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1 Introduction
Pages 7-11

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From page 7...
... , which manage most of the marine fisheries in the United States, were required by the act to "describe and identify essential fish habitat" for each managed fish stock "to minimize to the extent practicable adverse effects on such habitat caused by fishing." FMCs must evaluate the effects of all fishing practices on seafloor habitat. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration asked the Ocean Studies Board of the National 7
From page 8...
... For the purpose of interpreting the definition of essential fish habitat: "Waters" include aquatic areas and their associated physical, chemical, and biological properties that are used by fish and may include aquatic areas historically used by fish where appropriate; "substrate" includes sediment, hard bottom, structures underlying the waters, and associated biological communities; "necessary" means the habitat required to support a sustainable fishery and the managed species' contribution to a healthy ecosystem; and "spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity" cover a species full life cycle. The act requires fishery management plans to describe and identify EFH, minimize to the extent practicable adverse effects on EFH caused by fishing, and identify other actions to encourage habitat conservation and enhancement.
From page 9...
... In the second phase of development, the New England Council evaluated fishing related effects on EFH. This involved extensive literature reviews and drew heavily on "The Effects of Fishing on Fish Habitat" (Auster and Langton, 1999~.
From page 10...
... All councils except the Pacific Fishery Management Council have used HAPC designations to identify areas of special ecological importance. Descriptions of HAPC designations for each region are available from NMFS ( habitatprotection/regionalapproaches .htm)
From page 11...
... The tiers are in order of increasing availability of information about the habitat requirements of managed species, as follows: · Level 1: Distribution data are available for some or all of the geographic range of the species. Either systematic presence-absence data or opportunistic observations of the location of various life stages may be used to infer habitat use.

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