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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

TOOLS FOR SUSTAINING OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS

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Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418

    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

    This report and the committee were supported by grants from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Marine protected areas : tools for sustaining ocean ecosystems / Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references (p. ).

    ISBN 0-309-07286-7 (hard)

    1. Marine parks and reserves. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States. II. Title.

    QH91.75.A1 M28 2001

    333.78'4—dc21

    2001000995

    Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area); Internet: http://www.nap.edu

    Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    National Academy of Sciences
    National Academy of Engineering
    Institute of Medicine
    National Research Council

    The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION, DESIGN, AND MONITORING OF MARINE RESERVES AND PROTECTED AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EDWARD HOUDE, Chair, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Solomons

    FELICIA C. COLEMAN, Florida State University, Tallahassee

    PAUL DAYTON, University of California, San Diego

    DAVID FLUHARTY, University of Washington, Seattle

    GRAEME KELLEHER, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (consultant), Canberra, Australia

    STEVEN PALUMBI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    ANA MARIA PARMA, Centro National Patagonico, Chubut, Argentina

    STUART PIMM, Columbia University, New York

    CALLUM ROBERTS, University of York, United Kingdom

    SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida

    GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California

    RICHARD STOFFLE, University of Arizona, Tucson

    JAMES WILEN, University of California, Davis

    Staff

    SUSAN ROBERTS, Study Director

    ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

    KENNETH BRINK, Chairman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

    ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida

    JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

    CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California

    G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis

    EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas

    D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs

    RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle

    EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons

    CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook

    ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa

    NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee

    BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

    RAM MOHAN, Gahagan & Bryant Associates, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland

    SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Naragansett

    NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin

    WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee

    PAUL TOBIN, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Fairfax, Virginia

    KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

    Staff

    MORGAN GOPNIK, Director

    DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer

    ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer

    SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer

    ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate

    SHIREL SMITH, Office Manager

    ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant

    DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant

    JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant

    MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES

    GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

    RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), South Charleston, West Virginia

    LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

    THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

    THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense, Oakland, California

    EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park

    DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.

    BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia

    HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia

    H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens

    MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (emeritus), Knoxville

    ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

    ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

    E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park

    Staff

    ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director

    GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director

    JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer

    CHRISTINE HENDERSON, Scientific Reports Officer

    SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate

Page viii Cite
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Foreword

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The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) is pleased to present this report, Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. It represents the culmination of a two-year, in-depth examination of this controversial approach to marine resource management that required analysis of issues in both marine ecology and fisheries science.

For many years the OSB has been interested in topics concerning marine ecology and the preservation of marine biodiversity. Notable reports in this area include Priorities for Coastal Ecosystem Science (1994), Understanding Marine Biodiversity (1995), and From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health (1999). At the same time, the board has concerned itself with the sound, science-based management of marine fisheries, as exemplified by studies such as Improving Fish Stock Assessments (1998), Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas (1999), and Sustaining Marine Fisheries (1999). These two interests come together on the issue of marine reserves, which have been proposed as an ecosystem-based approach for conserving living marine resources, both for fisheries management and for preserving marine biodiversity.

It is our hope that this report will serve as a sound basis for future efforts to design and implement marine reserves and protected areas. It provides a summary of what we know, recommendations about how to apply that knowledge, and a description of what we need to know to maximize the effectiveness of this marine management tool.

The board is grateful to the committee members who volunteered enormous amounts of their time to complete this ambitious undertaking.*

Kenneth Brink
Chair, Ocean Studies Board


* To view this report on-line, or to learn more about the OSB's mission and other projects, please visit our Web site at www.national-academies.org/osb.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Preface

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The concept of marine reserves has been repeatedly addressed in the past 25 years, but implementation and subsequent evaluation of these protected areas has been relatively infrequent until the past decade. In recent years, there has been strong advocacy for reserves among the conservation community and those concerned about losses of habitat and biodiversity in the sea. At the same time, conventional users of marine resources, especially fishing industries and communities, have asked serious questions about the efficacy of marine reserves as a tool for resource management because of the modest level of experience with their proper design, siting, and evaluation. The Ocean Studies Board appointed a committee with broad disciplinary expertise to objectively investigate the potential use of marine reserves with respect to design, implementation criteria, and probable efficacy in relation to meeting biodiversity, conservation, and fisheries management goals. Issues emphasizing ecology, oceanography, and socioeconomic impacts are prominent in the report, which strives to integrate and synthesize the diverse information on reserves, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

Few would deny that the oceans are stressed by human activities and that new, or additional, management measures are required to ensure that the ocean's living resources and ecosystem services are conserved. The concept of designating specific areas as marine protected areas (MPAs) and reserves proffers another tool with the potential for expanding our ability to manage resources. Increasing designation and implementation of reserves represent a shift in emphasis toward spatially explicit management measures, an emphasis that many believe is needed given the present heavy utilization of ocean resources. The recent presidential executive order (May 2000) directing the Department of Commerce and the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Department of the Interior to develop a plan for MPA networks in U.S. coastal waters is one major step toward wider application of this approach. This report will serve as a comprehensive and critical description and evaluation of MPAs and reserves as a management tool that can help to guide agencies as they move forward in developing plans for a national system of MPAs.

The Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas is very grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met five times and would like to extend its gratitude to all of the individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues (see Appendix D for a complete list of speakers and participants).

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Tundi Agardy (Conservation International), Ann Bucklin (University of New Hampshire), Larry Crowder (Duke University Marine Laboratory), Christopher D'Elia (State University of New York at Stony Brook), Paul Durrenberger (Pennsylvania State University), Jane Lubchenco (Oregon State University), James MacMahon (Utah State University), Melissa Miller-Henson (California Resources Agency), and Richard Young (commercial fisherman). Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by H. Ronald Pulliam (University of Georgia), appointed by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources and Robert Frosch (Harvard University), appointed by the NRC's Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee extends its thanks to the staff of the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council (NRC), who provided both leadership and logistical support for the study. Study Director Susan Roberts tirelessly contributed her time to all aspects of the study, and her important contributions to the study and report are gratefully acknowledged. Senior Project Assistant Ann Carlisle provided superb logistical support throughout the study and during re-

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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port preparation. OSB Director Morgan Gopnik and OSB Senior Program Officer, Ed Urban, both provided critical comments and editorial advice during the preparation of the report. Merrie Cartwright and Kate Shafer provided valuable research assistance during their internships at the NRC. Additionally, Associate Director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology David Policansky, participated in several committee meetings and contributed valuable ideas and expertise.

The committee is also grateful for the assistance provided by the following individuals who provided additional background material, data, publication lists, and figures for consideration and use by the committee: Bill Ballantine (Leigh Marine Laboratory, New Zealand), Jim Bohnsack (National Marine Fisheries Service), Elizabeth Clarke (National Marine Fisheries Service), Jeff Cross (Sandy Hook Laboratories), Larry Crowder (Duke University Marine Laboratory), Michael Murphy (National Marine Fisheries Service), and Mike Pentony (New England Fishery Management Council). We would also like to thank the many institutions and organizations that provided us with related background information, reference materials, and reports.

Edward Houde
Chair

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Contents

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
    Recognizing the Limits, 2
    Managing Marine Resources, 2
    Conclusions and Recommendations, 4
1     INTRODUCTION 10
    Why MPAs?, 13
    Statement of Task, 14
    Study Approach and Report Organization, 15
2     CONSERVATION GOALS 17
    Conservation Goals on Land and in the Sea, 17
    Goals of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas, 21
    Summary, 29
3     CONVENTIONAL MANAGEMENT OF MARINE FISHERIES 30
    Problems and Issues in Fishery Management, 30
    Conventional Fishery Management, 32
    Uncertainty, Fishery Management, and a Role for Marine Reserves, 40
4     SOCIETAL VALUES OF MARINE RESERVES AND PROTECTED AREAS 42
    Origin of the Values Associated with Marine Ecosystems, 43
    Costs and Benefits to User Groups, 46
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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    Economic Incentives, 60
    Community Involvement, 66
5     EMPIRICAL AND MODELING STUDIES OF MARINE RESERVES 71
    Conceptual Basis, 71
    Empirical Evidence and Inferences from Models, 79
6     DESIGN 97
    How Should the Location of Marine Protected Areas and Reserves Be Chosen?, 97
    How Large Should Marine Protected Areas Be?, 111
    Multiple-Use Zoning of Marine Protected Areas, 118
7     MONITORING, RESEARCH, AND MODELING 126
    Monitoring Programs, 126
    Research Needs, 135
    Modeling, 143
8     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND EVALUATION OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES 145
    International History of Marine Protected Areas, 145
    Marine Protected Areas in the United States, 151
9     CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 174
    Conclusions, 174
    Recommendations, 176
REFERENCES 185
APPENDIXES 209
    A     Acronyms, 211
    B     Glossary, 214
    C     Committee and Staff Biographies, 219
    D     Meeting Agendas, 223
    E     Presidential Executive Order Regarding Marine Protected Areas in the United States, 232
    F     IUCN Protected Area Categories System, 237
    G     Description of Studies Estimating Marine Reserve Area Requirements, 247
INDEX 257
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9994.
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Next: Executive Summary »
Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems Get This Book
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Although the ocean-and the resources within-seem limitless, there is clear evidence that human impacts such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution disrupt marine ecosystems and threaten the long-term productivity of the seas. Declining yields in many fisheries and decay of treasured marine habitats, such as coral reefs, has heightened interest in establishing a comprehensive system of marine protected areas (MPAs)-areas designated for special protection to enhance the management of marine resources. Therefore, there is an urgent need to evaluate how MPAs can be employed in the United States and internationally as tools to support specific conservation needs of marine and coastal waters.

Marine Protected Areas compares conventional management of marine resources with proposals to augment these management strategies with a system of protected areas. The volume argues that implementation of MPAs should be incremental and adaptive, through the design of areas not only to conserve resources, but also to help us learn how to manage marine species more effectively.

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