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5 Doses and Delivery Mechanisms
Pages 61-66

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From page 61...
... OPTIMUM CAFFEINE DOSAGE The effective doses of caffeine vary from individual to individual, depending on a variety of factors including time of day, usual caffeine intake, whether the individual is rested or fatigued, whether they smoke, or whether they use oral contraceptives. Similarly, the response to sleep deprivation also varies between individuals.
From page 62...
... Exercise alone improved selective attention and both simple and complex motor functions. Immediately following exercise, 225 mg of caffeine significantly improved signal detection efficiency and reaction time.
From page 63...
... , in a letter to the editor of the Journal of Hepatology, described a study in which they compared the bioavailability of a base dose of 366 mg of caffeine from intravenous infusion, an oral dose in aqueous solution, and an oral dose as an uncoated tablet. Using the area under the curve of serum concentration over time, the bioavailability of caffeine in tablet form was found to be 80 ~ 16 percent, significantly lower than the 100 percent bioavailability for the intravenous and oral aqueous solution methods of
From page 64...
... Caffeine (600 ma) in a beverage would make individual dose control more difficult unless supplied in dehydrated packets of beverage mix containing 100 mg of caffeine per packet to be reconstituted using an individually selected number of packets.
From page 65...
... Moreover, the dose should not be released over a long time interval because beneficial effects may be delayed and changes in mission cannot easily be accommodated. Information presented in the previous chapters suggests that repeated caffeine dosing during sleep deprivation does not interfere with recovery sleep, suggesting little benefit other than convenience to sustained-release preparations over large single doses (Prusaczyk, 1999~.
From page 66...
... A number of studies have demonstrated that caffeine consumption produces a transient elevation in blood pressure and that this occurs regardless of whether or not the individual is a habitual user of caffeine. In borderline-hypertensive men, the use of caffeine in situations of behavioral stress may elevate blood pressure to a clinically meaningful degree; it was hypothesized that these types of blood pressure increases in hypertensives would be large enough to transiently reduce the therapeutic effects of antihypertensive medication.

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