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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
×

References

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cleavage of B -H and B-C bonds, and metathesis of CS2-like heteroallene molecules. Inorg. Chem. 28(2):227-233.

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Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. 1996 (August 14). Recommendation 96-1 to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2286(a) (5) Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Washington, D.C.

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. 1997 (June). Savannah River Site In-Tank Precipitation Facility: Safety Implications . Technical Report DNFSB/TECH 14 (Rev 2), Washington, D.C.

Delmau, L.H., G.J. Van Berkel, P.V. Bonnesen, and B.A. Moyer. 1999 (October). Improved Performance of the Alkaline-Side CSEX Process for Cesium Extraction from Alkaline High-Level Waste Obtained by

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Characterization of the Effect of Surfactant Impurities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL/TM-1999/209, Oak Ridge, TN.

Dimenna, R.A., O.E. Duarte, H.H. Elder, J.R. Fowler, R.C. Fowler, M.V. Gregory, T. Hang, R.A. Jacobs, P.K. Paul, J.A. Pike, P.L. Rutland, F.G. Smith, III, S.G. Subosits, and G.A. Taylor. 1999. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-RP-99-00006, Rev. 0, Aiken, SC.

Edwards, T.B., J.R. Harbour, and R.J. Workman. 1999a. Composition of Property Measurements for PHA Glasses. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-TR-99-00332. Aiken, SC.

Edwards, T.B., J.R. Harbour, and R.J. Workman. 1999b. Summary of Results for CST Glass Study: Composition and Property Measurements (U).. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-TR-99-00324. Aiken, SC.

Edwards, T.B., J.R. Harbour, and R.J. Workman. 1999c (October 4). Summary of Property Measurements from CST Glass Study. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-TR-99-00384, Revision 0, Aiken, SC. 27pp.

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Ferrara, D.M., N.E. Bibler, and B.C. Ha. 1992. Radioactive Demonstration of Late Washed Precipitate Hydrolysis Process . Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-RP-92-869, Aiken, SC.

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Geske, D.H. 1962. Evidence for the formation of biphenyl by intramolecular dimerization in the electroöxidation of tetraphenylborate ion. J. Phys. Chem. 66:1743-1744.

Gu, D., L. Nguyen, C.V. Philip, M.E. Huckman, R.G. Anthony, J.E. Miller, and D.E. Trudell. 1997. Cs+ ion exchange kinetics in complex electrolyte solutions using hydrous crystalline silicotitanates. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 36(12):5377-5383.

Haines, R.J., and A.L. duPreez. 1971. Extraction of a phenyl group from the tetraphenylboron anion by some .pi.-cyclopentadienyl derivatives of ruthenium. Ruthenium complex containing the tetraphenylboron anion directly bonded to the metal. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(11):2820-2821.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Hobbs, D.T. 2000. Response to NRC Questions, 1/11/2000. HLW-SDT-2000-00024. January 27.

Independent Project Evaluation Team. 1999 (December). Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation — Phase IV. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/ID-10716.

Jones, R.T. 1999a (September 24). Interoffice Memorandum, R&D Expenditures for Salt Processing Alternatives. Westinghouse Savannah River Company HLW-SDYT-99-0317, Aiken, SC.

Jones, R.T. 1999b (December 14). Memorandum to File: Response to National Research Council Committee Request #1. Aiken, SC.

Jones, R.T. 2000a (January 27). Letter to Matthew Baxter-Parrott entitled “Savannah River Site High Level Waste Salt Disposition Responses to NRC Questions of 1-11-00”. Westinghouse Savannah River Company HLW-SDT-2000-00024, R1, Aiken, SC.

Jones, R.T. 2000b (March 21). SRS High Level Waste Salt Disposition Document – Email Request. Letter to M. Baxter-Parrott, National Research Council, from Westinghouse Savannah River Company HLW-SDT-2000-00094, Aiken, SC.

Khalilov, A.D. 1965. DANKA 161:1409-1411.

Lee, D.D., J. F. Walker, P.A. Taylor, and D.W. Hendrickson. 1997. Cesium-removal flow studies using ion exchange. Environmental Progress 16(4):251-262.

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Leonard, R.A., C. Conner, M.W. Liberatore, J. Sedlet, S.B. Aase, and G.F. Vandergrift. 1999 (August). Evaluation of an Alkaline-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Cesium Removal from SRS Tank Waste using Laboratory-Scale Centrifugal Contactors . Argonne National Laboratory ANL-99/14, Argonne, IL.

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Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., EG&G Idaho, Inc., Westinghouse Company, and Westinghouse Savannah River Company. 1992 (December 18). Radiological Performance Asessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-RP-92-1360, Aiken, SC.

McCabe, D.J. 1995 (May 18). Crystalline Silicotitanate Examination Results: Summary. Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Savannah River Technology Center WSRC-RP-94-1123, Revision 0, Aiken, SC. 15pp.

McCabe, D.J. 1997 (April 25). Examination of Crystalline Silicotitanate Applicability in Removal of Cesium from SRS High Level Waste. Westinghouse Savannah River Company WSRC-TR-97-0016, Revision 0, Aiken, SC. 15pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Merrell, G.B., V.C. Rogers, and M.K. Bollenbacher. 1986. The PATHRAE-RAD Performance Assessment Code for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation RAE-8511-28, Salt Lake City, UT.

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Moyer, B.A., P.V. Bonnesen, R.A. Sachleban, and D.J. Presley. 1999 (September 3). Solvent and Process for Extracting Cesium from Alkaline Waste Solutions , U. S. Patent Application, Serial Number 09/146,800.

National Research Council. 1996. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation. Committee on Separations Technology and Transmutation.Systems (STATS) , National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 571 pp.

National Research Council. 1997. Barrier Technologies for Environmental Management: Summary of a Workshop . Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. 1998. Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering in Environmental Remediation Programs at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 51pp.

National Research Council. 1999a. Interim Letter Report. Panel to Review the Spent-Fuel Standard for Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium, Committee on International Security and Arms Control, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 20pp.

National Research Council. 1999b. Interim Letter Report from the Committee on Cesium Processing Alternatives for High-Level Waste at the Savannah River Site, to E.J. Moniz, Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C. October 14. 27pp.

Piccolo, S.F. 1999 (November 21-22). Screening Process: Viewgraphs of presentation to National Research Council Committee on Cesium Processing Alternatives for High-Level Waste at the Savannah River Site, Augusta, GA. Westinghouse Savannah River Company HLW-SDT-99-0355, Aiken, SC. 22pp.

Poirier, M.R. 1998 (June 5). Memorandum to Steve Piccolo regarding the Evaluation of Potential Cesium Removal Technologies. SRT-WPT-98-008, Aiken, SC.

Poirier, M.R., R.D. Hunt, and C. Carlson. 1998 (May 29). Identification of Cesium Removal Technologies. WSRC-TR-98-00181. Aiken, SC.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996a. Summary and Results of February 8, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996b. Summary and Results of February 28, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996c. Summary and Results of March 6, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996d. Summary and Results of March 20, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996e. Summary and Results of April 27, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996f. Summary and Results of May 29, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996g. Summary and Results of June 27, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996h. Summary and Results of July 18, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996i. Summary and Results of August 21-22, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996j. Summary and Results of September 12, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1996k. Summary and Results of October 16-17, 1996 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1997a. Summary and Results of January 22-23, 1997 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1997b. Summary and Results of April 2-3, 1997 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1997c. Summary and Results of June 4-5, 1997 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1997d. Summary and Results of September 3-4, 1997 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Process Chemistry and Mechanisms Panel. 1998. Summary and Results of March 12-19, 1998 Meeting. Aiken, SC: Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

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Savannah River Site High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team. 1998c (April 17). HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Identification Preconceptual Phase I, Summary Report. WSRC-RP-98-00162, Aiken, SC.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Savannah River Site High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team. 1998g (October 14). Results Report on Preliminary Risk Assessment with Adjusted Risk Values: Revision 1. HLW-SDT-980015. Aiken, SC.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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Incidental. Memorandum from A.L.V. Cook to W.D. Travers, Washigington, D.C.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9959.
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The Second World War introduced the world to nuclear weapons and their consequences. Behind the scene of these nuclear weapons and an aspect of their consequences is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste has varying degrees of harmfulness and poses a problem when it comes to storage and disposal. Radioactive waste is usually kept below ground in varying containers, which depend on how radioactive the waste it. High-level radioactive waste (HLW) can be stored in underground carbon-steel tanks. However, radioactive waste must also be further immobilized to ensure our safety.

There are several sites in the United States where high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are stored; including the Savannah River Site (SRS), established in 1950 to produce plutonium and tritium isotopes for defense purposes. In order to further immobilize the radioactive waste at this site an in-tank precipitation (ITP) process is utilized. Through this method, the sludge portion of the tank wastes is being removed and immobilized in borosilicate glass for eventual disposal in a geological repository. As a result, a highly alkaline salt, present in both liquid and solid forms, is produced. The salt contains cesium, strontium, actinides such as plutonium and neptunium, and other radionuclides. But is this the best method?

The National Research Council (NRC) has empanelled a committee, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to provide an independent technical review of alternatives to the discontinued in-tank precipitation (ITP) process for treating the HLW stored in tanks at the SRS. Alternatives for High-Level Waste Salt Processing at the Savannah RIver Site summarizes the finding of the committee which sought to answer 4 questions including: "Was an appropriately comprehensive set of cesium partitioning alternatives identified and are there other alternatives that should be explored?" and "Are there significant barriers to the implementation of any of the preferred alternatives, taking into account their state of development and their ability to be integrated into the existing SRS HLW system?"

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