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Education and Learning to Think (1987) / Chapter Skim
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Pages 40-43

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From page 40...
... First, the social setting provides occasions for modeling effective thinking strategies. Skilled thinkers (often the instructor but sometimes more advanced fellow students)
From page 41...
... Students are encouraged to try new, more active approaches, and they receive social support even for partially successful efforts. Through this process, students come to think of themselves as capable of engaging in Independent thinking and of exercising control over their learning processes.
From page 42...
... It also involves weighing multiple alternatives and sometimes accepting uncertainty. As such, higher order thinking requires effort on the part of the individual and may involve some social risk-of disagreeing with others perceived to be more powerful, of not arriving at the expected answers, of not always responding instantly.
From page 43...
... Most relevant to the present argument, incremental conceptions of ability and associated learning goals lead children to analyze tasks and to formulate strategies for overcoming difficulties. We can easily recognize these as close cousins to the kinds of higher order thinking discussed in this essay.

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