National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium

Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy–Space Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NAG5-6916, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-9800149, and the Keck Foundation.

Front Cover: The image is a portion of the Hubble Deep Field, the deepest image ever taken of the universe. The most distant galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field emitted their light when the universe was less than 1 billion years old—in other words, when it was less than 6 percent of its present age. In this image, we can establish that the most distant and therefore earliest galaxies were quite different from those we study nearby. They were smaller and less regular, as if they were being built up from primordial clumps of gas. But we have still not seen the very first galaxies and stars that were created after the Big Bang. Seeing the very first galaxies is the primary goal of the Hubble Space Telescope’s successor, the Next Generation Space Telescope. Courtesy of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Library of Congress Card Number: 00-112257

International Standard Book Numbers:

0-309-07031-7 (paperback)

0-309-07312-X (hardcover)

Additional copies of this report are available from:
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet <http://www.nap.edu>

Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, HA 562, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 Internet <http://www.national-academies.org/bpa>

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS SURVEY COMMITTEE

CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE,

University of California, Berkeley,

Co-chair

JOSEPH H. TAYLOR, JR.,

Princeton University,

Co-chair

DAVID J. HOLLENBACH,

NASA Ames Research Center,

Executive Officer

TODD BOROSON,

National Optical Astronomy Observatories

WENDY FREEDMAN,

Carnegie Observatories

DAVID C. JEWITT,

University of Hawaii

STEVEN M. KAHN,

Columbia University

JAMES M. MORAN, JR.,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JERRY E. NELSON,

University of California Observatories

R. BRUCE PARTRIDGE,

Haverford College

MARCIA RIEKE,

University of Arizona

ANNEILA I. SARGENT,

California Institute of Technology

ALAN TITLE,

Lockheed-Martin Space Technology Center

SCOTT TREMAINE,

Princeton University

MICHAEL S. TURNER,

University of Chicago

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF

DONALD C. SHAPERO,

Board on Physics and Astronomy,

Director

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER,

Space Studies Board,

Director

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer

JOEL R. PARRIOTT, Program Officer

GRACE WANG, Administrative Associate (1998-1999)

SÄRAH A. CHOUDHURY, Project Associate (1999-2000)

MICHAEL LU, Project Assistant (1998-2000)

NELSON QUIÑONES, Project Assistant (2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

PANEL ON ASTRONOMY EDUCATION AND POLICY

ANDREA K. DUPREE,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Chair

R. BRUCE PARTRIDGE,

Haverford College,

Vice Chair (education)

ANNEILA I. SARGENT,

California Institute of Technology,

Vice Chair (policy)

FRANK BASH,

McDonald Observatory, University of Texas

GREGORY BOTHUN,

University of Oregon

SUZAN EDWARDS,

Smith College

RICCARDO GIACCONI,

Associated Universities, Inc.

PETER A. GILMAN,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

MICHAEL HAUSER,

Space Telescope Science Institute

BLAIR SAVAGE,

University of Wisconsin

IRWIN SHAPIRO,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

FRANK SHU,

University of California, Berkeley

NEIL DE GRASSE TYSON,

American Museum of Natural History

PANEL ON BENEFITS TO THE NATION FROM ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

STEPHEN E. STROM,

National Optical Astronomy Observatories,

Chair

DAVID J. HOLLENBACH,

NASA Ames Research Center,

Vice Chair

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE PANEL

ROGER ANGEL,

Steward Observatory, University of Arizona

DOUGLAS DUNCAN,

American Astronomical Society; University of Chicago

ANDREW FRAKNOI,

Foothills College

PAUL GOLDSMITH,

National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Cornell University

NEAL KATZ,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

EUGENE LEVY,

University of Arizona

STEPHEN MARAN,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

DAVID MORRISON,

NASA Ames Research Center

LEIF ROBINSON,

Sky Publishing Corporation

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

WILLIAM SMITH,

Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

EDWARD STONE,

California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

CHARLES TOWNES,

University of California, Berkeley

VIRGINIA TRIMBLE,

University of California, Irvine, and University of Maryland

PAUL VANDEN BOUT,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

SIDNEY WOLFF,

National Optical Astronomy Observatories

PANEL ON HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS FROM SPACE

ROGER D. BLANDFORD,

California Institute of Technology,

Chair

STEVEN M. KAHN,

Columbia University,

Vice Chair

LARS BILDSTEN,

University of California, Berkeley

FRANCE A. CORDOVA,

University of California, Santa Barbara

JONATHAN GRINDLAY,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

DAN McCAMMON,

University of Wisconsin

PETER MICHELSON,

Stanford University

STEPHEN S. MURRAY,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

RENE ASHWIN ONG,

University of Chicago

CRAIG L. SARAZIN,

University of Virginia

NICHOLAS WHITE,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

STANFORD EARL WOOSLEY,

University of California, Santa Cruz

PANEL ON OPTICAL AND INFRARED ASTRONOMY FROM THE GROUND

ALAN DRESSLER,

Carnegie Observatories,

Chair

TODD BOROSON,

National Optical Astronomy Observatories,

Vice Chair

JERRY E. NELSON,

University of California Observatories,

Vice Chair

JILL BECHTOLD,

University of Arizona

RAYMOND CARLBERG,

University of Toronto

BRUCE CARNEY,

University of North Carolina

JAMES ELLIOT,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

RICHARD ELSTON,

University of Florida

ANDREA MIA GHEZ,

University of California, Los Angeles

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

CHARLES LADA,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JAMES W. LIEBERT,

University of Arizona

CHARLES C. STEIDEL,

California Institute of Technology

CHRISTOPHER STUBBS,

University of Washington

DAVID C. JEWITT,

University of Hawaii,

Ex Officio

PANEL ON PARTICLE, NUCLEAR, AND GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE ASTROPHYSICS

THOMAS K. GAISSER,

University of Delaware,

Chair

MICHAEL S. TURNER,

University of Chicago,

Vice Chair

BARRY BARISH,

California Institute of Technology

STEVEN WILLIAM BARWICK,

University of California, Irvine

EUGENE BEIER,

University of Pennsylvania

JOSHUA FRIEMAN,

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

ALICE KUST HARDING, NASA

Goddard Space Flight Center

RICHARD ALWIN MEWALDT,

California Institute of Technology

RENE ASHWIN ONG,

University of Chicago

BOHDAN PACZYNSKI,

Princeton University Observatory

BERNARD SADOULET,

University of California, Berkeley

PIERRE SOKOLSKY,

University of Utah

RAINER WEISS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PANEL ON RADIO AND SUBMILLIMETER-WAVE ASTRONOMY

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University,

Chair

JAMES M. MORAN, JR.,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Vice Chair

GEOFFREY A. BLAKE,

California Institute of Technology

DONALD B. CAMPBELL,

Cornell University

JOHN E. CARLSTROM,

University of Chicago

NEAL J. EVANS,

University of Texas at Austin

JACQUELINE N. HEWITT,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

KENNETH I. KELLERMANN,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

ALAN P. MARSCHER,

Boston University

STEVEN T. MYERS,

University of Pennsylvania

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

MARK J. REID,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

WILLIAM J. WELCH,

University of California, Berkeley

DONALD BACKER,

University of California, Berkeley,

Consultant

PANEL ON SOLAR ASTRONOMY

MICHAEL KNOELKER,

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research,

Chair

ALAN TITLE,

Lockheed-Martin Space Technology Center,

Vice Chair

DALE EVERETT GARY,

New Jersey Institute of Technology

PHILIP R. GOODE,

New Jersey Institute of Technology

JOSEPH B. GURMAN,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

SHADIA RIFAI HABBAL,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

DANA WARFIELD LONGCOPE,

Montana State University

RONALD LEE MOORE,

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

THOMAS RIMMELE,

National Solar Observatory

JOHN H. THOMAS,

University of Rochester

ELLEN GOULD ZWEIBEL,

University of Colorado, Boulder

PANEL ON THEORY, COMPUTATION, AND DATA EXPLORATION

WILLIAM H. PRESS,

Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Chair

SCOTT TREMAINE,

Princeton University,

Vice Chair

CHARLES ALCOCK,

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/ University of Pennsylvania

LARS BILDSTEN,

University of California, Berkeley/Santa Barbara

ADAM BURROWS,

University of Arizona

LARS HERNQUIST,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

CRAIG JAMES HOGAN,

University of Washington

MARC PAUL KAMIONKOWSKI,

Columbia University

MICHAEL NORMAN,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

EVE OSTRIKER,

University of Maryland

THOMAS A. PRINCE,

California Institute of Technology

ALEX SANDOR SZALAY,

Johns Hopkins University

ROBERT F. STEIN,

Michigan State University,

Consultant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

PANEL ON ULTRAVIOLET, OPTICAL, AND INFRARED ASTRONOMY FROM SPACE

STEVEN V.W. BECKWITH,

Space Telescope Science Institute,

Chair

WENDY FREEDMAN,

Carnegie Observatories,

Vice Chair

MARCIA RIEKE,

University of Arizona,

Vice Chair

JOSEPH A. BURNS,

Cornell University

DALE CRUIKSHANK,

NASA Ames Research Center

RICHARD S. ELLIS,

University of Cambridge

ALEXEI V. FILIPPENKO,

University of California, Berkeley

MARTIN O. HARWIT,

Washington, D.C.

LYNNE HILLENBRAND,

California Institute of Technology

SHRINIVAS KULKARNI,

California Institute of Technology

ABRAHAM LOEB,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

ROBERT D. MATHIEU,

University of Wisconsin

WARREN MOOS,

Johns Hopkins University

J. MICHAEL SHULL,

University of Colorado

EDWARD L. WRIGHT,

University of California, Los Angeles

DAVID C. JEWITT,

University of Hawaii,

Ex Officio

AD HOC CROSS-PANEL WORKING GROUPS

Astronomical Surveys, Thomas A. Prince, Chair

Extrasolar Planets, David C. Jewitt, Chair

Laboratory Astrophysics, Charles Alcock, Chair

NSF-Funded National Observatories, Frank Bash, Chair

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

ROBERT C. DYNES,

University of California, San Diego,

Chair

ROBERT C. RICHARDSON,

Cornell University,

Vice Chair

GORDON A. BAYM,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

WILLIAM BIALEK,

NEC Research Institute

VAL FITCH,

Princeton University

RICHARD D. HAZELTINE,

University of Texas at Austin

JOHN HUCHRA,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JOHN C. MATHER,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

CHERRY ANN MURRAY,

Lucent Technologies

ANNEILA I. SARGENT,

California Institute of Technology

JOSEPH H. TAYLOR, JR.,

Princeton University

KATHLEEN TAYLOR,

General Motors Research and Development Center

J. ANTHONY TYSON,

Lucent Technologies

CARL E. WIEMAN,

JILA/University of Colorado, Boulder

PETER G. WOLYNES,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director

JOEL R. PARRIOTT, Program Officer

ACHILLES SPELIOTOPOULOS, Program Officer

GRACE WANG, Administrative Associate (1998-1999)

SÄRAH A. CHOUDHURY, Project Associate

MICHAEL LU, Project Assistant (1998-2000)

NELSON QUIÑONES, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CLAUDE R. CANIZARES,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Chair

MARK R. ABBOTT,

Oregon State University

FRAN BAGENAL,

University of Colorado

DANIEL N. BAKER,

University of Colorado

ROBERT E. CLELAND,

University of Washington

MARILYN L. FOGEL,

Carnegie Institution of Washington

BILL GREEN, former member,

U.S. House of Representatives

JOHN H. HOPPS, JR.,

Rozewell, Georgia

CHRIS J. JOHANNSEN,

Purdue University

RICHARD G. KRON,

University of Chicago

JONATHAN I. LUNINE,

University of Arizona

ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER,

Columbia University

GARY J. OLSEN,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MARY JANE OSBORN,

University of Connecticut Health Center

GEORGE A. PAULIKAS,

The Aerospace Corporation

JOYCE E. PENNER,

University of Michigan

THOMAS A. PRINCE,

California Institute of Technology

PEDRO L. RUSTAN, JR.,

U.S. Air Force (retired)

GEORGE L. SISCOE,

Boston University

EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITCHELL SOGIN,

Marine Biological Laboratory

NORMAN E. THAGARD,

Florida State University

ALAN M. TITLE,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

RAYMOND VISKANTA,

Purdue University

PETER W. VOORHEES,

Northwestern University

JOHN A. WOOD,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

PETER M. BANKS,

ERIM International, Inc. (retired),

Co-chair

W. CARL LINEBERGER,

University of Colorado,

Co-chair

WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR.,

The Aerospace Corporation

SHIRLEY CHIANG,

University of California, Davis

MARSHALL H. COHEN,

California Institute of Technology

RONALD G. DOUGLAS,

Texas A&M University

JERRY P. GOLLUB,

Haverford College

MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD,

University of California, Santa Barbara

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University

WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR.,

Carnegie Institution

CAROL JANTZEN,

Westinghouse Savannah River Company

PAUL G. KAMINSKI,

Technovation, Inc.

KENNETH H. KELLER,

University of Minnesota

JOHN R. KREICK,

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company

(retired)

MARSHA I. LESTER,

University of Pennsylvania

DUSA M. McDUFF,

State University of New York at Stony Brook

JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner,

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL,

Stanford University

NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

ROBERT J. SPINRAD,

Xerox PARC

(retired)

MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (August 1999 through August 8, 2000)

JAMES F. HINCHMAN (from August 9, 2000, through December 2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

Preface

In 1997, the Board on Physics and Astronomy asked BPA member Anthony Readhead and director Don Shapero to convene a small group of leading astronomers to consider the need for a new decadal survey of astronomy and astrophysics. The group concluded that the time was ripe for a new decadal survey in the 50-year series of such studies. It recommended the establishment of a new Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee to carry out a broad scientific assessment of the field and to recommend new ground- and space-based programs for the decade 2000 to 2010. It also considered the framework for the survey, which ultimately led to the following detailed charge to the committee:

The committee will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important new initiatives of the decade 2000-2010. The principal goal of the study will be an assessment of proposed activities in astronomy and astrophysics and the preparation of a concise report addressed to the agencies supporting the field, the congressional committees with jurisdiction over these agencies, and the scientific community. The study will restrict its scope to experimental and theoretical aspects of subfields involving remote observations from the Earth and space and analysis of astronomical objects. Missions to make in situ studies of the Earth and planets, which have been treated by other National Research Council and Academy reports, will be excluded. Attention will be given to effective implementation of proposed and existing programs and to the organizational infrastructure and the human aspects of the field involving demography and education. Promising areas for the development of new technologies will be suggested.

A brief review of the initiatives of other nations will be given together with a discussion of the possibilities of joint ventures and other forms of international cooperation. Prospects for combining resources—private, state, federal, and international—to build the strongest program possible

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

for U.S. astronomy will be explored. Recommendations for new initiatives will be presented in priority order within different categories.

The committee will also address two questions posed by the House Science Committee staff: Have NASA and NSF mission objectives resulted in a balanced, broad-based, robust science program for astronomy? That is, NASA’s mission is to fund research that supports flight programs and focused campaigns such as Origins, whereas NSF’s mission is to support basic research. Have these overall missions been adequately coordinated and has this resulted in an optimum science program from a productivity standpoint? What special strategies are needed for strategic cooperation between NASA and NSF? Should these be included in agency strategic plans? How do NASA and NSF determine the relative priority of new technological opportunities (including new facilities) compared to providing long-term support for associated research grants and facility operations?

The committee will consult widely within the astronomical and astrophysical community and make a concerted effort to disseminate its recommendations promptly and effectively.

The two major questions posed by the House Science Committee staff (detailed above) were accompanied by several other questions that were treated in a report entitled Federal Funding of Astronomical Research, prepared by the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000). That report was submitted to the survey committee as input to its deliberations.

The National Research Council established the survey under the auspices of the BPA, which oversaw the study in close consultation with the Space Studies Board. After consultations with members of the National Academy of Sciences Astronomy Section, members of astronomy departments in U.S. universities, and other leading astronomers, the BPA presented a slate of nominees for membership on the survey committee to the chair of the National Research Council. The NRC chair subsequently appointed the 15-member Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (AASC), with Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., and Christopher F. McKee as co-chairs, to carry out the study.

To provide detailed input to the AASC on the wavelength-based subdisciplines of astronomy and other areas, nine panels were established. Each panel’s vice chair was selected from the membership of the AASC. The panel vice chairs were thus able to serve as liaisons between the panels and the main committee and to articulate the priorities of the subdisciplines within the AASC in the process of setting priorities. The panels included more than 100 people, who together were able to

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

encompass the enormous intellectual breadth of modern astronomy and astrophysics.

Each panel met three times and also held two open “town meeting” sessions at the January and June 1999 meetings of the American Astronomical Society. Many of the panel members also held sessions at other professional gatherings, as well as at astronomical departments and centers throughout the United States.

The seven science panels were charged with preparing reports that identified the most important scientific goals in their respective areas, prioritizing the new initiatives needed to achieve these goals, recommending proposals for technology development, considering the possibilities for international collaboration, and discussing any policy issues relevant to their charge. The science panels were

  • High-energy Astrophysics from Space;

  • Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground;

  • Particle, Nuclear, and Gravitational-Wave Astrophysics;

  • Radio and Submillimeter-Wave Astronomy;

  • Solar Astronomy;

  • Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration; and

  • Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy from Space.

Their reports are published in a separate volume entitled Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001).

The reports of the other two panels—Astronomy Education and Policy, and Benefits to the Nation from Astronomy and Astrophysics—were revised and incorporated into the AASC main report. As mentioned above, the AASC also drew on the report Federal Funding of Astronomical Research as well as other NRC reports cited in the text. Further valuable input to the AASC and its panels was provided by four ad hoc cross-panel working groups: Astronomical Surveys (T. Prince, Chair), Extrasolar Planets (D. Jewitt, Chair), Laboratory Astrophysics (C. Alcock, Chair), and NSF-Funded National Observatories (F. Bash, Chair).

Members of the survey committee and the panels consulted widely with their colleagues to solicit advice and to inform other members of the astronomical community of the main issues facing the committee. This consultation process provided useful input for the panel reports and also gave the survey committee a good picture of the community consensus

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

on the various initiatives under consideration for inclusion among the priorities of the main report.

At the final AASC meeting in late 1999, the panel chairs participated with members of the survey committee to develop the new decadal survey’s recommendations. The committee based its final recommendations and priorities in significant part on the panel reports and on the discussions with the panel chairs. As mentioned above, the panel reports, reviewed by the National Research Council together with the main report, are published in a separate volume subtitled Panel Reports. The overall priorities are presented in the present volume. The panel reports contain, in addition to more detailed discussion of these priorities, further projects and topics that were not selected by the AASC for inclusion among the overall priorities that are viewed as having importance for the field as a whole.

The AASC is grateful to the many astronomers, both in the United States and from abroad, who provided written advice or participated in organized discussions. We thank the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Keck Foundation for providing support for the project. We are grateful to Robert Milkey and Kevin Marvel and to the American Astronomical Society for assistance in the community outreach and town meeting sessions. The committee also acknowledges the assistance of NRC staff members, particularly the outstanding work of Joel Parriott and Roc Riemer, who provided support for the entire project, Susan Maurizi and Liz Fikre, who edited the reports, and the National Academy Press, which published the reports. We are also indebted to Robert Sokol and Ken Van Pool of Design@Large for their innovative design of the booklet that gives an overview of and popularizes the results of the survey. The timely completion of this report would not have been possible without the unstinting efforts of David Hollenbach, who served both as a member of the committee and as Executive Officer. Many other people too numerous to cite individually assisted in various aspects of the survey. We thank them all for their assistance.

Christopher F. McKee and Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., Co-chairs

Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report and/or one or more of the panel reports:

W. David Arnett, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona,

Peter Banks, ERIM International, Inc. (retired),

Gordon A. Baym, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Roger Chevalier, University of Virginia,

Anita L. Cochran, University of Texas at Austin,

Marshall H. Cohen, California Institute of Technology,

Anne P. Cowley, Arizona State University,

Val L. Fitch, Princeton University,

Bill Green, former Congressman, New York,

Karen L. Harvey, Solar Physics Research Group,

John P. Huchra, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Robert P. Kirshner, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Chryssa Kouveliotou, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center,

Richard G. Kron, Yerkes Observatory,

Jeffrey Linsky, University of Colorado/JILA,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

Richard McCray, University of Colorado/JILA,

Melissa McGrath, Space Telescope Science Institute,

Mark Morris, University of California, Los Angeles,

Martin J. Rees, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, U.K.,

Morton S. Roberts, National Radio Astronomy Observatory– Charlottesville,

Patrick Thaddeus, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

J. Anthony Tyson, Lucent Technologies, and

David T. Wilkinson, Princeton University.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report and of the panel reports was overseen by Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory, appointed by the NRC’s Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, and Lewis M. Branscomb, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the reports was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report and the panel reports rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
   

 Stars and Stellar Evolution,

 

63

   

 Star Formation,

 

63

   

 The Sun,

 

65

   

 Stellar Metamorphosis,

 

68

   

 Galaxies,

 

73

   

 Formation and Evolution of Galaxies,

 

73

   

 Evolution of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxies,

 

78

   

 Galactic Nuclei,

 

80

   

 The Universe,

 

85

   

 The Evolution of the Universe,

 

86

   

 The Evolution of Structure in the Universe,

 

88

   

 Composition of the Universe,

 

91

3

 

THE NEW INITIATIVES: BUILDING ON THE CURRENT PROGRAM

 

95

   

 Introduction,

 

96

   

 The Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Windows onto the Universe,

 

96

   

 Large Filled-Aperture Optical and Infrared Telescopes: NGST and GSMT,

 

100

   

 Optical and Infrared Surveys: LSST,

 

106

   

 The Telescope System Instrumentation Program—TSIP,

 

108

   

 Far-Infrared Astronomy from Space: SAFIR,

 

109

   

 Infrared Interferometry from Space: TPF,

 

110

   

 Ultraviolet and Optical Astronomy from Space,

 

113

   

 Solar Astronomy,

 

114

   

 Ground-Based Solar Astronomy: AST and FASR,

 

114

   

 Space-Based Solar Astronomy: SDO,

 

116

   

 The High-Energy Universe,

 

117

   

 High-Energy Photons: Con-X, GLAST, VERITAS, and EXIST,

 

117

   

 Gravitational Radiation: LISA,

 

122

   

 Particle Astrophysics,

 

123

   

 The Radio Universe,

 

124

   

 Centimeter-Wavelength Astronomy: EVLA, SKA, and ARISE,

 

125

   

 Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Astronomy: CARMA and SPST,

 

128

   

 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation,

 

129

   

 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence,

 

131

   

 The National Virtual Observatory and Other High-Leverage, Small Initiatives,

 

132

Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×

4

 

BENEFITS TO THE NATION FROM ASTRONOMY

 

137

   

 Introduction,

 

138

   

 The Role of Astronomy in Public Science Education,

 

138

   

 The Relevance of Astronomy,

 

139

   

 Conveying Astronomy to the Public,

 

140

   

 Astronomy in Precollege Science Education,

 

142

   

 The Practical Contributions of Astronomy to Society,

 

146

   

 Antennas, Mirrors, and Telescopes,

 

146

   

 Sensors, Detectors, and Amplifiers,

 

147

   

 Spectrometers and Devices to Focus Radiation,

 

150

   

 Image Reconstruction,

 

151

   

 Precision Timing and Position Measurements,

 

151

   

 Data Analysis and Numerical Computation,

 

152

   

 Earth’s Environment and Planetary Survival,

 

153

   

 Connections Between Astronomy and Other Disciplines,

 

154

   

 Interactions with Physics,

 

154

   

 Astronomy and the Computational Sciences,

 

156

   

 Potential Interactions with the Biological Sciences: Astrobiology,

 

157

   

 Note,

 

158

5

 

THE ROLE OF ASTRONOMY IN EDUCATION

 

159

   

 Introduction,

 

160

   

 Strategies to Achieve the Four Educational Goals,

 

162

   

 Communicate Discoveries and Excitement of Science,

 

162

   

 Expand Outreach to K-12 Students,

 

165

   

 Improve Science Literacy for Undergraduates,

 

167

   

 Contribute to a Technically Trained Work Force,

 

170

   

 Prepare Professional Astronomers,

 

173

   

 Existing Programs and Future Directions,

 

174

6

 

POLICY FOR ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

 

177

   

 Introduction,

 

178

   

 Policy Recommendations for the National Science Foundation: Ground-Based Facilities,

 

179

   

 Recommended New Paradigm,

 

181

   

 Roles and Responsibilities of National Astronomy Organizations and Independent Observatories,

 

182

   

 New Procedures and Strategies,

 

184

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR22
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR23
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9839.
×
PageR24
Next: Executive Summary »
Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Get This Book
×

In this new book, a distinguished panel makes recommendations for the nation's programs in astronomy and astrophysics, including a number of new initiatives for observing the universe. With the goal of optimum value, the recommendations address the role of federal research agencies, allocation of funding, training for scientists, competition and collaboration among space facilities, and much more.

The book identifies the most pressing science questions and explains how specific efforts, from the Next Generation Space Telescope to theoretical studies, will help reveal the answers. Discussions of how emerging information technologies can help scientists make sense of the wealth of data available are also included.

Astronomy has significant impact on science in general as well as on public imagination. The committee discusses how to integrate astronomical discoveries into our education system and our national life.

In preparing the New Millennium report, the AASC made use of a series of panel reports that address various aspects of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. These reports provide in-depth technical detail.

Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium: An Overview summarizes the science goals and recommended initiatives in a short, richly illustrated, non-technical booklet.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!