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4 Foundation for Technological Literacy
Pages 77-102

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From page 77...
... formal technology education classes; and (3) technician-preparation, vocational, and school-to-career programs, which approach technological understanding and skills as means to employment.
From page 78...
... Indirect evidence, such as a 1993 survey of state science supervisors that found that one-third either required or recommended attention to STS themes as part of their science curricula, suggests that STS policies did have an effect, if only by raising expectations (Kumar and Berlin, 1996~. Instructional materials, such as the Ir~rzovatiorz series of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS, 1984)
From page 79...
... The Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California Berkeley, under its Science Education for Public Understanding program, has produced three year-long courses and a number of shorter curriculum modules that touch on technological issues. The National Science Resources Center, jointly operated by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academies, has produced science materials for elementary students (Science arid Techrzology for Children)
From page 80...
... ITEA is in the process of developing standards for teacher development, student assessment, and program development to provide a comprehensive vision of technological literacy in a school setting. During the 7-year process of developing the standards, ITEA worked closely with a number of other organizations that had previously had little if any connection to the technology education community.
From page 82...
... Students in tech prep take courses during their last 2 years of high school that are linked (articulated) with two-year associate degree programs at community colleges (Box 4-3~.
From page 83...
... Freeman, current module topics include the Carbonated Beverage Industry, Wastewater Treatment Industry, Plant Tissue Culture, Paint Research and Development, Petroleum Refining, Petroleum Location, Polymer Research and Development, and Pulp and Paper. In 1993, NSF initiated the Advanced Technology Education (ATE)
From page 84...
... The connections between tech prep and the school-to-career movement are still being worked out in each state. Through the National Skill Standards Board (NSSB)
From page 85...
... Sloan Foundation initiated the New Liberal Arts Program, a series of grants to about 30 colleges to help them integrate the study of technology and the engineering process into the general curriculum (Sloan Foundation, press release, November 9, 1982~. The most recent survey to track the progress of STS showed that there were 127 complete programs in 92 American colleges and universities (De la Mothe, 1983~.
From page 86...
... 86 The first formal courses outside of engineering schools dealing with technology were developed by departments of history and the philosophy of science. Scholars in these disciplines generally considered technology "applied science," which is apparent in Isis, the official journal of the History of Science Society.
From page 87...
... NCATE uses program evaluation standards developed by the Council on Technology Teacher Education (CTTE) , the professional development arm of the International Technology Education Assocation (ITEA)
From page 88...
... are no longer in school, and for them to become more technologically literate, they must have opportunities outside of the school setting, so-called informal educational settings (Figure 4-1~. Museums and science centers, television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and other media comprise the informal education system, which offers citizens of all ages and backgrounds an opportunity to learn about and become engaged in a variety of issues related to technology.
From page 89...
... An estimated 120 million visitors entered science centers and museums in the United States in 2000, suggesting museums play an extremely important role in informal education (ASTC, 2001~. However, because visits to museums serve social, entertainment, and educational purposes, and because museum visits are almost always unstructured and of very short duration, it is difficult to quantify how much museum-goers take away from their visits (personal communication, G
From page 90...
... Museums and science centers also can contribute to the capabilities dimension of technological literacy, particularly through exhibits that encourage hands-on, problemsolving, and engineering-design activities (Box 4-4~. Television, Ratio, Newspapers, ant]
From page 91...
... Through the American Architectural Foundation, AIA runs a grant program that provides funds to local organizations interested in improving public understanding and appreciation of architecture. The foundation also distributes teacher curriculum guides for grades K-12 that FOUNDATION FOR TECHNOEOG~CAE E~TERACY Network television, by and large, has not invested in programming related to technology or, for that matter, science.
From page 92...
... In October 2001, IEEE brought together pairs of deans of education and engineering from some 40 universities to consider how technology content might become part of mainstream teacher education and how engineers could become better informed about education theory and practice. IEEE also hosts a comprehensive online resource related to the history of electrical technologies (see Appendix A)
From page 93...
... The FIRST Robotics Competition, begun by inventor Dean Kamen in the early l990s, for example, challenges teams of high school students and engineers to design and build a robot that can defeat another robot in some kind of a game. The competition attracts more than 500 teams each year.
From page 94...
... In the Future City Competition, also part of National Engineers Week, students design a city of the future using SimCity software, build a scale model of part of the city, and propose a solution to a technological problem facing the city. No one has attempted to assess the impact of these contests on student learning or future career choices, although some programs collect attitudinal or anecdotal information about student participants, their parents, teachers, and coaches.
From page 95...
... International Experience In some countries, formal mechanisms for involving the public in discussions about the development and use of technology are more common than they are in the United States. Consensus conferences bring together experts and nonexperts to encourage discussions about the scope and implications of technology.
From page 96...
... The science-shop approach was developed to engage the academic research community in the solution of societal problems (Utrecht University, 2000~. According to the General Secretariat Dutch Scienceshops, there are 33 science shops at 11 universities in the Netherlands.
From page 97...
... Recently, a small group of mostly European researchers has begun to examine the impact of public participation on decision making. One of the first studies attempted to determine the extent to which consensus conferences influenced the legislative decisions of the Danish Parliament doss, 1998~.
From page 98...
... The science standards developed in the early and mid-199Os have provided a framework for integrating science and technology into the classroom, and the newly published ITEA standards for technological literacy could inform teaching and learning about technology for decades to come. For these improvements to be meaningful and lasting, standards, instructional materials, and assessments will have to be coordinated.
From page 99...
... Pp. 314-324 in Technology Literacy IV: Proceedings of the Fourth National Technological Literacy Conference, edited by D.W.
From page 100...
... Pp. 344-350 in Technology Literacy IV: Proceedings of the Fourth National Technological Literacy Conference, edited by D.W.
From page 101...
... 1998. Danish consensus conferences as a model of participatory technology assessment: an impact study of consensus conferences on Danish Parliament and Danish public debate.
From page 102...
... Pp. 362-370 in Technology Literacy IV: Proceedings of the Fourth National Technological Literacy Conference, edited by D.W.


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