National Academies Press: OpenBook

Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites (2000)

Chapter:Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites

« Previous: Appendix A Committee's Statement of Task
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

APPENDIX B

Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites

Raymond G. Wymer

Information for the table in this appendix was taken primarily from the following sources: Baseline Environmental Management Reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 1995, 1996), Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure (U.S. Department of Energy, 1998), and From Cleanup to Stewardship (U.S. Department of Energy, 1999). The Department of Energy uses the term “sites” in several ways, for example, to refer to national laboratories or to installations such as the Hanford Site or the Savannah River Site. In other instances it refers to specific areas within the major sites as sites. As a consequence the number of contaminated “sites ” can vary from several dozen to many hundreds, depending upon the definition used. In order to bound the number of “sites” to be considered, the “sites” listed in the accompanying table are those discussed in the above DOE reports.

REFERENCES CITED

U.S. Department of Energy. 1995 (March). Estimating the Cold War Mortgage: The 1995 Baseline Environmental Management Report. Office of Environmental Management, DOE/EM-0232, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. 1996 (June). The 1996 Baseline Environmental Management Report. Office of Environmental Management, DOE/EM-0290, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. 1998 (June). Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure. Office of Environmental Management DOE/EM-0362, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. 1999 (October). From Cleanup to Stewardship: A Companion Report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and Background Information to Support the Scoping Process Required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study. Office of Environmental Management DOE/EM-0466, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

TABLE B-1 Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites (Sources: U.S. Department of Energy [1995, 1996, 1998a, 1999])

State

Site

Responsibility for Site/End Use(s)

End State

Conditions of Closure

Completion Date

Alaska

Amchitka Island

Release to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or U.S. Bureau of Wildlife Mgt.

Greenfield on surface/institutional control on all sub-surface areas near shot cavities

Sub-surface soil and groundwater surveillance and monitoring planned for 100 years, but assumed to be in perpetuity; will require controlled access; surface released for uncontrolled use (open space)

2001

California

Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC)

Site will be turned over to Boeing/Rocketdyne

Probably industrial use under surveillance and monitoring and deed restrictions

Remediation of groundwater, soils and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of several bldg.; residual inorganic, PCB, semivolatile organic chemical (SVOC), mercury and dioxin left in soil; contaminated soil over 1×10−5disposed off site; facilitites require D&Dof radionuclides and sodium under RCRA

2006

California

General Atomics Site (GA)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) keeps liability until all waste is off the site then GA assumes site

Greenfield

GA responsible for post-remediation monitoring

1999

California

General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center

GE owns the site; after cleaning up hot cell and glove box DOE has no further responsibility

Brownfield/part of site will be zoned industrial; hot cell to be used commercially

DOE will clean up hot cell #4 and glove box; Univ CA-Davis has primary responsibility for post-closure monitoring

2005

California

Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR)

Univ CA-Davis owns the site and is responsible for radioactive waste burial trench and 3 landfills; DOE has leased since 1958

Controlled access; decontaminated to industrial use levels

DOE responsible for decontamination of septic tanks, burial trenches, dry wells, dog pen facilities, etc.; limited institutional controls and monitoring may be necessary

2002

California

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

Land leased to DOE by Univ CA; 134 acres adjacent to Univ CA-Berkeley:

Ongoing DOE mission

Groundwater treatment system in place by 2003; no cleanup level defined for tritium in groundwater; long-term monitoring through 2032; underground tanks will be removed

2003

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

California

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-Main Site

DOE will continue to own and manage site; Univ CA operates site

Brownfield/future land use to be research and industrial

Soil and groundwater remediation in progress; no solid waste disposal on site; on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national priority list; on-site groundwater must be remediated to EPA maximum contaminant levels (MCL); groundwater stewardship may last to 2015

2006

California

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-Site 300

LLNL will occupy indefinitely

DOE ongoing mission/controlled access/mix of industrial and wildlife management areas

Groundwater treatment operational by 2006, Will continue until negotiated goals are met; groundwater monitoring for at least 23 years; landfills will require at least 23 years of surveillance and monitoring and cap inspections and repairs

2006

California

Sandia National Laboratories-CA

Ongoing mission under Defense Programs

Brownfield/ongoing mission

Designated solid waste mgt. areas remediated or under management controls such that no further action is necessary; remediation and waste disposal of 23 release sites by 2001

2001

California

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

To be returned to DOE Office of Energy Research by end of 2000

Ongoing DOE mission

Soil and groundwater will be cleaned up; network of monitoring wells installed; soil contaminated by solvents at 10 to 20 feet will stay that way

2000

Colorado

Grand Junction Office Site

No radiological restrictions

Greenfield/industrial/recreational

Administrative control of groundwater until verification that passive remediation has achieved cleanup goals (by approximately 2076)

2002

Colorado

Rio Blanco

DOE will maintain institutional control of sub-surface areas near shot cavities in perpetuity

Surface area will be released for alternative uses/no radiological restrictions

Site remains under controlled access; monitoring planned for 100 years, but assumed to be in perpetuity

2005

Colorado

Rocky Flats Buffer Zone

DOE may transfer site to another entity as cleanup becomes more complete

Final record of decision (ROD) will determine stewardship requirements; likely available for re-use as open space

 

2010 (2006)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Colorado

Rocky Flats Industrial Area (consists of six operable units; 95 individual contaminated sites)1

 

Various end states, depending upon particulars of sites

Clean up in compliance with environmental laws and regulations; surveillance and monitoring after closure of each operable unit; monitoring for greater than 30 years after site closure; subsurface facilities will be capped and left in place

 

Colorado

Rulison

DOE will maintain institutional control of shot cavities

Surface area will be released for alternate uses

Site surface released for recreation; subsurface areas near no radiological restrictions; subsurface and groundwater remains under institutional controls; long-term surveillance and monitoring

1998

Idaho

Argonne National Laboratory-West

DOE Nuclear Energy is responsible for waste mgt. program

Ongoing DOE mission/brownfield/industrial, commercial/residual contamination in soil and groundwater

Groundwater remediation will be ongoing for 5 years with monitoring for at least 20 years; surveillance and maintenance for about 100 years; DOE will conduct 5-year CERCLA reviews and sampling for 20 years; after DOE departs deed restrictions will be needed to maintain industrial use levels

2000

Idaho

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)2

Currently DOE; long-range plan is to be a national multi-program engineering and environmental laboratory

Cleanup per Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and all existing and future agreements; grazing and industrial use

Industrial and open space; on-site disposal cell for contact handled (CH) low-level waste (LLW); store spent fuel until 2035; treat and store high-level waste (HLW) until 2070; no residential use for 100 years; various waste area groups (WAG) handled according to need and anticipated use

2050

Illinois

Argonne National Laboratory-East

DOE Energy Research is landlord; DOE has program responsibility for environmental restoration, stewardship, and land use

Ongoing DOE mission

On-site containment of some residual contamination; annual sampling and monitoring of soil; groundwater remedial options include pump and treat after 2002; composite caps over several landfills

2002

Iowa

Ames Laboratory

Waste mgt. program transferred to DOE Energy Research in 2000

Greenfield

All waste treated and/or disposed of off site

1999

Kentucky

Maxey Flats Disposal Site

Commonwealth of KY has long-term stewardship; permanent LLW disposal site; controlled access

Controlled access

Cleanup levels in accordance with CERCLA ROD; wastes stay on site

2002

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Kentucky

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

On-going mission by US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)

Brownfield/controlled access; other land restricted industrial, open space/recreational

Contaminated burial grounds and landfills closed in place in industrial area; deed restrictions or use limitation on areas with contamination; pump and treat off-site plumes until 2070; federal government maintains stewardship forever; caps over burial grounds; soil monitoring for hundreds of years; groundwater pump and treat for at least 100 years

2010

Mississippi

Salmon Site

Site will be transferred to Mississippi

No radiological restrictions/characterization and remediation under RCRA/use as a wilderness area

Site remains under controlled access; DOE responsible for institutional controls forever; monitoring for 100 years

1999

Missouri

Kansas City Plant

Defense Programs is landlord/commercial use

Brownfield

Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPL) cleaned up with innovative technology; groundwater treatment and monitoring from two to hundreds of years

1999

Missouri

Weldon Springs Site

155 acres of plant site released to unrestricted use; 9-acre quarry for recreational use; 62-acre disposal cell controlled access

Greenfield and brownfield/controlled access/engineered disposal facility with clay liner and stone cap for debris, sludge, contaminated soil, asbestos, low-level PCB

Federal government stewardship forever

2002

Multiple States

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Sites

Site responsibilities vary: state, local, and DOE; restrictions range from uncontrolled access to restricted access

Greenfield/restricted access

Many sites rely on natural attenuation to reach EPA groundwater standards

Various

Nevada

Central Nevada Test Site

DOE responsible for institutional controls of sub-surface soil and contaminated groundwater

Future surface use with “no radiological restrictions”; No technology available for bomb crater cleanup; economic redevelopment possible in parts

Site remains under controlled access; in-situ containment; treatment for commercial disposal; indefinite term of monitoring

2006 (est)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Nevada

Nevada Test Site (NTS) (including Tonopah test range)

DOE ongoing mission of nuclear stockpile stewardship; federal government will own the land forever

Brownfield development possible in southwestern portion/controlled access all over/final cleanup levels to be negotiated with state regulators/waste management sites used for LLW and mixed wastes

Surface and soil plumes outside of NTS will be remediated; sub-surface contaminants in and around shots will not be remediated; filled pits and trenches will be closed and capped; modeling and monitoring in perpetuity to predict movement of radionuclides in groundwater

2014 (est.)

Nevada

Project Shoal Site

DOE will not maintain an active presence but will maintain institutional controls forever for subsurface soil and groundwater

Surface soil re-use with no radiological restrictions

Site remains under controlled access; restricted access to groundwater forever; monitoring forever

2004

New Jersey

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

DOE Office of Science gets waste mgt. program in 2000

Ongoing research mission

Contaminated soil and sediment treated and disposed off site; no groundwater remediation required

1999

New Mexico

Gasbuggy

DOE will maintain institutional control of subsurface areas near shot cavities

Surface area will be released for alternate uses with no radiological restrictions

Site remains under controlled access; monitoring forever; groundwater monitoring wells refurbished or replaced every 25 years

2005

New Mexico

Gnome-Coach

DOE will not maintain an active presence, but will maintain institutional control of sub-surface areas near shot cavities; land released without restrictions or given to Bureau of Land Mgt.

Surface area will be released for alternate uses with no radiological restrictions

Site remains under controlled access; annual monitoring planned for 100 years, but assumed to be forever

2004

New Mexico

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

Ongoing research mission; transfer up to 4650 acres to county and San Idelfonso Pueblo

Brownfield/industrial/commercial use/DOE mission

Legacy mixed LLW off site by 2004; environmental restoration project complete 2008; residual radioactive, metal and organic contamination; indefinite radiological contamination surveillance and monitoring; no groundwater remediation of regional aquifer deemed necessary; groundwater monitoring for over 30 years; contaminated material disposal areas closed with engineered barriers and long-term surveillance and monitoring

2008

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

New Mexico

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)

U.S. Air Force leases the land to DOE with renewal option; Office of Science is operational landlord

Brownfield

Groundwater contamination exceeds NMED 10 Tg/L level; natural attenuation of nitrates and diesel products expected to achieve standard; surveillance and monitoring until 2006

2000

New Mexico

Sandia National Laboratories-NM

Ongoing mission under Defense Programs; industrial (DOE programmatic) uses beginning in 2001

Brownfield/ongoing mission/chemical waste and mixed waste landfills and a disposal cell will remain

Controlled access of landfills and disposal cell unless wastes are sent off site; under federal control in perpetuity; long-term institutional controls; 30 years of monitoring per RCRA

2001

New Mexico

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

WIPP is neither a cleanup nor a disposal site; DOE control for ongoing waste mgt. for CH and remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) wastes until 2033

After completion of TRU disposal project surface area will be unrestricted for recreational and agricultural use

Monuments and markers to warn people of presence of radioactive wastes; no access to underground; 124 acres passive institutional control

2038

New York

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Office of Science is landlord; ongoing research mission

Final ROD not complete and remediation strategies are not finalized as of June 1999

Groundwater remediation and monitoring until 2031; former and current landfills capped; newly generated wastes disposed off site; institutional controls for 100 years with deed and use restrictions at site closure time

2006

New York

Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU)-Knolls

Owned by Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory

Greenfield/to be released by owner for unrestricted use

In standby since 1953; surveillance and monitoring in place; some transuranic wastes

2014

New York

West Valley Demonstration Project

Site and facilities owned by New York state and licensed by NRC; DOE manages oversight responsibilities; final end state not determined

Remediation strategy and final EIS not complete; after completion of project facility operational responsibilities will be transferred to New York Energy Research Development Authority

Unknown pending completion of final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

Unknown

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Ohio

Ashtabula Environmental Management Project

Owned by RMI, a private company

RMI has sole responsibility for site after 2003

Future use assumed to be industrial consistent with surrounding property use and zoning; surficial soil to be remediated to <30 pCi/g; long-term sampling and monitoring of groundwater

2003

Ohio

Columbus Environmental Management Project-West Jefferson

Return to Battelle for unrestricted use by 2005

Brownfield/industrial use

Clean up for use without radiological restrictions; all waste streams to be shipped off site

2005

Ohio

Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

DOE or a successor federal agency maintains stewardship; use may be recreational or industrial

Brownfield/no residential or agricultural use; access to 138-acre on-site disposal facility restricted forever

Large on-site LLW disposal facility; controlled access; restore aquifer to 20 ppb uranium contamination; 23 acres set aside for future economic development; groundwater monitoring forever

2008 (2005)

Ohio

Miamisburg Environmental Management Project-(MEMP) (Mound)

Transfer to city of Miamisburg by 2004 except for Office of Nuclear Facilities for ongoing NE mission

Brownfield/cleanup to EPA industrial use standards

DOE retains responsibility for contaminated areas; DOE will remediate on-site groundwater to industrial use levels and off-site groundwater to residential levels; DOE has duty to conduct annual assessments of compliance with deed restrictions and to enforce compliance

2004

Ohio

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

USEC will use the plant for the foreseeable future; federal government responsible for stewardship forever

Brownfield/combination of mixed industrial and recreational use

Contaminated burial grounds and landfills closed in place in industrial area; deed restrictions or use limitation on areas with contamination; complete remediation of waste sites in 2035; shut down groundwater treatment in 2050 and monitoring of passive treatment in 2055; seven capped landfills remain on site

2005

South Carolina

Savannah River Site (SRS)3

DOE Office of Environmental Management is landlord until 2038 after which an unidentified federal agency will assume responsibility

Ongoing mission/no land use policy to date/central industrial area will be used for DP activities and environ. mgt.; end state for HLW tanks is scheduled for 2024

Various, depending on specific site; all land and groundwater located on site perimeter remediated for unrestricted use; institutional controls forever; groundwater strategy is a combination of ex situ and in situ treatments; soil contamination, buried waste, and buried structures will be contained by capping

2038

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Tennessee

East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) (formerly K-25), ORR

Open space/recreational; controlled access; industrial with restrictions

Brownfield/part of site will be remediated to industrial levels as a private industrial park; part of site for restricted recreational use

Contaminated areas within re-industrialized area contained or consolidated; burial areas capped and hydrologically isolated and/or excavated; radioactive burial grounds will be capped; deed restrictions, monitoring and digging restrictions; groundwater monitoring until at least 2016

2013

Tennessee

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) 4

DOE Office of Science has ongoing mission

End states and their corresponding cleanup levels for the entire Oak Ridge Reservation are still being determined

Buried wastes isolated with engineered and institutional controls on migration; contaminated sediments stabilized; radioactive burial grounds will be capped and isolated; inactive bldg. razed to grade; stewardship will be needed for hundreds of years; federal gov’t. will be responsible for site-wide groundwater monitoring and treatment forever

2013 (Stewardship until 2070 is planning basis)

Tennessee

Y-12, ORR

DOE Defense Programs has ongoing mission

Brownfield/controlled access/restricted industrial use; controlled access; open space/recreational use/waste mgt. disposal facility for CERCLA waste

Burial ground contamination capped in place; groundwater contained and use restricted; stewardship will be needed for hundreds of years; federal government will be responsible for site-wide groundwater monitoring and treatment forever; site will maintain institutional controls and conduct CERCLA five-year reviews, inspections, monitoring and reporting; pump-and-treat systems may address on-site groundwater

2013 (Surveillance and monitoring of treatment systems through 2070)

Texas

Pantex Plant

DOE will keep control; site closure not expected in foreseeable future; current land use is called “industrial”

Brownfield/ongoing mission

Groundwater pump and treat may be required at least until 2015; identified release sites remediated to TX Risk Reduction Stds.

2002

Utah

Monticello Millsite and Vicinity Properties

Some land deeded to city for recreational use; onsite repository will remain under DOE control

Greenfield/controlled access

Remediation methods of sediments, groundwater, surface water not yet decided

2001

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×

Washington

Hanford Site5

560-square-mile site near the Columbia River; includes the four major areas discussed below

Federal government maintains ownership of most of the site

Two site remediation goals: unrestricted and restricted use; specific land use decisions pending completion of Hanford Remedial Action EIS and Comprehensive Land Use Plan

DOE quarterly surveillance and routine radiological surveys; repair of barricades; vegetation management; surplus facilities D&D; compliance with tri-party agreements; institutional controls indefinitely to control groundwater use; semi-annual monitoring for at least 30 years after closing last facility

2046

 

100 Area: nine reactors

 

Restricted use

Institutional controls; reactors, N-fuel basin, K basins in interim safe storage for up to 75 years

 
 

200 Area: reprocessing area

 

Federal government will use the area for management and disposal of nuclear materials; cleanup levels have not been established

Surface barriers over contaminated soil, waste sites and burial grounds; institutional controls; double shell and single shell tanks will remain; tanks will be closed in RCRA compliant manner; post-closure monitoring of tank farms through 2050; sanitary solid waste landfill will remain

 
 

300/400 Area: fuel fabrication and support facilities

 

Final end state determined by ongoing CERCLA process

Radioactive cleanup to 14 mrem/year; deed restrictions used to control industrial use; institutional controls

 

Abbreviations Used in Table: CERCLA—Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended; CH—contact handled; D&D—decontamination and decommissioning; DNAPL—dense nonaqueous phase liquid; EIS—Environmental Impact Statement; EPA—U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; FFACO—Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order; HLW—high-level waste; LLW—low-level waste; RCRA—Resouree Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended; ROD—record of decision; RH—remote handled; TRU—transuranic; UMTRA—Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action; USEC—US Enrichment Corporation; DOE—U.S. Department of Energy.

1 Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site is 6,185 acres. The majority of the land is uncontaminated and meets Residential land-use standards, but is currently limited to use as a buffer for plutonium stored on site. The core of the cleanup area is 384 acres, which will attain Industrial land-use standards to allow for environmental technology development activities. Determination of the future status of the Rocky Flats site is still very much a work in progress.

2 INEEL is the largest of the five major sites. Under the base case 99 percent of the area meets Residential use standard. Contaminated areas and facilities present only limited opportunities for alternative uses.

3 The SR site is a very complex site located in a humid environment. The majority of the surface of the site is uncontaminated. Contaminated surface waters and sediments limit the remainder of the site to Open Space use. The area north of the production area meets Agricultural use standard. The maximum feasible greenfield case for the SR site is limited by the possible end state for the five reactors, the chemical processing buildings and storage/disposal areas in the E, F, and H areas, which remain controlled access. Under some cleanup strategies most of the site could be brought to residential standards, however, most of the land will be used for resource or wildlife management.

4 The Oak Ridge site has a high water table. Although most of the site is uncontaminated the nature of the site and the three production areas limit use of that area to Open Space. A significant portion of the cost at the site is allocated to monitoring and addressing migration of contamination from numerous waste burial areas.

5 Most of the land currently meets residential standards. DOE actively uses only 8,150 acres for industrial/storage/disposal. Onsite plutonium storage is a major determinant of future land use because of buffer and emergency planning requirements. The base cleanup strategies assume complete dismantlement of reactors and core removal and extensive contaminated soil excavation. The 200 Areas remain Controlled Access for storage/disposal and waste mgt. activities.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page110
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page111
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page112
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page113
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page114
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page115
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page116
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page117
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page118
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites." National Research Council. 2000. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9949.
×
Page119
Next: Appendix C Committee Information Gathering Meetings »
Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Ebook | $39.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

It is now becoming clear that relatively few U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites will be cleaned up to the point where they can be released for unrestricted use. "Long-term stewardship" (activities to protect human health and the environment from hazards that may remain at its sites after cessation of remediation) will be required for over 100 of the 144 waste sites under DOE control (U.S. Department of Energy, 1999). After stabilizing wastes that remain on site and containing them as well as is feasible, DOE intends to rely on stewardship for as long as hazards persist—in many cases, indefinitely. Physical containment barriers, the management systems upon which their long-term reliability depends, and institutional controls intended to prevent exposure of people and the environment to the remaining site hazards, will have to be maintained at some DOE sites for an indefinite period of time.

The Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes finds that much regarding DOE's intended reliance on long-term stewardship is at this point problematic. The details of long-term stewardship planning are yet to be specified, the adequacy of funding is not assured, and there is no convincing evidence that institutional controls and other stewardship measures are reliable over the long term. Scientific understanding of the factors that govern the long-term behavior of residual contaminants in the environment is not adequate. Yet, the likelihood that institutional management measures will fail at some point is relatively high, underscoring the need to assure that decisions made in the near term are based on the best available science. Improving institutional capabilities can be expected to be every bit as difficult as improving scientific and technical ones, but without improved understanding of why and how institutions succeed and fail, the follow-through necessary to assure that long-term stewardship remains effective cannot reliably be counted on to occur.

Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites examines the capabilities and limitations of the scientific, technical, and human and institutional systems that compose the measures that DOE expects to put into place at potentially hazardous, residually contaminated sites.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!