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10 Manganese
Pages 394-419

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From page 394...
... was set baseci on meclian intakes reported from the Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The AI for adult men and women is 2.3 and 1.8 mg/day, respectively.
From page 395...
... Therefore, potential risk for manganese toxicity is highest when bile excretion is low, such as in the neonate or in liver disease (Heuser et al., 1994~. Plasma manganese concentrations can be at_ · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~\ rat ~ .
From page 396...
... Neonatal mice were unable to maintain manganese homeostasis until 17 to 18 clays of age (Fechter, 1999~. Clinical Effects of Inadequate Intake Manganese deficiency has been observed in various species of animals with the signs of deficiency, including impaired growth, impaired reproductive function, impaired glucose tolerance, and alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
From page 397...
... . Balance studies are problematic for investigation of manganese requirement because of the rapid excretion of manganese into bile and because manganese balances during short- and moderate-term studies do not appear to be proportional to manganese intakes (Greger, 1998, 1999~.
From page 398...
... 398 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE 10-1 Manganese Balance Studies in Adults Balance Data Reference Study Group Duration Diet (mg/d)
From page 399...
... 0.6 Serum and Plasma Manganese Concentration Several studies reported that serum or plasma manganese concentrations respond to clietary intake. Serum manganese concentration of women consuming 1.7 mg/ciay of manganese was lower than that of women ingesting 15 mg/day of supplemental manganese for more than 20 clays (Davis and Greger, 1992~.
From page 400...
... . Serum or plasma manganese concentrations appear to be somewhat sensitive to large variations in manganese intake, but longer studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of serum manganese concentrations as indicators of manganese status.
From page 401...
... Acicling calcium to human milk significantly recluceci the absorption of 54Mn from 4.9 to 3.0 percent (Davicisson et al., 1991~. Low ferritin concentrations are associateci with increased manganese absorption, therefore having a gender effect on manganese bioavailability (Finley, 1999~.
From page 402...
... aciministereci 54Mn in either a soy-baseci infant formula or a similar clephytinizeci formula to eight men and women. The geometric mean manganese absorption was 0.7 percent for the native formula and 1.6 percent for the clephytinizeci formula.
From page 403...
... . Mean manganese concentrations of human milk at 1 month were approximately 4.0 ~g/L (Aquilio et al., 1996; Casey et al., 1985, 1989)
From page 404...
... Therefore, meclian intake ciata were used to set the AI. Data from the Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study indicate a meclian intake of 1.22 mg/ciay of manganese for children aged 1 through 3 years (Appendix Table Em.
From page 405...
... These varied finclings in adolescent girls may be clue to a variation in iron status given that a significant negative association between manganese absorption and plasma ferritin concentrations has been reported recently (Finley, 1999~. Because of the limitations of balance ciata, as previously cliscusseci, these ciata were not used to set the EAR.
From page 406...
... reported that manganese concentrations in fetal tissues ranged from 0.35 to 9.27 agog dry weight. In animals, manganese deficiency in utero produces ataxia and impaired otolith clevelopment, but these defects have not been reported in humans.
From page 407...
... Manganese Al Summary, Pregnancy AI for Pregnancy 14-18 years 19-30 years 31-50 years 2 mg/day of manganese 2 mg/day of manganese 2 mg/day of manganese Lactation Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake There are no ciata available that directly assess the manganese requirement in lactating women. Approximately 3 ~g/ciay of manganese is secreted in human milk.
From page 408...
... Baseci on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ciata, the meclian supplemental intake of manganese by adults who take supplements was approximately 2.4 mg/ciay, an amount similar to the clietary intake of manganese Appendix Table C-20)
From page 409...
... reported whole blood manganese concentrations of 18.8 to 45 ~g/L in three patients with chronic liver disease, as compared to a normal range of 4.2 to 14.3 HAL. Spahr and coworkers (1996)
From page 410...
... gave male rats 0.1 or 5.0 mg/mL of manganese in drinking water for 8 months and measureci locomotor activity throughout this period. A significant increase in activity cluring the first month was found at both closes.
From page 411...
... found no evidence of toxicity in people living in northern Germany (mean age of 57.5 years) drinking water with a manganese concentration between 300 and 2,160 ~g/L (n = 41~; they were compared with people drinking water with less than 50 ~g/L of manganese.
From page 412...
... At this close, there were significant increases in serum manganese concentrations after 25 clays of supplementation and in lymphocyte manganese-clepenclent superoxicle clismutase activity after 90 clays of supplementation. Uncertainty Assessment.
From page 413...
... There are no ciata showing increased susceptibility of pregnant or lactating women to manganese intake. Therefore, the ULs for pregnant and lactating women are the same as those for the nonpregnant and nonlactating women.
From page 414...
... Intake Assessment Baseci on the Total Diet Study Appendix Table E-6) , the highest dietary manganese intake at the ninety-fifth percentile was 6.3 ma/ clay, which was the level consumed by men age ci 31 to 50 years.
From page 415...
... 1989a. Manganese absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas in humans.
From page 416...
... 1991. The effect of individual dietary components on manganese absorption in humans.
From page 417...
... ed. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed.
From page 418...
... 1989. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water.
From page 419...
... 1984. Manganese intake and serum manganese concentration of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants.


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