, 328, 330, 354, 355, 356

food matrix and, 355

form of nutrient and, 191, 355

iron, 129, 158, 159, 161

selenium, 285-286, 306

vitamin C, 99-100, 103, 108, 128, 140, 147-148, 155, 157

vitamin E (all forms), 191, 193, 196, 243

Adequate intakes (AIs).

See also individual nutrients

defined, 3, 4, 7, 22, 25

extrapolation from other age groups, 26, 65-66, 138

methods used to set, 6-11, 22, 63-66

RDA compared, 4, 25-26

uses, 4, 15, 25, 383, 386, 391, 392, 398

Adolescents, ages 14 through 18 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

Puberty, pubertal development;

individual nutrients

EARs, 65-66

growth factors, 66

Kashin-Beck disease, 287

lactation, 151-152, 163-164, 240-241, 258-259, 307-308, 315

pregnancy, 149-150, 163-164, 239-240, 258-259, 306-307, 315

RDAs, 66

reference weights and heights, 32-33

special considerations, 358

ULs, 14

Adults, 19 through 50 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

circulating lipid levels, 234-235

depletion/repletion studies, 143-145, 233-234, 236

EARs, 31

peak bone mass, 30-31

PUFA intake, 235

reference weights and heights, 32

supplement use, 70

ULs, 14

Adults, 51+ years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

age-related macular degeneration, 49, 348-350

asthma, 126

cardiovascular disease, 47-49, 121-122, 211-217, 241-242, 346-348

cataracts, 49, 125-126, 221, 350

EARs, 31

immune function, 51, 117-119, 220-221, 338

institutionalized, 147

lean body mass, 148

oxidative stress in, 51, 148, 242

supplement use, 51, 70

ULs, 14

Advanced glycosylation end products, 50-51

Adverse effects, 3, 4-6

alpha-tocopherol, 249, 251-255

carotenoids, 366-368

defined, 73

evidence of, 85

knowledge gaps, 406

nutrient-nutrient interactions, 74

selenium, 311-313

vitamin C, 155-161

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) carotenoids and, 18-19, 49, 348-350

smoking and, 18, 49

Aging.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual life stages

and absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148, 238, 305

alpha-tocopherol and, 51, 235

carotenoids and, 330

food consumption and, 51

and immune function, 51, 220

oxidative stress and, 44, 51

and serum cholesterol, 235

Alcohol and drug abuse, 101, 150, 330, 360, 368

Aldosterone, 99

Allergic response to nutrients, 160, 161, 368

Alpha-1-antiprotease, 108, 140

Alpha-carotene, 325, 329, 330, 332-333, 342, 343, 347, 348, 349, 350-351, 356, 358, 360-365, 366, 371, 450-451

Alpha-tocopherol, 186-283.

See also Vitamin E

absorption, 196-198, 238, 251

adolescents, 230-231, 239-241, 258, 259, 260-261

adults (19-50 years), 228-229, 231-237, 239-241, 255-257, 258, 259, 397

adults (51+ years), 220, 238-239, 241-242, 249, 259-260

adverse effects, 249, 251-255, 396

AIs, 8-9, 65, 226-230, 393, 394, 507

animal studies, 197, 203, 212, 216, 221, 252, 254, 255

antioxidant activity, 195, 224-225

and ataxia, 199, 202-203, 204-209

bioavailability, 224, 238, 243, 251

body pool, 209-210, 225

body size and composition and, 242

and cancer, 196, 213-214, 218-220, 241

and cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 203, 206-207, 211-217, 225, 238, 241-242, 248, 252, 261

and cataracts, 221

and central nervous system disorders, 221-223, 252

children, 202, 230-231, 258, 260-261

and cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203

and circulating lipoproteins, 193, 197, 199, 216, 234-235, 261

critical endpoint, 254

deficiency, 186, 199, 202-203, 204-209, 210-211, 220, 221, 231, 235, 239, 240

defined, 187, 192, 468

depletion/repletion studies, 203, 232, 233-234, 236

and diabetes mellitus, 217-218

and DNA damage and repair, 208

dose-response assessment for ULs, 255-259

EARs, 2, 8-9, 10-11, 194, 230-237, 238, 239, 240, 393, 394

excretion, 200, 208-209

exposure assessment, 259-260

factors affecting requirements, 224-226

fetal, 239, 243, 394

food sources, 224, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 396

in fortified foods, 190-191, 194, 243, 394

functions, 12, 43, 186, 195-196

gender and, 2, 231, 237, 245, 249

hazard identification, 249, 251-255

hemorrhagic toxicity, 13, 252, 253-254, 255-256

in human milk, 226, 227, 228-229, 240

and hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis, 12, 43, 203, 210-211, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 402

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

and immune function, 51, 219, 220-221

indicators of adequacy, 8-9, 203, 208-224

infants, 65, 226-230, 239, 240, 253-254, 258, 259, 386, 392

intakes, 16, 230, 243-249, 250, 395-397, 424-425

interaction with drugs, 252, 259

interaction with other antioxidants, 195, 290

interaction with other nutrients, 36-41, 98-99, 102, 109, 128, 129, 213, 221, 222, 224-225, 232, 252, 254-255, 259

international comparisons, 204-209, 212-214, 216

international units converted to, 192, 244-245, 395, 396, 397

intervention trials, 2, 36-41, 213-217, 219-220, 221, 223-224, 226, 238, 241-242, 252, 254, 261-262, 367, 405

kinetic modeling, 209-210

laboratory values, 67

lactation and, 67, 228-229, 240-241, 258, 259

and LDLs, 211-212, 217, 226

by life-stage group, 8-9, 14, 226-243, 255-258, 422-427, 436-437, 444-445

and lipid peroxidation, 12, 43, 45, 195, 203, 211, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 243, 261

metabolism, 199-200, 208-210, 261

methodological considerations, 65, 67, 68-69

method used to set AIs, 226-230

and neuropathy, 202, 204-207, 218, 220, 221, 231, 232

NOAEL/LOAEL, 255-257

observational epidemiological studies, 212-213, 219, 221

and oxidative stress, 44-45, 51, 52, 203, 211, 217-218, 221, 222, 223, 242, 261

physical exercise and, 242

plasma concentrations, 197, 210, 232-237, 251, 444-445

platelet effects, 196, 211, 212, 218, 253

preferential secretion by liver, 197-199, 243

pregnancy and, 67, 239-240, 258, 259

and PUFAs, 195, 215, 225-226, 235, 248

RDAs, 2, 8-9, 12, 231, 237, 238-241, 248, 393, 394, 507

research recommendations, 20, 260-262

and retinopathy, 202, 208-209, 259

risk characterization, 260

serum concentrations, 236, 444-445

and skeletal myopathy, 202

smokers, 36-37, 213-214, 216, 219, 238, 242-243, 252

special considerations, 241-243, 259

storage, 201-202

supplement use, 70, 190-191, 194, 244-245, 249, 251, 258-260, 394-395, 396, 397

synthetic, 190-191, 192, 193, 244-245, 393-397

transport, 196-199

ULs, 13, 14, 249, 251-260, 396-397

uncertainty assessment, 91, 256-257

and vasodilation, 196, 210

vitamin C and, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 128, 129, 213, 224-225

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37, 49, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345, 366-368, 369, 406

Alpha-tocopherol equivalents

conversion to alpha-tocopherol intakes, 16, 244, 394-395, 397

intakes, 230, 243, 244, 245-248, 422-423, 426-427, 436-437

usefulness of, 394

Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP)

form of vitamin E and affinity of, 193, 195, 197-198, 243, 262

function, 186, 197-198

genetic defects, 199, 202, 204-209

Alzheimer's disease, 19, 50, 222, 252

American Academy of Pediatrics, 28, 29, 65, 74, 259

Amino acids.

See also individual amino acids

biosynthesis, 96

Aminotransferases, 163

Amyloid beta-peptide, 222

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 19, 50

Anemia, hemolytic, 239, 259, 355

Angina, 47, 341, 347

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 38-39

Animal studies

alpha-tocopherol, 51, 59, 91, 197, 203, 212, 216, 251, 252, 254, 255, 396

of cardiovascular disease, 48-49, 212, 216

carotenoids, 59

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

extrapolation of data from, 91, 257, 301

for hazard identification, 84-85, 86

methodological considerations, 58-59

relevance of, 86

selenium, 287, 290

uncertainties in, 459

vitamin C, 103, 120, 131, 140

Anticoagulants, 252, 253, 259

Antioxidants.

See Dietary antioxidants

Aquocobalamin, 158

Arachidonic acid cascade, 196

Asbestos workers, 36-37, 367, 371

Ascorbic acid.

See Vitamin C

Aspirin, 150

Asthma, 126

Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency, 199, 202-203, 204-209

Atherogenesis, 47, 48, 50, 121-122, 212, 218, 225

Atherosclerosis, 18, 36-37, 48, 103, 109, 122, 203, 213, 340-341, 347-348

Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 122

Athletes, 117, 153, 242, 403

Attention-deficit disorder, 163

B

Balance studies, 59

Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging, 125

Basel Prospective Study, 121, 342, 343, 346-347

Benign breast disease, 219

Benzo[α]pyrene, 360

Beta-carotene, 325-382.

See also Carotenoids

absorption, 326-328, 355

adolescents, 358

adverse effects, 366-368, 405, 406

and alcohol consumption, 360, 361, 368

antioxidant activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-111, 325, 331-333, 334-337

bioavailability, 328, 331, 354-355, 356, 357, 369-371

blood concentrations, 330, 332-333, 353, 369, 372, 448-449

body stores, 329-330

and cancer, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 330, 339, 343, 344, 345-346, 366-368, 369-371, 405, 406

and cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 336-337, 346-347

carotenodermia, 366, 368, 369

and cystic fibrosis, 331, 336-337

depletion/repletion studies, 331, 332, 334-337, 371, 403

and DNA damage and repair, 109, 110-111, 331-332

erythropoietic protoporphyria, 366, 371

excretion, 328-329

and eye diseases, 49, 348, 349, 350-351

food sources, 331, 332, 334, 353, 355-356, 360-363, 398-399

and immune function, 338

infants, 361, 362-365

intakes, 361, 364-366, 369

interaction with drugs, 357

interaction with other nutrients, 36-41, 102, 109, 110-111, 290, 357-358

international comparisons, 334-337

intervention trials, 36-41, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345, 366-368, 369, 372, 405

by life-stage group and, 358-360, 448-449

and lipid peroxidation, 332, 334-337

and oxidative stress, 332

provitamin A activity, 12-14, 36-37, 325, 356, 366, 367

research recommendations, 2, 20, 371-372

smokers, 36-39, 330, 331, 334-337, 345, 347, 359, 366-368, 372, 405, 406

supplement use, 325-326, 355, 357, 366

transport, 329

ULs, 5-6, 13-14, 27, 368-369

vitamin C and, 102, 109, 110-111

Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, 36-37

Beta-cryptoxanthin, 13, 44, 325, 330, 332-333, 345, 348, 349, 350-351, 358, 360-365, 366, 452-453

Beta-glucuronidase, 106-107, 116

Bioavailability of nutrients

alpha-tocopherol, 224, 243, 251, 394

carotenoids, 328, 331, 344, 354-357, 369-371, 403

defined, 463

dietary fat and, 68, 224, 248, 356

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

drug interactions and, 357

food matrix and, 354, 355-356, 404

form of intake and, 83, 251, 354

form of nutrient and, 193, 194-195, 357, 369-371

in infant formulas, 29, 64

iron in, 129

nutrient-nutrient interactions and, 83, 357-358

nutritional status of individuals and, 83, 356

processing of foods and, 29, 354, 356

and risk assessment, 82-83

selenium, 291-292, 306, 307, 399

vitamin C, 99, 128

vitamin E (all forms), 16, 193, 194-195, 224, 243

Biomarkers

of cancer, 113-116

of DNA damage, 45, 46-47, 109-111, 116

of lipid peroxidation, 45, 104-105, 116, 132, 151, 203, 211

Bladder cancer, 106-107, 113, 116

Bleomycin, 112, 114-115

Blood coagulation, 99, 101

Body Mass Index, 32, 33, 330

Body pools

alpha-tocopherol, 201-202, 225

carotenoids, 329-330, 351-353

kinetic modeling of, 209-210, 403

selenium, 286, 313

vitamin C, 100, 103, 132, 140, 142, 145, 152-153, 166, 225, 403

vitamin E (all forms), 210

Body size considerations, 133, 146, 242

Body water considerations, 133, 138, 146

Body weight.

See also Reference body weight ratio method

reference weights, 31-33

Bone formation and growth, 98, 101, 202

Boston Nutritional Status Survey of the Elderly, 154, 155, 242, 249

Breast cancer, 123, 219

Breast Cancer Serum Bank cohort study, 219

Breastfeeding.

See Human milk;

Lactation

Breath ethane, 132, 150-151, 203, 211, 231

Breath pentane, 334-337

C

Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study, 36-37, 214-215, 241

Canada

antioxidant intervention trials, 38-39

cancer, 124

cardiovascular disease, 38-39

dietary intakes, 16, 154, 284, 309, 438-439

Food Guide for Healthy Eating, 351-352

Recommended Nutrient Intakes, 28, 383, 410

reference weights and heights, 32, 33

selenium, 284, 293

vitamin C, 69, 124, 154

Canadian Paediatric Society, 28, 29, 63-65

Cancer.

See also individual sites

alpha-tocopherol and, 36-37, 196, 213-214, 218-220, 241, 290, 366, 367

antioxidant intervention trials, 36-41, 218-219, 339, 357-358

biomarkers, 113-116

carotenoids, 14, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 326, 330, 333, 339, 340-341, 342-346, 351, 352, 357, 360, 366-372, 405, 406

DNA damage and, 218-219

gap junctional communication and, 333, 338

mortality, 14, 339

oxidative stress and, 17, 46-47, 218-219

selenium and, 36-41, 290-291, 319, 367

vitamin C and, 36-37, 40-41, 106-107, 113-116, 123-125, 127, 128, 160

Cardiomyopathy, 159, 206-207, 287, 288

Cardiovascular disease.

See also Coronary artery disease;

Coronary heart disease

alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 36-41, 48-49, 187, 203, 206-207, 211-217, 225, 238, 241-242, 248, 252, 261, 406

animal studies, 48-49, 212, 216

carotenoids and, 18, 36-41, 326, 331, 336-337, 339, 340-341, 346-348, 351, 371

diabetes mellitus and, 50

intervention trials, 48, 213-216

iron and, 159

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

LDLs and, 47-48, 50, 211-212

lipid peroxidation and, 225

mortality, 339

observational studies, 212-213

oxidative stress and, 18, 47-49, 50, 101-102, 225

RNA/ROS and, 216

selenium and, 40-41, 287, 288

smokers, 37-39, 48-49, 103, 106-107, 216, 238, 252, 347

vitamin C and, 18, 38-41, 101-102, 106-107, 109, 121-122, 127, 128, 346-347

women, 38-41, 121, 122, 212, 347

Carnitine biosynthesis

iron and, 120

vitamin C and, 95, 96, 99, 120, 153, 166

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), 36, 345, 367, 368, 369

Carotenodermia, 366, 368, 464

Carotenoids, 325-382.

See also Beta-carotene;

other individual carotenoids

absorption, 326, 328, 330, 354, 355, 356

adolescents, 355, 358

adults (19-50 years), 330-331, 334-337, 339-345, 364-365

adults (51+ years), 336-337, 338, 340-341, 347, 348-351

adverse effects, 366-368, 405, 406

and age-related macular degeneration, 18-19, 49, 326, 340-341, 348-350, 371, 403

aging and, 330

alcohol consumption and, 330, 360, 361, 368

allergic reactions, 368

antioxidant activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-111, 325, 326, 331-333, 334-337

bioavailability, 328, 331, 344, 354-357, 369-371

blood concentrations, 329-330, 332-333, 338, 346, 351-353, 358, 368, 448-457

body mass index and, 330

body stores, 329-330, 351-353

and cancer, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 326, 330, 333, 339, 340-341, 342-346, 351, 352, 357, 360, 366-372, 405, 406

and cardiovascular disease, 18, 36-41, 326, 331, 336-337, 340-341, 346-348, 351, 371

and cataracts, 18, 326, 340-341, 350-351

children, 338, 355, 356, 358, 368

cholesterol and, 330

and cystic fibrosis, 331, 336-337

depletion/repletion studies, 331, 332, 334-337, 371, 403

dietary fat and, 356

and DNA damage and repair, 109, 110-111, 331-332, 336-337

dose-response assessment for ULs, 368-369

DRIs, 12-13, 16, 325

excretion, 328-329

exposure assessment, 369

fat substitutes and, 357

food sources, 325, 331, 332, 334, 342, 344-345, 346, 349-350, 351-352, 353, 354, 355-356, 360-363, 368, 371, 398-399

functions, 12, 43, 325, 326

and gap junctional communication, 333, 338

gender and, 330, 351, 364-365

hazard identification, 366-368

health effects, 326, 338-351, 403-404

in human milk, 361, 362-366

and immune function, 326, 338

indicators of adequacy, 325, 331-353

infants, 361, 362-366, 368

intakes, 361, 364-366, 369

interactions with drugs, 357

interactions with other nutrients, 36-41, 102, 109, 110-111, 290, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 357-358, 366, 367

international comparisons, 334-337

intervention trials, 2, 14, 36-41, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345-346, 353, 366-368, 369, 372, 405

lactation, 355, 362, 363

by life-stage group and, 358-360, 448-457

and lipid peroxidation, 332, 334-337

lipoproteins and, 329, 330, 332, 334-337

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

metabolism, 328-329

methodological issues, 16, 68-69, 339, 359, 404

and mortality from chronic disease, 14, 339-342, 351

nonprovitamin A, 326, 327, 346, 351

observational epidemiological studies, 338-339, 342-345, 346-347

and oxidative stress, 332

provitamin A activity, 12-14, 36-37, 43-44, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 366, 367, 371, 372, 403, 467

research recommendations, 2, 20, 371-372, 403-404

risk characterization, 369-371

smokers, 18, 36-39, 49, 330, 331, 334-337, 344, 345, 347, 351, 359, 366-371, 372, 405, 406

special considerations, 358-360

structure, 326, 327

supplement use, 325-326, 355, 357, 366

transport, 329

ULs, 5-6, 13-14, 27, 366-371, 407

Catalase, 45

Cataracts, 18, 49, 340-341

alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 49, 221

carotenoids and, 18, 326, 340-341, 350-351

oxidative stress and, 18, 49, 350

smoking and, 351

vitamin C and, 18, 98, 125-126, 127

Catecholamines, 96, 127, 222-223

Central nervous system disorders, 19, 50, 127, 221-223

Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, 129, 160

Cervical cancer, 17, 123, 340-341, 345, 346

Children, ages 1 through 13 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

abetalipoproteinemia, 202

AIs, 65-66

anemia, 355

attention-deficit disorder, 163

cardiomyopathy, 287, 288, 292

cholestasis, 235

common colds, 163

cystic fibrosis, 202, 210-211, 336-337

EARs, 30, 33, 65-66

growth factors, 66

Keshan disease, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302

reference weights and heights, 31-32

supplement use, 163, 260

ULs, 14, 33

vitamin A deficiency, 338, 356

Cholestasis, 235

Cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203

Cholesterol

aging and, 235

carotenoids and, 330

dietary, 99, 248

LDL, 47, 330

serum, 235

vitamin C and, 99

Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study, 213

Cholestyramine, 357

Chromosomal damage and aberrations, 109, 110-111, 112, 114-115

Chronic cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 126, 127

Chylomicron secretion, 196-197, 224, 330

Circulating lipid levels, 234-235

Cobalamins, vitamin C and, 158

Cognitive function, 19, 50, 127

Collagen metabolism

iron and, 118-119

vitamin C and, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 118-119, 166

Colorectal cancer, 36-37, 113, 116, 123-124

Colorectal polyps, 113, 114-115, 219-220

Common cold, 117, 126-127

Complementary DNA (cDNA), 197

Conjugated dienes, 104-105, 203

Connective tissue synthesis, 98, 101

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII)

alpha-tocopherol, 68, 240, 245, 247, 248, 396, 436-437

carotenoids, 361, 364

design, 69

vitamin C, 135, 138, 432-435

Copper

infants, 129, 159-160

and LDL oxidation, 211

metabolism, 129

and oxidative stress, 203

vitamin C and, 96, 97-98, 128, 129, 156, 159-160, 161

Coronary artery disease, 106-107, 121, 122, 241, 248, 336-337

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Coronary heart disease, 18, 49, 121, 122, 212, 214-215, 238, 241, 261, 341, 347, 351

Corticosteroids, 99

Coxsackie B3 virus, 287

Cretinism, 287

Critical endpoints, identification of, 88-89, 254, 313

CSFII.

See Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

Cyclooxygenase-1, 196, 212, 223

Cystic fibrosis, 202, 210–211, 331, 336–337

D

Data and database issues

alpha-tocopherol, 232, 243-248, 255, 393-396

for dose-response assessment for ULs, 88-89, 161, 255, 313, 315

food compostion data, 16, 19, 67-68, 309, 360-361, 393-394, 396-397, 398, 399

nutrient intakes, 16, 68, 69-70, 194-195, 243, 309, 385

quality and completeness of data, 8-9, 61-62, 67-68, 87, 309, 385, 390

selenium, 309, 310, 398-399

supplement use, 70

types of data used, 58-63

vitamin C, 139-140, 143, 161

vitamin E.

See Alpha-tocopherol

Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)

absorption and transport, 99

chemical structure, 96, 97

in smokers, 130

Delayed dermal sensitivity, 117, 118-119, 220

Dental enamel erosion, 156, 160, 161

Depletion/repletion studies

alpha-tocopherol, 203, 232, 233-234, 236, 402

carotenoids, 331, 332, 334-337, 371

limitations of, 59, 402-403

vitamin C, 108, 117, 140, 143-145, 402-403

Diabetes mellitus

alpha-tocopherol and, 217-218

cardiovascular complications, 50

LDLs and, 50

oxidative stress and, 19, 50-51, 217-218

and platelet hyperactivity, 218

type I, 106-107

type II, 50, 106-107

Diabetic neuropathy, 218

Diacylglycerol, 196

Diarrhea.

See Osmotic diarrhea

Dietary antioxidants

alpha-tocopherol activity, 43, 44-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 186, 195, 224-225

carotenoid activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 325, 326, 331-333, 334-337

criteria for, 43-44

defined, 17, 42

and immune function, 407

interaction among, 195, 224-225, 290, 332, 367, 404

intervention trials, 36-41, 50, 219-220, 339, 348-350, 357-358

mechanisms of action, 44-46

selenoprotein activity, 43, 44-45, 284, 285

supplement efficacy, 45, 48, 49

vitamin C activity, 43, 44-45, 96, 98-99, 101-109, 116, 124-125, 139-143, 146, 154, 166

Dietary intakes.

See also Canada;

Food sources of nutrients;

Nutrient intakes;

Supplements;

individual nutrients

data and database issues, 16, 68, 69-70, 194-195, 243, 309, 385

day-to-day variation, 69, 385

infants, 28, 65, 135, 138, 230, 307

measurement errors, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386

research recommendations, 165-166, 406

self-reported, 60, 68, 385, 396

smokers, 130, 359, 360

survey data, 245-247

underreporting of, 16, 60, 68, 69, 186, 232, 240, 247-248, 385, 390, 393, 395-396

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

applicable population, 22

categories, 2, 3, 22-27;

See also Adequate Intakes;

Estimated Average Requirements;

Recommended Dietary Allowances;

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

criteria for, 6-11, 12-13, 42

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

defined, 2-6, 21-22, 33

extrapolation from other age groups, 65-67, 91

framework, 384, 410-412

group applications, 14-16, 25, 387-391, 392-393, 398

individual applications, 4, 15, 22, 384-386, 392, 398

nutrient-specific considerations, 393-399

origin, 409-410

parameters for, 27-33;

See also Life-stage groups;

Reference weights and heights

precision of values, 8-11

risk of inadequacy, 15-16

sources of data, 6-7;

See also Methodological considerations

uses, 4, 14-16, 383-399

DNA damage and repair

adduct formation, 106-107, 116, 208

alpha-tocopherol and, 109, 110-113, 208

biomarkers of, 45, 46-47, 109-111, 116

and cancer, 46-47, 113-116, 218-219

carotenoids and, 109, 110-111, 331-332, 336-337, 360

ex vivo, 112-113, 114-115, 116, 130

in gastric mucosa, 106-107, 116

glutathione and, 109-110

ionizing radiation and, 46, 112, 130

iron and, 109, 160

lymphocytes, 110-111, 112, 114-115

oxidative stress and, 46-47, 109

repair enzymes, 106-107, 116

RNS and, 116

smoking and, 110-113, 130-131, 360

vitamin A and, 112-113

vitamin C and, 98, 109-115, 116, 130-131, 160

Dopamine, 222-223

Dopamine-β-hydroxylase, 96, 98

Dose-response assessment for ULs

adolescents, 162-164, 258, 315-316

adults (19-50 years), 161-162, 255-257, 313-315

alpha-tocopherol, 255-259

carotenoids, 368-369

children, 162-164, 258, 315-316

components and process, 85, 88-92

critical endpoints, 88-89, 161, 254, 313

data selection, 88-89, 161, 255, 313, 315

defined, 77-78, 464

infants, 162, 258, 315-316

lactation, 164, 258, 315

NOAEL/LOAEL identification, 89-90, 161-162, 255-256, 314, 316

pregnancy, 163-164, 258, 315

selenium, 313-316

special considerations, 92, 164-165, 259

UL derivation from, 91-92, 162, 257, 315, 316

uncertainty assessment, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 316

vitamin C, 161-165

vitamin E.

See Alpha-tocopherol

Down's syndrome, 222

Drinking water, 309-310, 311, 317, 399

Drug abuse.

See Alcohol and drug abuse

Drug interactions

with alpha-tocopherol, 40-41, 252, 259

with carotenoids, 357

with vitamin C, 99, 150

Dyspepsia, 106-107, 116

E

Elastin, 98

Elderly people.

See Adults, 51+ years

Embryogenesis, 285

Emotional stress, 153

Endothelial cells

dysfunction, 103, 106-107, 131

monocyte adhesion to, 103

Endothelium-dependent vasodilation, 106-107, 131

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, 103

Energy expenditures, 24-25

Energy intakes, 60, 68, 69, 247, 396

Energy status

and antioxidant interactions, 224-225

and PUFA metabolism, 226

Epinephrine, 96

Erythrocyte

glutathione, 128

hydrogen peroxide-induced lysis, 210-211, 231

vitamin C, 140

Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 366, 371

Esophageal cancer, 367

Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly , 122, 213

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Estimated Average Requirements (EARs).

See also individual nutrients

children, 30, 33, 65-66

coefficient of variation, 3, 24-25

criteria used to derive, 6-7, 8-11

defined, 3, 5, 23, 24

evidence considered, 10-11, 25

extrapolation to/from other age groups, 65-66

group applications, 15, 387-390, 392

knowledge gaps, 402-404

methods used to set, 25, 43, 65-66, 402-404

and RDA, 2-4, 23-25

reference weight and height and, 31-33

risk of inadequacy, 24

standard deviation, 3, 23-24

uses, 15, 23, 25, 383, 384-386, 387-390, 392-393

Ethane, 132, 150-151, 203, 211, 231

Ethical considerations, 84

European Commission Concerted Action on Fundamental Food, 42

Exposure

duration of, 86

route of, 86, 256

Exposure assessment

alpha-tocopherol, 259-260

carotenoids, 369

defined, 77, 78

process, 92

selenium, 317

supplements, 92

vitamin C, 165

Extrapolation of data

from animal studies, 91, 257

body weight basis, 65-66, 138-139, 163-164, 230-231, 258-259, 299-300, 315-316

from one gender group to another, 146-147, 235, 237

from other age groups, 25, 26, 65-66, 138-139, 163-164, 166, 230, 231, 258-259, 299-300, 315-316

NOAEL from LOAEL, 162, 256-257

from subchronic to chronic intake, 257

Eye Disease Case-Control Study, 348

Eye diseases.

See also Age-related macular degeneration;

Cataracts

alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 49, 221

antioxidant intervention trials, 40-41, 348-350

carotenoids and, 49, 348, 349, 350-351

vitamin C and, 18, 125-126

F

Familial hypercholesterolemia, 47

Fat, dietary

and alpha-tocopherol, 68, 225-226, 235, 248, 396

and carotenoid, 356

intakes, 16, 68, 69, 232, 247, 248, 261, 396

malabsorption syndromes, 202, 404

and MOPD, 349

Fat substitutes, 357

Fatty streak lesions, 47

F2-isoprostanes, 45, 48, 203, 217-218, 464

Ferritin, 159

Ferrous oxidation/xylenol orange (FOX) assay, 46

Fetal nutrition.

See also Pregnancy

alpha-tocopherol, 67, 239, 243, 258, 394

selenium, 67, 306, 315

vitamin C, 67, 149, 150, 163

Fibrillin, 98

Fibronectin, 98

Flavonoids, 98-99, 102, 128, 129, 225

Foam cells, 47-48

Food and Agriculture Organization, 22, 73-74, 79

Food and Drug Administration, 309

Food composition data

analytical methods, 67

carotenoids, 360-361, 364-365, 369

quality and completeness of, 68-69, 309, 390, 393-394, 399

recommendations, 19, 396-397

selenium, 309, 398-399

vitamin C, 154, 390

vitamin E, 19, 68-69, 244-248, 393-394

Food matrix and bioavailability of nutrients, 250, 354, 355-356, 404

Food sources.

See also Fortified foods

alpha-tocopherol, 224, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 396

carotenoids, 325, 331, 332, 334, 342, 344-345, 346, 349-350, 351-352, 353, 354, 355-356, 360-363, 368, 371, 398-399

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

selenium, 286, 292, 298-299, 308, 309, 397

vitamin C, 101, 130, 154, 392

Formulas, infant

AIs, 386, 391, 392

alpha-tocopherol, 230

bioavailability of nutrients, 29, 64

carotenoids, 361

DRIs, 28-29

selenium, 310, 399

vitamin C, 101, 135

Fortified foods.

See also Formulas, infant

alpha-tocopherol in, 12, 16, 190-191, 243, 394

selenium in, 286

ULs and, 5, 26, 74

Fruits and vegetables, 17, 18, 45, 47, 130, 133, 154, 245, 342, 344-345, 346, 351, 353, 355, 368, 371

Furunculosis, 117, 118-119

G

Gastric cancer, 36-37, 106-107, 113, 114-115, 116, 124-125, 196, 290, 367

Gastric mucosa

DNA damage, 106-107, 116

nitrotyrosine, 102, 106-107, 116

oxidant scavengers, 95, 102, 116, 124

Gastritis, 102, 106-107, 113, 116, 124-125

Gastrointestinal effects

of vitamin C, 95, 100, 102, 106-107, 124-125, 156, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393

Gender.

See also Men;

Women;

individual nutrients

and cataracts, 351

dietary intakes, 15-16, 154, 165, 245-247, 259-260, 364-365

extrapolation of data on basis of, 146-147, 235, 237

and Keshan disease, 299, 304

and lean body mass, 2, 65, 146-147

and metabolism, 20, 133, 403, 407

reference weights and heights, 32

and relative body weight, 65-66, 138

and supplement use, 70, 260

Genetic defects, in alpha-TTP, 199, 202, 204-209

Genetic markers of disease susceptibility, 60

Geographic differences in nutrient intakes, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319

Gingivitis, 120

GISSI Prevention Trial, 38-39, 215, 216, 217, 238, 241, 242, 252

Glial cells, 98

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164

Glutathione

and asthma, 126

deficiency, 128

and DNA damage, 109-110

erythrocyte, 128

and oxidative stress, 128, 129, 224

reduced, 104-105, 128, 225

vitamin C and, 43, 96, 98, 99, 103, 105, 109-110, 126, 128, 129

Glutathione peroxidase activity, 12, 45, 284, 285, 286, 289-290, 293, 299, 301-302, 303, 304, 318

Growth factors, 66

Growth velocity, 28, 64

Gulonolactone oxidase, 95-96

Gun blue, 312, 465

H

Hazard identification

adverse effects, 85, 155-161, 249, 251-255, 311-313, 366-368

alpha-tocopherol, 249, 251-255

animal studies, 84-85, 86

carotenoids, 366-368

causality, 85-86

components of, 85-88

data quality and completeness and, 87

data sources, 84-85

defined, 77, 465

experimental data on nutrient toxicity and, 86

mechanisms of toxicity and, 87

pharmacokinetic and metabolic data and, 86-87

selenium, 311-313

sensitive subpopulations, 87-88

vitamin C, 155-161

Health Canada, 410, 438-439

Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study, 38-39, 216, 217, 241, 242, 252

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Helicobacter pylori infection, 106-107, 113, 116, 124-125

Hemochromatosis, 158, 159, 160, 164

Hemolysis

hydrogen peroxide-induced, 12, 43, 186, 203, 210-211, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 402

in infants, 162, 163-164, 166

Hemorrhagic toxicity, 13, 252, 253-254, 255-256

Hemostatic dysfunction, 131

High-altitude resistance, 160

High-density lipoproteins, 329

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 338

Human milk.

See also Lactation

alpha-tocopherol in, 226, 227, 228-229, 240, 386

analysis of nutrient content, 227

carotenoids in, 361, 362-366

colostrum, 227, 293, 294

fore milk, 293, 464

hind milk, 293, 465

intakes, 28, 65, 135, 138, 151, 227, 230, 298, 307, 391

interindividual variation in nutrients, 293, 295

selenium in, 292-298, 307, 315, 316

smokers, 132

vitamin C in, 101, 132, 134-138, 151, 164, 386

vitamin E (all forms), 227, 228-229

Human studies

ethical considerations, 84

for hazard identification, 84

methodological considerations, 59

Hydrogen peroxide, 112, 130-131

Hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis, 12, 43, 186, 203, 210-211, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 402

Hydroxynonenal, 104-105

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvatedioxygenase, 96

8-Hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoxdG), 109, 110-113, 131

Hypercholesterolemia, 47, 106-107, 226

Hypertension, 106-107

Hypertriglyceridemia, 50

Hypervitaminosis A, 368

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), 108, 140

Hypovitaminosis C, 132, 153

I

Immune function

aging and, 51, 220

alpha-tocopherol, 51, 220-221

assessment of antioxidant role, 407

carotenoids and, 326, 338

measures of, 118-119

vitamin C and, 108, 117-119, 127

Indicators of nutrient adequacy.

See also specific indicators, life stages, and nutrients

defined, 27

risk reduction-based, 3, 27, 42

Infants, premature, 129, 159-160, 227, 239, 253-254, 259

Infants, 0 to 12 months.

See also Formulas, infant;

Human milk

ages 0 through 6 months, 29, 64, 66

ages 7 through 12 months, 29, 64-65, 66

AI derivation for, 4, 28-29, 63-65, 391, 392

cretinism, 287

dietary intakes, 28, 65, 135, 138, 227, 230, 298, 307, 391

growth velocity, 28, 64

hemolysis, 162, 163-164, 166

methodological considerations, 63-65, 66

oxidant damage, 162, 166

recommended food sources, 28-29

reference weight, 32

scurvy, 135, 159, 161, 162, 163-164, 166

solid foods, 29, 64, 151, 293, 298-299

special considerations, 160, 259

ULs, 14

Infectious and inflammatory stresses, 103, 108, 130

Intake assessment to derive ULs.

See Exposure assessment

Interactions.

See Nutrient-nutrient interactions

Intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), 196, 212, 223

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 22, 74

International comparisons

alpha-tocopherol, 204-209, 212-214, 216

antioxidant intervention trials, 36-41

cardiovascular disease, 121

carotenoids, 334-337

vitamin C, 121, 123, 124, 127, 135, 153

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Intervention trials

alpha-tocopherol, 2, 36-41, 213-217, 219-220, 221, 223-224, 226, 238, 241-242, 252, 254, 261-262, 367, 405

antioxidants, 36-41, 50, 218-220, 339, 357-358

cancer, 36-41, 219-220, 345-346

cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 213-217

carotenoids, 2, 14, 36-41, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345-346, 353, 366-368, 369, 372, 405

eye diseases, 40-41, 348-350

intakes above ULs, 13, 27, 74, 155, 165, 249, 260

methodological issues, 58, 61

selenium, 36-41, 290, 303-304, 311, 318, 319, 367, 405

vitamin C, 38-39, 405

Intestinal parasites, 356

Intracellular glutathione peroxidase, 289

Intracellular recycling, 108

Iodothyronine deiodinases, 285

Iowa Women's Health Study, 122, 123

Iron

absorption, 129, 158, 159, 161

bioavailability, 129

cardiovascular disease, 159

and carnitine biosynthesis, 120

and collagen metabolism, 118-119

and DNA damage and repair, 109, 160

infants, 159

and lipid peroxidation, 159, 221

metabolism, 129

and MOPD, 349

and neurodegenerative diseases, 221

overload, 158, 166

transfer and storage, 129

and vitamin C, 96, 97-98, 99, 109, 118-119, 120, 128, 129, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166

Ischemic heart disease, 36-37, 214, 216, 341, 346-347

Isoprostane excretion, 95, 102, 130

K

Kashin-Beck disease, 12, 43, 287, 465

Keshan disease, 12, 43, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302, 304, 465

Kidney stones, 156, 157, 160

Kinetic modeling of body pools, 209-210, 403

L

Laboratory values

analytical considerations, 62-63, 139-140, 143, 231-232

estimates of, 67, 404

Lactation.

See also Human milk;

individual nutrients

derivation of DRIs for, 31

length of, 134-135, 151

methodological considerations, 67

preterm delivery and, 227

stage of, 228-229, 293, 294-297

ULs, 82

Laryngeal cancer, 17

Latinos, vitamin C, 132

Lean body mass, 133, 138, 146, 148

Leukocytes, vitamin C in, 43, 95, 103, 108-109, 110-111, 130, 133, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150

Leukopenia, 368

Life-stage groups.

See also Adolescents;

Adults;

Children;

Infants;

Lactation;

Pregnancy;

individual nutrients

Body Mass Index by categories, 27-31

and derivation of DRIs, 27-31

intakes of nutrients by, 416-439

serum nutrient values by, 440-457

supplement use by, 70

ULs by, 14

Linoleic acid, 235, 248

Linxian Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37

Lipid-lowering drugs, 357

Lipid peroxidation

alpha-tocopherol and, 12, 43, 45, 186, 195, 203, 211, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 243, 261, 405

biomarkers/measures of, 45, 104-105, 116, 132, 151, 203, 211

and cardiovascular disease, 225

carotenoids and, 332, 334-337

iron and, 159, 221

and neurodegenerative diseases, 221-222

in passive smokers, 153

pregnancy and, 150-151

selenium and, 287

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

in smokers, 104-105, 130, 131, 132, 150-151, 153

vitamin C and, 45, 95, 98, 102, 104-105, 109, 116, 130, 131, 132, 146, 150-151, 153, 159

Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial, 347

Lipoprotein lipase, 330

Lipoproteins.

See also High-denisty lipoproteins;

Low-density lipoproteins

alpha-tocopherol and, 193, 197, 199, 216, 234-235, 261, 405

carotenoids and, 329, 330

Liver fluke infection, 106-107

Liver necrosis, 287

Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

alpha-tocopherols and, 211, 217, 226

and cardiovascular disease, 47-48, 50, 211-212

carotenoids and, 329, 332, 334-337

copper and, 211

defined, 79, 466

and diabetes mellitus, 50

oxidation, 18, 47-48, 50, 211, 226, 405

smoking and, 130, 132, 153

vitamin C and, 98, 101-102, 104-105, 109, 132, 153

Low-fat diets, 226, 248, 356

Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL)

alpha-tocopherol, 255-257

extrapolation of NOAEL from, 162, 256-257

identification of, 89-90, 161-162, 255-256, 314

instead of NOAEL, 91

selenium, 314, 318

sensitive subpopulations and, 92

vitamin C, 161-162, 163

Lung cancer

beta-carotene and, 13-14, 340-341, 342-343, 345-346

smoking and, 36-39, 124, 213-214, 219, 360, 366-371, 372, 405, 406

Lung lesions, 254

oxidant scavengers, 95, 108

Lutein, 18, 44, 49, 329, 330, 332-333, 343, 348, 349, 350-351, 353, 355, 357, 358, 360-365, 366, 371, 454-455

Lycopene, 44, 329, 332-333, 344-345, 347, 349, 350, 353, 356, 357, 358, 360-365, 366, 368, 371, 456-457

Lycopenodermia, 368, 466

Lymphatic leukemia, 196

Lymphocytes

DNA damage, 110-111, 112, 114-115

vitamin C in, 99-100

Lysine, 98, 118-119

M

Macular Pigment Optical Density (MOPD), 349-350, 371

Major histocompatibility complex II, 338

Malabsorption syndromes, 202, 210-211, 404

Malnutrition, protein-energy, 202, 404

Malondialdehyde, 104-105, 116, 203, 334-335

Marathon runners, 117, 118-119

Margarine, plant sterol-enriched, 357

Men.

See also Gender

alcohol consumption, 361, 368

alpha-tocopherol, 49, 232-233, 235, 237, 245, 249, 260

carotenoids, 49, 338, 349, 351, 353, 359, 361, 368

cataracts, 49, 351

dietary intakes, 154, 165, 245

immune response, 338

Keshan disease, 301-302

kidney stone formation, 157

MOPD values, 349

smokers, 359

supplement use, 249, 260

vitamin C, 95, 117, 118-119, 121, 126, 133, 146, 148, 149, 154, 157, 165

Metabolism of nutrients

aerobic, 46

alpha-tocopherol, 195, 199-200, 208-210, 261

basal rate considerations, 24-25

carotenoids, 328-329, 350

copper, 129

drug, 99

gender differences, 20, 133, 292, 403, 407

iron, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

selenium, 285, 286, 299, 308

vitamin C, 12, 43, 95, 100, 108, 130, 133, 148, 152-153, 157, 158

Metalloenzyme reduction, 96, 97-98

Methionine, 284

Methionine sulfoxide, 45

Methodological considerations.

See also Data and database issues;

Extrapolation of data;

Indicators of nutrient adequacy;

Uncertainty

AIs, 63-66

alpha-tocopherol, 59, 65, 67, 68-69

animal studies, 58-59, 459

carotenoids, 16, 68-69, 339, 359, 404

children, 65-66

data limitations, 62-63

depletion/repletion studies, 59, 402-403

dietary intakes, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386

EARs, 65-66, 402-404

epidemiological studies, 127-128

in extrapolation of data, 62, 65-66

human feeding studies, 59

infants, 63-65, 66

intervention trials, 58, 61

kinetic modeling of body pools, 209-210, 403

laboratory assays, 67, 160, 404

lactation, 67

measurement errors, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386

nutrient intake estimates, 67-69, 247, 339, 385, 404-405

observational studies, 59-61, 127-128

pathways to nutrient requirements, 63

pregnancy, 67

randomized clinical trials, 61

RDAs, 66

in risk assessment, 458-461

types of data used, 58-63

vitamin C, 67, 68-69, 127-128, 139-140

weighing the evidence, 61-62

Minnesota Cancer Prevention Research Unit, 353

Monocyte adhesion, 103

Monounsaturated fatty acids, 226

Mortality from chronic disease, 14, 339-342, 351

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study, 38-39

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 343

Multiple sclerosis, 50

Myelin, 98

Myeloperoxidase, 108, 109, 140

Myocardial infarction, 36-41, 47, 159, 214-215, 216, 238, 241, 312, 347

Myocarditis, 287

N

National Cancer Institute, 154

Five-a-Day for Better Health Program, 351

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I), Epidemiological Follow-up Study, 122, 124, 126, 219

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II), 121, 152, 235, 248

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

anthropometric data, 31, 32-33

carotenoids, 330, 358, 361, 364, 369, 448-457

defined, 466

design, 69

energy intakes, 68, 69

fat intakes, 68, 69, 247, 396

selenium, 16, 69-70, 309, 310, 399, 428-431, 446-447

serum values of nutrients, 440-457

supplement data, 70

total intakes, 388, 389, 420-421, 426-427, 430-431

vitamin C, 15-16, 69-70, 133, 155, 165, 387-390, 391, 416-421, 440-443

vitamin E (all forms), 16, 68, 69-70, 210, 230, 233, 244, 245-246, 247, 248, 259-260, 394, 422-427, 444-445

National Health Interview Survey, 70, 249, 260, 310-311, 364-365

National Health Interview Survey Epidemiological Supplement, 249

National Nutrition Monitoring System, 383

Necrotizing enterocolitis, 253

Nervous system, 19, 50, 96, 98, 131, 153, 202

Neurodegenerative diseases

alpha-tocopherol and, 19, 50, 186, 202, 204-207, 218, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232

iron and, 221

lipid peroxidation and, 221-223

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

oxidative stress and, 19, 50, 221-222

ROS and, 222-223

Neuroleptic drugs, 222-223

Neurons, 98, 131, 202

Neuropeptide biosynthesis, 98

Neurotransmitters, 95, 98, 153, 222-223

Neutrophils

vitamin C in, 12, 43, 95, 98, 99-100, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144-146, 150, 385

New York State Cohort Study, 123, 124

Niacin, 225

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), 43, 96, 98, 224-225

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), 43, 96, 98, 224-225

Nitric oxide scavengers, 262

Nitric oxide synthesis, 103

Nitrosoproline, 106-107

Nitrotyrosine, 45, 102, 106-107, 116

No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL)

alpha-tocopherol, 255-257

defined, 79, 466

extrapolation from LOAEL, 162, 256-257

identification of, 89-90, 255-256, 316

LOAEL used instead of, 91

selenium, 314, 316

sensitive subpopulations and, 92

subchronic to predict chronic, 91

vitamin C, 163

Norepinephrine, 96, 98

Normative requirement, 22

Nurses Health Study, 123, 125-126, 212, 351

Nutrient intakes.

See also Dietary intakes;

Exposure assessment;

individual nutrients

Canadian, 69, 154, 309, 438-439

cooking losses, 154, 356

day-to-day variation adjustments, 69, 385, 387, 390

extrapolation from subchronic to chronic, 257

form of, 83

geographic differences in, 284, 288, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319

interpretation of, 385-359

methodological considerations, 67-69, 247, 339, 385, 404-405

public health implications, 404-405

quality of data, 385, 390

from supplements, 70, 155, 244-245, 249, 366

total calculated, 388, 389

U.S., 70, 416-431, 432-437

Nutrient-nutrient interactions.

See also specific entries under individual nutrients

adverse, 74

and bioavailability of nutrients, 83, 357-358

energy status and, 224-225

research recommendations, 20, 407

risk assessment, 83

Nutrition Canada Survey, 32

Nutrition During Lactation report, 28, 29

Nutrition labels, 16, 68, 194, 243, 393-394, 396

Nutritional Factors in Eye Disease Study, 365

Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study, 38-39

O

O6-alkyltransferase, 106-107, 116

Obese individuals, 60, 385

Observational studies

alpha-tocopherol, 212-213, 219, 221

cancer, 219

of cardiovascular disease, 212-213

carotenoids, 338-339, 342-345, 346-347

hazard identification, 84

methodological issues, 59-61, 127-128

Oils, edible, 16, 68, 245, 246, 250, 396

Olestra, 357

Ophthalmoplegia, 202

Oropharyngeal cancers, 17, 341, 344, 346

Osmotic diarrhea, 13, 95, 100, 154, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393

Oxalate excretion, 156

Oxidant damage, 44-51

Oxidant scavengers, 95, 102, 108, 116, 124

Oxidative stress

in adults (51+ years), 51, 148, 242

and age-related macular degeneration, 18-19, 49

aging and, 44, 51

alpha-tocopherol and, 44-45, 51, 52, 203, 211, 217-218, 221, 222, 223, 242, 261

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

and asthma, 126

and cancer, 17, 46-47, 218-219

and cardiovascular disease, 18, 47-49, 50, 101-102, 225

carotenoids and, 332

and cataracts, 18, 49, 350

cholestatic liver disease and, 202, 203

copper and, 203

defined, 44, 466

and diabetes mellitus, 19, 50-51, 217-218

and DNA damage, 46-47, 109

glutathione and, 128, 129, 244

indicators of, 20, 45-52, 102, 103, 109, 126, 128, 203, 217, 223, 407

mechanisms in, 44-45, 46, 47, 50

and neurodegenerative disease, 19, 50, 221-222

physical exercise and, 242

protective enzymes, 45

selenium, 41, 43, 44-45, 52, 285

smoking and, 43, 48, 102, 130, 131, 132

vitamin C and, 12, 43, 95, 101-102, 109, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 148, 152, 162, 166

8-Oxy-7,8-dihydro-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 46, 110, 112, 466

Oxygen demand, 156, 161

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 46

Ozone, 108

P

Pancreatic cancer, 124

Parkinson's disease, 19, 50, 221-222

Passive smokers, 132, 146, 153

Pauling, Linus, 126-127

Pectin, 357

Pentane, 203, 231, 334-337

Peptide hormones, amidation of, 96, 98

Peptidyl-glycine monoxygenase, 96

Periodontal health, 120, 156, 160, 161, 166

Peripheral artery disease, 216

Peroxynitrate, 45

Phospholipase A2, 196, 212, 223

Phospholipid transfer protein, 197

Photosensitivity disorders, 366

Physical exams, 164

Physical exercise, 153, 242

Physicians' Health Study I, 38-39, 345-346, 367

Physicians' Health Study II, 40-41, 252

Plant phenolic compounds, 225

Plasma concentration of nutrients.

See individual nutrients

Platelet effects, 196, 211, 212, 218, 253

Polyp Prevention Study, 36-37

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

alpha-tocopherol and, 38-39, 195, 215, 225-226, 233, 235, 248

metabolism, 226

Pregnancy.

See also Lactation;

individual nutrients

alcohol and drug abuse, 150

aspirin use, 150

derivation of DRIs for, 67

eclampsia, 149

lipid peroxidation and, 150-151

methodological considerations, 67

premature birth, 149

and smoking, 132, 149, 150-151

special considerations, 150-151

ULs, 82

Probucol, 357

Proline, 98, 99, 106-107, 118-119

Pro-oxidant effects of nutrients, 129, 156, 159-160, 161, 166

Prostacyclin, 196, 212, 223

Prostaglandin synthesis, 99

Prostate cancer, 213-214, 219, 220, 290-291, 344-345, 368, 371

Protein, dietary

oxidation, 222

requirements for growth, 66

Protein-energy malnutrition, 202, 404

Protein kinase C inhibitors, 196, 211, 223

Proteoglycans, 98

Puberty.

See also Adolescents

pubertal development, 30, 33

Q

Quercetin, 129

R

Race/ethnicity

and puberty onset, 30

and smoking, 132

and vitamin C, 132

Radiation, ionizing, 46, 112, 130

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Randomized clinical trials, 61

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)

and cardiovascular disease, 216

and DNA damage, 116

measure of activity, 102, 106-107, 116

mechanism of action, 44

myeloperoxidase-derived, 109, 140

vitamin C and, 98, 102, 106-107, 109, 124, 140

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

and cardiovascular disease, 216

and gastric cancer, 106-107, 116, 124

and infectious and inflammatory stresses, 103

mechanism of action, 44

and neurodegenerative diseases, 222-223

smoking and, 131

sources of, 46

vitamin C and, 98, 102, 103, 106-107, 116, 124, 131

Recommendations.

See also Research recommendations

food composition data, 19, 396-397

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).

See also individual nutrients

AI compared, 4, 25-26, 138

children, 66

coefficient of variation, 66

criteria used to derive, 10-11

defined, 3, 5, 7, 22, 23, 24

EAR and, 2-4, 23-25

indicators of nutrient adequacy, 6-13

method used to set, 23-25, 66

uses, 4, 15, 23, 383, 391, 392

Recommended Dietary Allowances (reports), 21

Reference body weight ratio method, 65-66

alpha-tocopherol, 231

selenium, 299

vitamin C, 138

Reference weights and heights, 31-32

Renal disease/failure, 31, 50, 312

vitamin C and, 157, 160, 164

Reproductive disorders, 368

Requirement, defined, 21

Research recommendations

adverse effects, 21, 406

alpha-tocopherol, 2, 20, 260-262, 406-407

approach to setting, 19-20, 401-402

carotenoids, 2, 20, 371-372, 403-404, 406-407

dietary intakes, 165-166, 406

kinetic modeling of body pools, 403

priorities, 20, 140, 406-407

selenium, 2, 20, 318-319, 406-407

vitamin C, 2, 20, 140, 165-166, 406-407

Respiratory burst, 108

Respiratory distress syndrome, 108, 312

Retinaldehyde binding protein, 197

Retinol/retinoic acid, 36-37, 328, 332, 355, 356, 367

Retinopathy, 50, 202, 208-209, 259, 368

Rheumatoid arthritis, 108

Riboflavin, 225

Risk assessment, defined, 75, 467

Risk assessment models.

See also Dose-response assessment;

Exposure assessment;

Hazard identification;

Risk characterization

application to nutrients, 80-83

basic concepts, 13, 75-76

bioavailability considerations, 82-83

default options, 460

defined, 75, 467

and food safety, 75-80

inference options, 460

methodological considerations, 458-461

nutrient interactions, 83

process, 76-78

sensitivity of individuals, 82

special problems with nutrients, 80-81

thresholds, 78-80

uncertainties, 76, 79-80, 458-461

Risk characterization, 92-94

alpha-tocopherol, 260

carotenoids, 369-371

defined, 75, 77, 78, 467

process, 92-93

selenium, 13, 317-318

vitamin C, 165

Risk management, 76, 467

S

Scurvy

infants, 135, 159, 161, 162, 163-164, 166

rebound, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166

vitamin C deficiency and, 98, 100, 101, 119, 120, 135, 139, 145, 150, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Selenium, 284-324

absorption, 285-286, 306

adolescents, 287, 299-300, 306, 307, 308, 315-316

adults (19-50 years), 284, 300-305, 306-308, 313-315, 399

adults (51+ years), 70, 305-306

adverse effects, 284, 311-313, 399, 407

AIs, 10-11, 65, 292-299, 507

animal studies, 287, 290, 301, 302

bioavailability, 284, 291-292, 306, 307, 399

in blood, 288-289, 301-302, 310, 312, 313, 314, 318, 446-447

body stores, 286, 313

breath excretion, 313

and cancer, 36-41, 290-291, 319, 367

and cardiovascular disease, 40-41, 287, 288

children, 25, 65, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302, 315-316, 318, 403

critical endpoint, 313

deficiency, 43, 287, 298

dose-response assessment, 313-316

in drinking water, 309-310, 311, 317, 399

EARs, 10-11, 25, 299-304, 305, 306, 307

excretion, 285, 286-287, 291, 313

exposure assessment, 317

factors affecting requirements, 291-292

fetal, 67, 306

food sources, 286, 292, 298-299, 308, 309, 397

forms of, 285-286, 308, 312, 314, 468

in fortified foods, 286, 310, 399

functions, 43, 284, 285, 302

gender and, 292, 299, 403

geographic differences, 284, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319

in hair and nails, 288, 313, 399

hazard identification, 311-313

in human milk, 292-298, 307, 315, 316, 386

indicators of adequacy, 10-11, 12, 43, 287-291, 301-302, 312-313, 318

infants, 65, 287, 292-299, 307, 315-316, 386, 392, 399

intakes, 16, 284, 308-311, 317, 397-399, 428-431

interaction with other nutrients, 36-37, 40-41, 285, 290, 367

intervention studies, 2, 36-41, 290, 303-304, 311, 318, 319, 367, 405

and Kashin-Beck disease, 12, 43, 287, 465

and Keshan disease, 12, 43, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302, 304, 403, 465

lactation, 67, 293, 294-297, 307-308, 315

by life-stage group, 10-11, 14, 292-308, 313-316, 428-431, 446-447

and lipid peroxidation, 287

metabolism, 285, 286, 299, 308

method used to set AI, 65, 292-298

NOAEL/LOAEL, 314, 316, 318

and oxidative stress, 41, 43, 44-45, 52, 285

pregnancy, 67, 287, 306-307, 315

radiolabeled, 291

RDAs, 2, 10-11, 12, 284, 300, 304-307, 308, 318, 507

research recommendations, 20, 318-319

smokers, 367

soil content, 16, 293, 298, 308, 397

supplements, 286, 292, 310-311, 312, 317, 399

and thyroid disorders, 287

ULs, 13, 14, 26-27, 284, 311-318, 391, 399

uncertainty assessment, 314, 315, 316

Selenocysteine, 284, 285, 286, 289, 291-292, 308, 399, 468

Selenomethionine, 284-285, 286, 289, 291, 303, 307, 308, 312, 313, 314, 399, 468

Selenophosphate synthetase, 285

Selenoprotein P, 289, 290, 301-302

Selenoproteins

absorption, 285

antioxidant role, 41, 44-45, 284, 285

in blood, 288, 289-290, 303, 304, 310

defined, 285

functions, 12, 43, 285, 318

as indices of selenium status, 12, 43, 301-302, 312-313

sources, 284-285

synthesis, 286, 289, 291, 301

Selenosis, 284

acute, 312

biochemical indicators of, 312-313, 315

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

chronic, 311-312

defined, 468

form of intake and, 312, 314

overt signs of, 315

risk characterization, 13, 317-318

Semen, 98

Sensitivity

delayed dermal, 117, 118-119, 220

interindividual variability, 91, 82, 257

Sepsis, 253

Serum

alpha-carotene, 450-451

alpha-tocopherol, 236, 444-445

beta-carotene, 448-449

beta-cryptoxanthin, 452-453

cholesterol, 235

lutein and zeaxanthin, 454-455

lycopene, 456-457

vitamin C, 121, 132, 133, 152, 153, 156, 440-443

vitamin E (all forms), 444-445

Sjögren's syndrome, 101

Skeletal myopathy, 202

Skin cancer, 36-39, 290, 339

Skin Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37

Smokers and smoking

and alpha-tocopherol, 36-37, 213-214, 216, 219, 238, 242-243, 252, 367, 406

AMD, 18, 49

cardiovascular disease, 37-39, 48-49, 103, 106-107, 131, 216, 238, 252, 347

and carotenoids, 18, 36-39, 49, 330, 331, 334-337, 344, 345, 347, 351, 359, 366-371, 372, 405, 406

cataracts, 351

dietary intakes, 130, 359, 360

DNA damage, 110-113, 130-131, 360

endothelium dependent vasodilation, 106-107, 131

lactating, 132

LDLs, 130, 132, 153

lipid peroxidation, 104-105, 130, 131, 132, 150-151

lung cancer, 36-39, 124, 213-214, 219, 360, 366-371, 372, 405, 406

metabolism of nutrients, 43

organic free radicals per puff, 132

and oropharyngeal cancers, 344

oxidative stress, 43, 48, 102, 130, 131, 132

passive, 132, 146, 153

pregnant, 132, 149, 150-151

prostate cancer, 219

racial/ethnic differences, 132

research needs, 403

and ROS, 131

and selenium, 367

special considerations, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165

and vitamin C, 12, 43, 95, 102, 103, 104-105, 108, 110-113, 124, 130-132, 146, 149, 150-151, 152-153, 242, 390, 393

Socioeconomic status, and nutrient status, 101, 136-137

Special considerations

adolescents, 358

alcohol and drug abusers, 150, 360

alpha-tocopherol, 241-243, 259

body size and composition extremes, 242

cancer, 241

cardiovascular disease, 241-242

carotenoids, 358-360

drug interactions, 150, 259

emotional stress, 153

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164

hemochromatosis, 160, 164

identification of, 87-88

infants, 160, 259

and NOAEL/LOAEL, 92

passive smokers, 153

physical exercise, 153, 242

in pregnancy, 150

renal disorders, 160, 164

smokers, 150-151, 152-153, 242-243, 359-360

ULs, 87-88, 92, 164-165, 259

vitamin C, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165

vitamin K deficiency, 259

Sperm, 8-oxodG, 109, 110-111

Spinocerebellar ataxia, 202

Steroid hormone biosynthesis, 96, 98, 99, 153

Stomach cancer.

See Gastric cancer

Stroke, 36-41, 121, 214, 216, 252, 254, 346-347, 406

Superoxide, 103, 140-141, 211, 223

Superoxide dismutase, 45, 222

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Supplements, dietary.

See also individual nutrients

bioavailability of nutrients, 191, 224, 251, 355, 357, 399

data sources on intake, 70

form of nutrient in, 192, 251, 286, 292, 312, 399

gender differences, 70, 246-247, 260

intakes from, 70, 155, 244-245, 249, 310-311

multivitamin, 244, 246-247, 310, 386, 395

quality of, 317

shelf life, 190-191

ULs and, 5, 26, 74, 155, 165, 249, 259, 310, 317, 396, 397

units, 191, 244-245, 394-397

usage, 70

SUVIMAX, 40-41

Systemic conditioning, 156, 158-159, 161

T

Tardive dyskinesia (TD), 222-223

Teratogenicity of nutrients, 315

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 45, 103, 104-105, 131, 203, 217, 334-335, 468

Thioredoxin reductases, 285

Thrombin, 211, 223

Thrombophlebitis, 253

Thromboxane, 217

Thyroid disorders, 287, 315

Tocopherol.

See Alpha-tocopherol;

Vitamin E

Tocotrienols.

See Vitamin E

Toddlers, 29-30

Tolerable, defined, 26, 73

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels.

See also Dose-response assessment;

Hazard identification;

Risk assessment models;

individual nutrients

appropropriateness of intakes above, 13, 27, 74, 155, 165, 249, 260, 311, 317-318, 369-371

children, 33

critical endpoints, 88-89

defined, 3, 4, 5, 7-8, 26, 73, 91-92, 468

derivation of, 7-8, 13, 26, 75, 80-83, 91-92, 162, 257, 315, 316

development steps, 84-92

fortification of foods and, 5, 26, 74

by life-stage groups, 14

supplement use and, 5, 26-27, 80-81

uses, 5-6, 15, 74, 383, 386, 391, 392-393, 398

Total Antioxidant Capacity, 104-105

Total radical-trapping antioxidant capability (TRAP) assay, 45

Toxicity

experimental data, 86

mechanism of action, 87

Triiodothyronine, 315

Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, 46

Tropical sprue, 220

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, 338

Tyrosine metabolism, 45, 96

U

Ubiquinols, 224

Uncertainty

alpha-tocopherol, 91, 231-232, 256-257

assessment, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 316

dose-response assessment for ULs, 88-92

in dietary assessment methods, 68, 248, 385, 396

extrapolation from experimental animals to humans, 76, 79, 91

factor, 79, 89, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 468

in risk assessment, 76, 79-80, 458-461

selenium, 315, 316

sources of, 256, 314, 386

vitamin C data, 139-140, 162

United States Pharmacopeia, 191

Uric acid excretion, 156, 157

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 69, 135, 154, 343, 361

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 69

U.S. Dietary Guidelines, 351

U.S. Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 122, 290, 344, 347, 351

V

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), 196, 212, 223

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

Vasodilation

alpha-tocopherol and, 196, 210

endothelium-dependent, 106-107, 131

smoking and, 131

vitamin C and, 103, 106-107, 131

Vegans/vegetarians, 247, 297, 309

Vegetables.

See Fruits and vegetables

Very low density lipoproteins, 104-105, 197

Vitamin A

carotenoids and, 12-14, 36-37, 43-44, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 366, 367, 371, 372, 403, 467

children, 338, 356

deficiency, 43, 325, 338, 356, 371

and DNA damage and repair, 112-113

intakes, 352

and lactation, 355

vitamin C and, 112-113

Vitamin B12, 156, 158, 161

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 95-185.

See also Dehydroascorbic acid

absorption and transport, 99-100, 103, 108, 128, 140, 147-148, 155, 157

adolescents, 65, 138-139, 149-151, 162-163

adults (19-50 years), 12, 95, 121-122, 126, 139-147, 149-151, 154, 157, 161-162, 386, 387-390, 391, 392, 393, 438-439

adults (55+ years), 101, 118-119, 121, 133, 147-149, 154, 155, 157, 438-439

adverse effects, 13, 95, 100, 155-161, 386, 407

AIs, 6-7, 134-138, 507

and alcohol/drug abuse, 101, 150

allergic response, 160, 161

animal studies, 59, 103, 120, 131, 140

antioxidant role, 43, 44-45, 52, 95, 96, 98-99, 101-109, 116, 124-125, 139-143, 146, 154, 166

and asthma, 126

and attention-deficit disorder, 163

and beta-carotene, 102, 109, 110-111

bioavailability, 99, 128

and blood coagulation, 99, 101

body pool, 100, 103, 132, 140, 142, 145, 152-153, 166, 225, 403

and bone growth, 101

and cancer, 36-37, 40-41, 106-107, 113-116, 123-125, 127, 128, 160

and cardiovascular disease, 18, 38-41, 101-102, 103, 106-107, 109, 121-122, 127, 128, 131, 346-347

and carnitine biosynthesis, 95, 96, 99, 120, 153, 166

and cataracts, 18, 98, 125-126, 127

chemistry, 95-96, 97

children, 25, 65, 138-139, 161, 162-163, 166

and cholesterol, 99

and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 126, 127

and cognitive function, 19, 50, 127

and collagen metabolism, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 118-119, 166

and common cold, 117, 126-127, 163

and connective tissue synthesis, 98, 101

and copper, 96, 97-98, 128, 129, 156, 159-160, 161

data selection, 161

deficiency effects, 98, 99, 101, 108, 119, 120, 145, 148, 149

and dental enamel erosion, 156, 160, 161

dependence, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166

depletion/repletion studies, 108, 117, 140, 143-145, 148, 402-403

and DNA damage and repair, 98, 106-107, 109-115, 116, 130-131, 160

dose-response assessment for ULs, 161-165

EARs, 6-7, 23, 45, 65, 139, 146-151, 390

emotional stress and, 153

and endothelial dysfunction, 103, 106-107, 131

erythrocyte, 140

excretion, 12, 43, 95, 100, 140, 142, 144, 147, 148, 151, 157, 158, 164

exposure assessment, 165

and factors affecting requirement, 128-133

fetal, 67, 149, 150, 163, 166

and flavonoids, 98-99, 102, 128, 129

food sources, 101, 130, 154, 392

functions, 12, 43, 95, 96-99, 165-166

gastrointestinal effects, 95, 100, 102, 106-107, 124-125, 156, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

gender and, 2, 12, 65, 95, 101, 121, 122, 124, 126, 133, 146-147, 154, 387-390

and glucose-6-phosphate

dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164

and glutathione, 43, 96, 98, 99, 103, 105, 109-110, 126, 128, 129

hazard identification, 155-161

and hemostatic dysfunction, 131

and high-altitude resistance, 160

in human milk, 101, 132, 134-138, 151, 164, 386

and immune function, 108, 117-119, 127

indicators of adequacy, 6-7, 11, 101-128

infants, 65, 101, 129, 134-138, 159-160, 161, 162, 163-164, 386, 392

and inflammatory stress, 103, 108, 130

intakes, 15-16, 95, 135, 138, 154-155, 165-166, 387-390, 393, 416-421, 432-435, 438-439

interaction with drugs, 99, 150

interaction with other nutrients, 38-41, 96, 97-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 118-119, 120, 128-129, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 224-225, 285, 332

international comparisons, 121, 123, 124, 127, 135, 153

intervention trials, 38-39, 405

intracellular recycling, 108

and iron, 96, 97-98, 99, 109, 118-119, 120, 128, 129, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166

and kidney stone formation, 156, 157, 160, 161

laboratory values, 67

and lactation, 67, 134-135, 136-137, 151-152, 164

and LDLs, 98, 101-102, 104-105, 109, 132, 153

in leukocytes, 43, 95, 103, 108-109, 110-111, 130, 133, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150

by life-stage group, 6-7, 14, 134-153, 161-164, 416-421, 432-435, 440-443

and lipid peroxidation, 45, 95, 98, 102, 104-105, 109, 116, 130, 131, 132, 146, 150-151, 153, 159

in lymphocytes, 99-100

metabolism, 12, 43, 95, 100, 108, 130, 133, 148, 152-153, 157, 158

method used to set AIs, 134-138

method used to set EARs, 139-145, 147-148, 149-151

methodological issues, 67, 68-69, 127-128, 402-403

and nervous system, 19, 50, 96, 98, 131, 153

in neutrophils, 12, 43, 95, 98, 99-100, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 150, 385

NOAEL/LOAEL, 161-162, 163

and osmotic diarrhea, 13, 95, 100, 154, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393

and oxalate excretion, 156

and oxidative stress, 12, 43, 95, 101-102, 109, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 148, 152, 162, 166

and oxygen demand, 156, 161

passive smokers, 132, 146, 153

and periodontal health, 120, 156, 160, 161, 166

and physical exams, 164

and physical exercise, 153

plasma concentrations, 100, 101, 121, 123, 126, 127, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134-135, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 155, 158

and pregnancy, 67, 82, 132, 149-151, 159, 161, 163-164, 166

pro-oxidant effects, 129, 156, 159-160, 161, 166

race/ethnicity and, 132

RDAs, 2, 6-7, 12, 43, 95, 138, 139, 147, 149, 150, 151-152, 386, 392, 507

and renal disease, 157, 160, 164

research recommendations, 2, 20, 140, 165-166

and respiratory distress syndrome, 108

and rheumatoid arthritis, 108

risk characterization, 165

RNS/ROS and, 98, 102, 103, 106-107, 109, 116, 124, 131, 140

and scurvy, 98, 100, 101, 119, 120, 135, 139, 145, 150, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166

serum concentrations, 121, 132, 133, 152, 153, 156, 440-443

smokers, 12, 43, 95, 102, 103, 104-105, 108, 110-113, 124, 130-132, 146, 149, 150-151, 152-153, 242, 390, 393

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
×

socioeconomic status and, 101, 136-137

special considerations, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165

and steroid hormone biosynthesis, 96, 98, 99, 153

supplements, 70, 155

systemic conditioning, 156, 158-159, 161

turnover, 43, 95, 130-131, 152-153, 158

ULs, 13, 14, 26-27, 82, 95, 155-165, 391, 393

uncertainties in data, 140, 162

and uric acid excretion, 156, 157

and vitamin A, 112-113

vitamin E and, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 128, 129, 213, 224-225

and vitamin B12, 156, 158, 161

Vitamin E (all forms), 186-293.

See also Alpha-tocopherol

absorption, 191, 193, 196, 243

affinity of alpha-TTP to forms of, 2, 12, 19, 193, 195, 197-198, 243, 262

bioavailability, 193, 194-195, 243, 404

body pools, 210

conversion factors, 244-245, 394-395

defined, 187, 393

food composition data, 68-69, 393-394

forms of, 2, 12, 16, 186, 187-190, 193, 194-195, 210, 243, 262, 393-394, 404, 406

in human milk, 227, 228-229

intakes, 68, 69-70, 186, 194, 232, 243, 393-394, 395-396, 404, 406, 422-423

interconversion of units, 191-192, 244, 246

serum values, 444-445

shelf life, 190-191

structure, 187-195

units of activity, 186, 190 n.1, 191-195

Vitamin K, 252, 254-255, 256, 259

W

Warfarin therapy, 252

Weight.

See Body weight;

Reference weights and heights

Western Electric cohort study, 121-122, 341

Women.

See also Gender;

Lactation;

Pregnancy

alpha-tocopherol, 40-41, 212, 219, 226, 237, 245, 246-247, 249, 259-260

aspirin, 40-41

breast cancer, 123, 219

cardiovascular disease, 38-41, 121, 122, 212, 347

carotenoids, 38-41, 330-331, 349, 351

cataracts, 126, 351

cervical cancer, 17, 123, 340-341, 345, 346

dietary intakes, 154, 165, 245

fish oil supplements, 226

Keshan disease, 292, 304

kidney stone formation, 157

MOPD values, 349

postmenopausal, 122, 123, 212, 219, 226, 259-260, 330-331, 347

selenium,

292

supplement use, 249, 260

vitamin C, 40-41, 95, 118-119, 122, 123, 126, 133, 146-147, 149, 154, 157, 165, 386

Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, 40-41, 252

Women's Health Study, 40-41, 252

World Health Organization

definition of adverse effect, 73

Monitoring Cardiovascular Project, Vitamin Substudy, 346

uncertainty factors, 79

X

Xanthophylls, 329, 330

Z

Zeaxanthin, 18, 44, 49, 329, 330, 348, 349, 350, 351, 358, 360-361, 364, 366, 371, 454-455

Zinc, 40-41

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9810.
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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Get This Book
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This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series of quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is the newest framework for an expanded approach developed by U.S. and Canadian scientists.

This book discusses in detail the role of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and the carotenoids in human physiology and health. For each nutrient the committee presents what is known about how it functions in the human body, which factors may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

Dietary Reference Intakes provides reference intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for different groups based on age and gender, along with a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), designed to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

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